On This Day in History March 1

March 1 – Events:

  • 86 BC – Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army, enters in Athens, removing the tyrant Aristion who was supported by troops of Mithridates VI of Pontus.
  • 286 – Roman Emperor Diocletian raises Maximian to the rank of Caesar.
  • 293 – Roman Emperors Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesares, thus beginning the Tetrarchy.
  • 317 – Crispus and Constantine II, sons of Roman Emperor Constantine I, and Licinius Iunior, son of Emperor Licinius, are made Caesares
  • 1457 – The Unitas Fratrum is established in the village of Kunvald, on the Bohemian-Moravian borderland. It is to date the second oldest Protestant denomination.
  • 1562 – Over 1,000 Huguenots are massacred by Catholics in Wassy, France, marking the  start of the French Wars of Religion.
  • 1565 – The city of Rio de Janeiro is founded.
  • 1593 – The Uppsala Synod is summoned to confirm the exact forms of the Lutheran Church of Sweden.
  • 1628 – Writs are issued in February by Charles I of England mandating that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date.
  • 1633 – Samuel de Champlain reclaims his role as commander of New France on behalf of Cardinal Richelieu.
  • 1642 – Georgeana, Massachusetts (now known as York, Maine) becomes the first incorporated city in the USA.
  • 1692 – Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne and Tituba are brought before local magistrates in Salem Village, Massachusetts, beginning what would become known as the Salem witch trials.
  • 1700 – Sweden introduces its own Swedish calendar, in an attempt to gradually merge into the Gregorian calendar, reverts to the Julian calendar on this date in 1712, and introduces the Gregorian Calendar on this date in 1753.
  • 1781 – The Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation.
  • 1790 – The first United States census is authorized.
  • 1803 – Ohio is admitted as the 17th U.S. state.
  • 1805 – Justice Samuel Chase is acquitted at the end of his impeachment trial by the U.S. Senate.
  • 1811 – Leaders of the Mameluke dynasty are killed by Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali.
  • 1815 – Napoleon returns to France from his banishment on Elba.
  • 1836 – A Convention of delegates from 57 Texas communities convenes in  Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas, to deliberate independence from Mexico.
  • 1840 – Adolphe Thiers becomes prime minister of France.
  • 1845 – President John Tyler signs a bill authorizing the United States to annex the Republic of Texas.
  • 1847 – The state of Michigan formally abolishes capital punishment.
  • 1852 – Archibald William Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
  • 1854 – German psychologist Friedrich Eduard Beneke disappears; two years later his remains are found in a canal near Charlottenburg.
  • 1867 – Nebraska becomes the 37th U.S. state; Lancaster, Nebraska is renamed Lincoln and becomes the state capital.
  • 1872 – Yellowstone National Park is established as the world’s first national park.
  • 1873 – E. Remington and Sons in Ilion, New York begins production of the first practical typewriter.
  • 1886 – The Anglo-Chinese School, Singapore is founded by Bishop William Oldham.
  • 1896 – Battle of Adowa: an Ethiopian army defeats an outnumbered Italian force, ending the First Italo–Ethiopian War.
  • 1896 – Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity.
  • 1912 – Albert Berry makes the first parachute jump from a moving airplane.
  • 1914 – The Republic of China joins the Universal Postal Union.
  • 1917 – U.S. government releases the plaintext of the Zimmermann Telegram to the public.
  • 1919 – March 1st Movement begins in Korea.
  • 1932 – The son of Charles Lindbergh is kidnapped.
  • 1936 – The Hoover Dam is completed.
  • 1936 – A strike occurs aboard the S.S. California, leading to the demise of the International Seamen’s Union and the creation of the National Maritime Union.
  • 1941 – World War II: Bulgaria signs the Tripartite Pact, allying itself with the Axis powers.
  • 1941 – W47NV (now known as WSM-FM) begins operations in Nashville, Tennessee becoming the first FM radio station in the U.S.
