On This Day in History October 25

October 25 – Events:

  • 732 – The army of Charles Martel defeats the Arabs at the Battle of Tours.
  • 1147 – The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a four-month siege.
  • 1147 – Seljuk Turks defeat German crusaders under Conrad III at the Battle of Dorylaeum.
  • 1315 – Adam Banastre, Henry de Lea and William Bradshaw, led an attack on Liverpool Castle.
  • 1415 – The army of Henry V of England defeats the French at the Battle of Agincourt.
  • 1616 – Dutch sea-captain Dirk Hartog makes second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil, at the later-named Dirk Hartog Island off the Western Australian coast.
  • 1747 – British fleet under Admiral Sir Edward Hawke defeats the French at the second battle of Cape Finisterre.
  • 1760 – George III becomes King of Great Britain.
  • 1813 – War of 1812: Canadians and Mohawks defeat the Americans in the Battle of Chateauguay.
  • 1828 – The St Katharine Docks opened in London.
  • 1854 – The Battle of Balaklava during the Crimean War (Charge of the Light Brigade).
  • 1861 – The Toronto Stock Exchange was created.
  • 1875 – The first performance of the Piano Concerto No. 1 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is given in Boston, Massachusetts with Hans von Bülow as soloist.
  • 1900 – The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal.
  • 1912 – Richard Strauss’ opera Ariadne auf Naxos receives its debut performance at the Vienna State Opera.
  • 1917 – Traditionally understood date of the October Revolution, involving the capture of the Winter Palace, Petrograd, Russia.
  • 1924 – The forged Zinoviev Letter is published in the Daily Mail, wrecking the British Labour Party’s hopes of re-election.
  • 1935 – Hurricane floods Haiti, killing over 2,000 people.
  • 1936 – Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini create the Rome-Berlin Axis.
  • 1938 – The Archbishop of Dubuque, Francis J. L. Beckman, denounces Swing music as “a degenerated musical system… turned loose to gnaw away at the moral fiber of young people,” warning that it leads down a “primrose path to hell.”
  • 1944 – Heinrich Himmler orders a crackdown on the Edelweiss Pirates, a loosely organized youth culture in Nazi Germany that had assisted army deserters and others to hide from the Third Reich.
  • 1944 – The USS Tang (SS-306) under Richard O’Kane (the top submarine captain of World War II) is sunk by the ship’s own torpedo.
  • 1944 – The Romanian Army liberates Carei, the last Romanian city under Axis Powers’ occupation.
  • 1944 – Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval battle in history, takes place in and around the Philippines between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the U.S. Third and U.S. Seventh Fleets.
  • 1945 – The Republic of China takes over administration of Taiwan following Japan’s surrender to the Allies.
  • 1962 – Cuban missile crisis: Adlai Stevenson shows photos at the UN proving Soviet missiles are installed in Cuba
  • 1970 – The wreck of Confederate submarine Hunley was found off Charleston, South Carolina, by pioneer underwater archaeologist, Dr. E. Lee Spence, then just 22 years old. Hunley was the first submarine to sink a ship in warfare.
  • 1971 – The United Nations seated the People’s Republic of China and expelled the Republic of China
  • 1972 – The Washington Post reports that White House Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman was the fifth person to control a secret cash fund designed to finance illegal political sabotage and espionage during the 1972 presidential election campaign (see also Watergate scandal).
  • 1977 – Digital Equipment Corporation releases OpenVMS V1.0.
  • 1980 – Proceedings on the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction conclude at The Hague.
  • 1983 – Operation Urgent Fury: The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters were executed in a coup d’état.
  • 1991 – History of Slovenia: Three months after the end of the Ten-Day War, the last soldier of the Yugoslav People’s Army leaves the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.
  • 1992 – Lithuania holds a referendum on its first post-Soviet constitution.
  • 1993 – Jean Chrétien becomes Prime Minister of Canada with a massive majority for his Liberal Party in a general election in which the governing Progressive Conservatives, led by Kim Campbell, lost 149 of 151 seats in the parliament.
  • 1995 – A commuter train slams into a school bus in Fox River Grove, Illinois, killing seven students.
  • 1996 – The “Days of Action”, the largest one day strike in Ontario, Canada’s history, as over 250,000 protesters converged on the Ontario Legislature and attempted to shutdown Toronto, in protest to the Mike Harris government’s budget cuts.
  • 1997 – After a brief civil war which has driven President Pascal Lissouba out of Brazzaville, Denis Sassou-Nguesso proclaims himself the President of the Republic of the Congo.
  • 2004 – Fidel Castro, Cuba’s President, announces that transactions using the American Dollar will be banned by November 8.
  • 2007 – The first Airbus A380 passenger flight, operating for Singapore Airlines, with flight number SQ380, flying scheduled service between Singapore and Sydney, Australia.