  • 1943 – World War II: Battle of Bismarck Sea begins.
  • 1946 – The Bank of England is nationalized.
  • 1947 – The International Monetary Fund begins financial operations.
  • 1949 – Indonesia seizes Yogyakarta from the Dutch.
  • 1949 – Joe Louis retires as heavyweight boxer.
  • 1950 – Cold War: Klaus Fuchs is convicted of spying for the Soviet Union by disclosing top secret atomic bomb data.
  • 1953 – Joseph Stalin suffers a stroke and collapses. He dies four days later.
  • 1954 – Nuclear testing: The Castle Bravo, a 15-megaton hydrogen bomb, is detonated on Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the worst radioactive contamination ever caused by the United States.
  • 1954 – Puerto Rican nationalists attack the United States Capitol building, injuring five Representatives.
  • 1956 – The International Air Transport Association finalizes a draft of the Radiotelephony spelling alphabet for the International Civil Aviation Organization.
  • 1958 – Samuel Alphonsus Stritch, is appointed Pro-Prefect of the Propagation of Faith and thus becomes the first American member of the Roman Curia.
  • 1961 – President of the United States John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps.
  • 1961 – Uganda becomes self-governing and holds its first elections.
  • 1962 – American Airlines Flight 1 crashes on take off in New York.
  • 1966 – Venera 3 Soviet space probe crashes on Venus becoming the first spacecraft to land on another planet’s surface.
  • 1966 – The Ba’ath Party takes power in Syria.
  • 1967 – House of Representatives expels Rep. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. (D-NY) (307 to 116).
  • 1969 – Jim Morrison arrested for exposing himself at Dinner Key Auditorium.
  • 1969 – Mickey Mantle announces his retirement from baseball.
  • 1970 – End of US commercial whale hunting.
  • 1970 – White government of Rhodesia declares independence from Britain.
  • 1971 – A bomb explodes in a men’s room in the United States Capitol: the Weather Underground claims responsibility.
  • 1971 – Pakistani President Yahya Khan indefinitely postpones the pending national assembly session, precipitating massive civil disobedience in East Pakistan.
  • 1972 – The Thai province of Yasothon is created after being split off from the Ubon Ratchathani province.
  • 1973 – Black September terrorists storm the Saudi embassy in Khartoum, Sudan resulting in the 1973 Khartoum diplomatic assassinations.
  • 1974 – Watergate scandal: Seven are indicted for their role in the Watergate break-in and charged with conspiracy to obstruct justice.
  • 1975 – Colour television transmissions begin in Australia.
  • 1980 – Voyager 1 probe confirms that Janus (moon of Saturn) exists.
  • 1988 – Pontiac announces the end of the Fiero automobile.
  • 1988 – Wayne Gretsky passes Gordie Howe with his record 1,050th NHL assist.
  • 1989 – The United States becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.
  • 1990 – Steve Jackson Games is raided by the United States Secret Service, prompting the later formation of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
  • 1992 – Bosnia and Herzegovina declares its independence from Yugoslavia.
  • 1995 – Polish Prime Minister Waldemar Pawlak resigns from parliament and is replaced by ex-communist Józef Oleksy.
  • 2000 – The Constitution of Finland is rewritten.
  • 2000 – Hans Blix assumes the position of Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC.
  • 2002 – U.S. invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda begins in eastern Afghanistan.
  • 2002 – The Envisat environmental satellite successfully reaches an orbit 800 kilometers (500 miles) above the Earth on its 11th launch, carrying the heaviest payload to date at 8500 kilograms (9.5 tons).
  • 2002 – The peseta is discontinued as official currency of Spain and is replaced with the euro (€).
  • 2003 – Management of the United States Customs Service and the United States Secret Service move to the United States Department of Homeland Security.
  • 2004 – Terry Nichols is convicted of state murder charges and being an accomplice to Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh.
  • 2004 – Mohammed Bahr al-Uloum becomes President of Iraq.
  • 2006 – Tarja Halonen is inaugurated as President of Finland for the second and last time.
  • 2006 – English-language Wikipedia reaches its one millionth article, Jordanhill railway station.
  • 2007 – Tornadoes swarm across the southern United States, killing at least 20; eight of the deaths were at a high school in Enterprise, Alabama.
  • 2007 – “Squatters” are evicted from Ungdomshuset in Copenhagen, Denmark, provoking the March 2007 Denmark Riots.

March 1 – Birthdays:

  • 40 – Martial, Latin poet (d. 102)
  • 1432 – Isabel of Coimbra, queen of Portugal (d. 1455)
  • 1445 – Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (d. 1510)
  • 1456 – King Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary (d. 1516)
  • 1474 – Angela Merici, Italian nun (d. 1540)
  • 1547 – Rudolph Goclenius, German philosopher (d. 1628)
  • 1597 – Jean-Charles de la Faille, Belgian mathematician (d. 1652)
  • 1610 – John Pell, English mathematician (d. 1685)
  • 1657 – Samuel Werenfels, Swiss theologian (d. 1740)
  • 1683 – Caroline of Ansbach, wife of George II of Great Britain (d. 1737)
  • 1732 – William Cushing, 2nd Chief Justice of the United States. (d. 1810)
  • 1760 – François Nicolas Leonard Buzot, French revolutionary (d. 1794)
  • 1769 – François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers, French general (d. 1796)
  • 1807 – Wilford Woodruff, fourth president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (d. 1898)
  • 1810 – Frédéric Chopin, Polish-French composer and pianist (d. 1849)
  • 1812 – Augustus Pugin, English-born architect (d. 1852)
  • 1817 – Giovanni Duprè, Italian sculptor (d. 1882)
  • 1821 – Joseph Hubert Reinkens, German Catholic bishop (d. 1896)
  • 1837 – William Dean Howells, American writer, historian, and politician (d. 1920)
  • 1842 – Nicholaos Gysis, Greek painter (d. 1901)
  • 1848 – Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Irish-born American sculptor (d. 1907)
  • 1852 – Théophile Delcassé, French statesman (d. 1923)
  • 1858 – Georg Simmel, German sociologist and philosopher (d. 1918)
  • 1863 – Alexander Golovin, Russian painter (d. 1930)
  • 1865 – Abe Iso, Japanese politician (d. 1949)
  • 1871 – Ben Harney, American composer and ragtime pianist (d. 1938)
  • 1876 – Henri de Baillet-Latour, Belgian IOC president (d. 1942)
  • 1880 – Giles Lytton Strachey British writer (d. 1932)
  • 1886 – Oskar Kokoschka, Austrian painter and poet (d. 1980)
  • 1888 – Ewart Astill, English cricketer (d. 1948)
  • 1889 – Watsuji Tetsuro, Japanese philosopher (d. 1960)
  • 1892 – Ryunosuke Akutagawa, Japanese writer (d. 1927)
  • 1893 – Mercedes de Acosta, American socialite (d. 1968)
  • 1896 – Dimitris Mitropoulos, Greek conductor and composer (d. 1960)
  • 1896 – Moriz Seeler, German writer and producer (d. 1942)
  • 1899 – Erich von dem Bach, Nazi official (d. 1972)
  • 1904 – Paul Hartman, American actor (d. 1973)
  • 1904 – Glenn Miller, American bandleader (d. 1944)
  • 1905 – Doris Hare, Welsh actress (d. 2000)
  • 1910 – Archer John Porter Martin, English chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 2002)
  • 1910 – David Niven, English actor (d. 1983)
  • 1912 – Gerald Emmett Cardinal Carter, archbishop of Toronto (d. 2003)
  • 1914 – Harry Caray, American sportscaster (d. 1998)
  • 1914 – Ralph Ellison, American writer (d. 1994)
  • 1917 – Robert Lowell, American poet (d. 1977)
  • 1918 – Roger Delgado, English actor (d. 1973)
  • 1918 – João Goulart, President of Brazil (d. 1976)
  • 1918 – Gladys Noon Spellman, American politician (d. 1988)
  • 1920 – Howard Nemerov, American poet (d. 1991)
  • 1920 – Max Bentley, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1984)
  • 1921 – Terence Cardinal Cooke, American Catholic archbishop (d. 1983)
  • 1921 – Richard Wilbur, American poet
  • 1922 – William Gaines, American publisher (d. 1992)
  • 1922 – Yitzhak Rabin, Prime Minister of Israel, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1995)
  • 1923 – Kuczka Péter, Hungarian writer and editor (d. 1999)
  • 1924 – Deke Slayton, American astronaut (d. 1993)
  • 1926 – Robert Clary, French-born actor
  • 1926 – Pete Rozelle, American commissioner of the NFL (d. 1996)
  • 1926 – Cesare Danova, Italian-born American actor (d. 1992)
  • 1927 – Harry Belafonte, American musician and activist
  • 1927 – Robert Bork, American legal scholar
  • 1928 – Seymour Papert, South African mathematician
  • 1928 – Jacques Rivette, French film director
  • 1929 – Georgi Markov, Bulgarian dissident (d. 1978)
  • 1930 – Gastone Nencini, Italian cyclist (d. 1980)
  • 1935 – Robert Conrad, American actor
  • 1936 – Monique Bégin, French-Canadian politician
  • 1936 – Jean-Edern Hallier, French author (d. 1997)
  • 1937 – Jed Allan, American actor
  • 1939 – Leo Brouwer, Cuban composer and guitarist
  • 1940 – Robert Grossman, American illustrator
  • 1942 – Richard Bowman Myers, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
  • 1943 – Gil Amelio, American venture capitalist
  • 1943 – Akinori Nakayama, Japanese gymnast
  • 1943 – Richard H. Price, American physicist
  • 1943 – Rashid Sunyaev, Russian physicist
  • 1943 – José Ángel Iribar, Spanish footballer
  • 1944 – John Breaux, U.S. Senator from Louisiana
  • 1944 – Mike d’Abo, English singer (Manfred Mann)
  • 1944 – Roger Daltrey, English musician (The Who)
  • 1945 – Dirk Benedict, American actor
  • 1946 – Lana Wood, American actress
  • 1946 – Gerry Boulet, French-Canadian singer (d. 1990)
  • 1946 – Elvin Bethea, American football player
  • 1947 – Alan Thicke, Canadian actor and songwriter
  • 1948 – Burning Spear, Jamaican singer and musician
  • 1952 – Steven Barnes, American writer
  • 1952 – Leigh Matthews, Australian rules footballer
  • 1952 – Martin O’Neill, Northern Irish footballer and manager
  • 1953 – Richard Bruton, Irish politician and economist
  • 1954 – Catherine Bach, American actress
  • 1954 – Ron Howard, American actor and director
  • 1956 – Timothy Daly, American actor
  • 1958 – Bertrand Piccard, Swiss balloonist and psychiatrist
  • 1958 – Nik Kershaw, English musician
  • 1958 – Chosei Komatsu, Japanese conductor
  • 1960 – William Bennett, English musician (Whitehouse)
  • 1963 – Rob Affuso, American drummer
  • 1963 – Thomas Anders, German singer (Modern Talking)
  • 1963 – Ron Francis, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1963 – Dan Michaels, American musician and record producer
  • 1964 – Paul Le Guen, French football manager
  • 1964 – Clinton Gregory, American musician
  • 1965 – Stewart Elliott, Canadian jockey
  • 1965 – Booker Huffman, American professional wrestler
  • 1965 – Mary Lou Lord, American singer/songwriter
  • 1966 – Susan Auch, Canadian speed-skater
  • 1967 – Yelena Afanasyeva, Russian athlete
  • 1967 – George Eads, American actor
  • 1967 – Aron Winter, Dutch footballer
  • 1969 – Javier Bardem, Spanish actor
  • 1969 – Doug Creek, American baseball player
  • 1969 – Dafydd Ieuan, Welsh drummer (Super Furry Animals)
  • 1971 – Tyler Hamilton, American cyclist
  • 1973 – Jack Davenport, English actor
  • 1973 – Ryan Peake, Canadian guitarist (Nickelback)
  • 1973 – Carlo Resoort, Dutch DJ
  • 1973 – Chris Webber, American basketball player
  • 1974 – Mark-Paul Gosselaar, American actor
  • 1974 – Stephen Davis, American football player
  • 1976 – Peter F. Bell, Australian rules footballer
  • 1977 – Rens Blom, Dutch athlete
  • 1977 – Esther Cañadas, Spanish actress and supermodel
  • 1978 – Jensen Ackles, American actor
  • 1978 – Donovan Patton, Guamanian television star
  • 1978 – Alicia Leigh Willis, American actress
  • 1980 – Shahid Afridi, Pakistani cricketer
  • 1980 – Abdur Rehman, Pakistani cricketer
  • 1980 – Djimi Traoré, Malian footballer
  • 1981 – Ana Hickmann, Brazilian supermodel
  • 1981 – Adam LaVorgna, American actor
  • 1981 – Will Power, Australian racing driver
  • 1981 – Brad Winchester, American ice hockey player
  • 1983 – Daniel Carvalho, Brazilian footballer
  • 1983 – Elan Sara DeFan, Mexican singer-songwriter
  • 1983 – Chris Hackett, English footballer
  • 1983 – Blake Hawksworth, Canadian baseball player
  • 1984 – Naima Mora, American model
  • 1984 – Alexander Steen, Canadian-born Swedish ice hockey player
  • 1985 – Andreas Ottl, German footballer
  • 1985 – J Leman, American Football Player
  • 1986 – Jonathan Spector, American soccer player
  • 1987 – Sammie, American singer
  • 1988 – Katija Pevec, American actress
  • 1989 – Sonya Kitchell, American singer
  • 1989 – Carlos Vela, Mexican footballer
  • 1990 – Harry Eden, English actor
  • 1990 – Nikolas Tsattalios, Australian soccer player

March 1 – Deaths:

  • 589 – Saint David, Patron Saint of Wales (b. 500)
  • 986 – King Lothair of France (b. 941)
  • 1131 – King Stephen II of Hungary (b. 1101)
  • 1233 – Count Thomas I of Savoy (b. 1178)
  • 1244 – Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr, son of Llywelyn the Great (b. 1200)
  • 1383 – Amadeus VI of Savoy (b. 1334)
  • 1510 – Francisco de Almeida, Portuguese soldier and explorer
  • 1536 – Bernardo Accolti, Italian poet (b. 1465)
  • 1546 – George Wishart, Scottish religious reformer (martyred) (b 1513)
  • 1620 – Thomas Campion, English poet and composer (b. 1567)
  • 1633 – George Herbert, English poet and orator (b. 1593)
  • 1643 – Girolamo Frescobaldi, Italian composer (b. 1583)
  • 1661 – Richard Zouch, English jurist (b. 1590)
  • 1697 – Francesco Redi, Italian physician (b. 1626)
  • 1706 – Heino Heinrich Graf von Flemming, German field marshal and Governor of Berlin (b. 1632)
  • 1734 – Roger North, English biographer (b. 1653)
  • 1757 – Edward Moore, English writer (b. 1712)
  • 1768 – Hermann Samuel Reimarus, German philosopher and writer (b. 1694)
  • 1773 – Luigi Vanvitelli, Italian architect (b. 1700)
  • 1777 – Georg Christoph Wagenseil, Austrian composer (b. 1715)
  • 1792 – Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1747)
  • 1841 – Claude Victor-Perrin, duc de Belluno, French marshal (b. 1764)
  • 1862 – Peter Barlow, English mathematician (b. 1776)
  • 1875 – Tristan Corbière, French poet (b. 1845)
  • 1879 – Joachim Heer, Swiss politician (b. 1825)
  • 1884 – Isaac Todhunter, English mathematician (b. 1820)
  • 1898 – George Bruce Malleson, English officer in India, author (b. 1825)
  • 1906 – José María de Pereda, Spanish novelist (b. 1833)
  • 1911 – Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff, Dutch chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1852)
  • 1912 – George Grossmith, English actor and comic writer (b. 1847)
  • 1914 – Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto (b. 1845)
  • 1920 – John H. Bankhead, U.S. Senator (b. 1842)
  • 1920 – Joseph Trumpeldor, Russian Zionist (b. 1880)
  • 1922 – Rafael Moreno Aranzadi, Spanish footballer (b. 1892)
  • 1929 – Royal H. Weller, American politician (b. 1881)
  • 1932 – Frank Teschemacher, American jazz clarinettist (b. 1906)
  • 1933 – Uladzimir Zylka, Belarusian poet (b. 1900)
  • 1936 – Mikhail Kuzmin, Russian writer (b. 1871)
  • 1938 – Gabriele D’Annunzio, Italian writer, war hero, and politician (b. 1863)
  • 1940 – Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Estonian author (b. 1878)
  • 1942 – George S. Rentz, Navy Chaplain (b. 1882)
  • 1943 – Alexandre Yersin, Swiss physician (b. 1863)
  • 1952 – Mariano Azuela, Mexican novelist (b. 1873)
  • 1963 – Irish Meusel, American baseball player (b. 1893)
  • 1963 – Jorge Daponte, Argentine racing driver (b. 1923)
  • 1966 – Fritz Houtermans, German physicist (b. 1903)
  • 1970 – Lucille Hegamin, American singer and entertainer (b. 1894)
  • 1974 – Bobby Timmons, American jazz pianist (b. 1935)
  • 1979 – Mustafa Barzani, Kurdish politician (b. 1903)
  • 1980 – Dixie Dean, English footballer (b. 1907)
  • 1980 – Wilhelmina, high-fashion model and owner of model agency (b. 1940)
  • 1984 – Jackie Coogan, American actor (b. 1914)
  • 1988 – Joe Besser, American comedian and actor (b. 1907)
  • 1991 – Edwin H. Land, American scientist and inventor (Polaroid Corporation) (b. 1909)
  • 1995 – Vladislav Listyev, Russian television journalist (b. 1956)
  • 1995 – Georges J.F. Kohler, German biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1946)
  • 2000 – Dennis Danell, American guitarist (Social Distortion) (b. 1961)
  • 2006 – Peter Osgood, English footballer (b. 1947)
  • 2006 – Harry Browne, American politician and author (b. 1933)
  • 2006 – Johnny Jackson, American musician (b. 1951)

March 1 – Holidays:

  • Bahá’í Faith – Last Day (4 or 5) of Ayyám-i-Há (Intercalary Days) – days in the Bahá’í calendar devoted to service and gift giving.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina – Independence Day
  • Bulgaria – Baba Marta
  • Iceland – Beer day – This day in 1989 beer was allowed again
  • Korea – Independence Movement Day
  • Roman Empire – Matronalia in honor of Juno
  • Roman Empire – Feriae Marti in honor of Mars
  • Roman Empire – New Year
  • Roman Empire – The sacred fire of Rome was renewed
  • Romania – Martisor
  • Tasmania – Eight Hours Day
  • Wales – Saint David’s Day
  • Western Australia – Labour day
  • Self Injury Awareness Day
  • Abdecalas
  • Saint Albin
  • Saint Monan, legendary Scottish saint
  • Saint Swidbert
  • Abdalong of Marseilles – informal feast

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