October 25 – Birthdays:

  • 1102 – William Clito, Count of Flanders (d. 1128)
  • 1330 – Louis II of Flanders (d. 1384)
  • 1510 – Renée of France, french princess (d. 1574)
  • 1683 – Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, British politician (d. 1757)
  • 1759 – Maria Fyodorovna of Russia, wife of Tsar Paul I of Russia (d. 1828)
  • 1759 – William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, British politician (d. 1834)
  • 1767 – Benjamin Constant, Swiss writer (d. 1830)
  • 1772 – Geraud Duroc, French general (d. 1813)
  • 1782 – Levi Lincoln, Jr., 13th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1868)
  • 1802 – Joseph Montferrand, Canadian logger and strong man (d. 1864)
  • 1806 – Max Stirner, German philosopher (d. 1856)
  • 1811 – Évariste Galois, French mathematician (d. 1832)
  • 1825 – Johann Strauss II, Austrian composer (d. 1899)
  • 1838 – Georges Bizet, French composer (d. 1875)
  • 1856 – Dragutin Gorjanovic-Kramberger, Croatian paleontologist (d. 1936)
  • 1864 – Alexander Gretchaninov, Russian composer (d. 1956)
  • 1864 – John Francis Dodge, American automobile pioneer (d. 1920)
  • 1867 – Józef Dowbór-Musnicki, Polish general (d.1937)
  • 1881 – Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter and sculptor (d. 1973)
  • 1888 – Richard E. Byrd, American explorer (d. 1957)
  • 1888 – Nils von Dardel, Swedish painter (d. 1943)
  • 1889 – Abel Gance, French film director (d. 1981)
  • 1891 – Father Coughlin, Roman Catholic priest and pro-Fascist radio broadcaster (d. 1979)
  • 1892 – Leo G. Carroll, English actor (d. 1972)
  • 1895 – Levi Eshkol, Prime Minister of Israel (d. 1969)
  • 1902 – Eddie Lang, American jazz guitarist (d. 1933)
  • 1903 – Katharine Byron, U.S. Congresswoman (d. 1976)
  • 1903 – Harry Shoulberg, American painter (d. 1995)
  • 1908 – Edmond Pidoux, Swiss writer (d. 2004)
  • 1910 – William Higinbotham, American physicist (d. 1994)
  • 1912 – Minnie Pearl, American comedian and singer (d. 1996)
  • 1913 – Klaus Barbie, Nazi war criminal (d. 1991)
  • 1914 – John Berryman, American poet (d. 1972)
  • 1915 – Ivan M. Niven, Canadian mathematician (d. 1999)
  • 1917 – Lee MacPhail, American baseball manager and league executive
  • 1921 – King Michael I of Romania
  • 1923 – Jean Duceppe, Quebec actor (d. 1990)
  • 1924 – Billy Barty, American actor (d. 2000)
  • 1926 – Ismail Gulgee, Pakistani painter
  • 1926 – Galina Vishnevskaya, Russian soprano
  • 1927 – Barbara Cook, American singer and actress
  • 1927 – Jorge Batlle Ibáñez, President of Uruguay
  • 1928 – Marion Ross, American actress
  • 1928 – Anthony Franciosa, American actor (d. 2006)
  • 1931 – Jimmy McIlroy, Irish footballer and football manager
  • 1931 – Annie Girardot, French actress
  • 1932 – Harry Gregg, Irish footballer and football manager
  • 1933 – Eugene “Porky” Lee, American child actor (d. 2005)
  • 1935 – Russell Schweickart, astronaut
  • 1936 – Sir Martin Gilbert, British historian
  • 1939 – Robin Spry, Canadian filmmaker and producer (d. 2005)
  • 1940 – Bobby Knight, American basketball coach
  • 1941 – Helen Reddy, Australian singer
  • 1941 – Anne Tyler, American novelist
  • 1944 – Jon Anderson, English singer (Yes)
  • 1944 – James Carville, American political stategist
  • 1947 – Glenn Tipton, English guitarist (Judas Priest)
  • 1948 – Dave Cowens, American basketball player and coach
  • 1948 – Daniel Mark Epstein, American poet and biographer
  • 1948 – Dan Gable, American wrestler and coach
  • 1948 – Dan Issel, American basketball player
  • 1949 – Réjean Houle, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1950 – Chris Norman, English singer
  • 1951 – Richard Lloyd, American guitarist (Television)
  • 1952 – Ioannis Kyrastas, Greek footballer and manager (d. 2004)
  • 1954 – Mike Eruzione, American hockey player
  • 1955 – Robin Eubanks, American jazz trombonist
  • 1955 – Glynis Barber, English actress
  • 1955 – Matthias Jabs, German guitarist (Scorpions)
  • 1957 – Nancy Cartwright, American actress
  • 1958 – Kornelia Ender, East German swimmer
  • 1961 – Ward Burton, American auto racer
  • 1962 – Nick Hancock, British television presenter
  • 1962 – Chad Smith, American drummer (Red Hot Chili Peppers)
  • 1962 – Darlene Vogel, American actress
  • 1963 – Tracy Nelson, American actress
  • 1964 – Michael Boatman, American actor
  • 1964 – Nicole, German singer
  • 1964 – Kevin Michael Richardson, American actor
  • 1965 – Þorsteinn Bachmann, Icelandic actor
  • 1966 – Wendel Clark, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1966 – Perry Satullo, American professional wrestler
  • 1969 – Josef Beranek, Czech hockey player
  • 1969 – Oleg Salenko, Russian former footballer
  • 1970 – J.A. Adande, American sports columnist
  • 1970 – Adam Goldberg, American actor
  • 1970 – Adam Pascal, American actor
  • 1970 – Ed Robertson, Canadian musician (Barenaked Ladies)
  • 1971 – Simon Charlton, English footballer
  • 1971 – Athena Chu, Hong Kong actress and singer
  • 1971 – Midori Goto, Japanese violinist
  • 1971 – Pedro Martínez, Dominican baseball player
  • 1972 – Jonathan Torrens, Canadian actor
  • 1975 – Ryan Clement, former XFL quarterback
  • 1975 – Eirik Glambek Bøe, Norwegian musician
  • 1976 – Steve Jones, Irish footballer
  • 1977 – Birgit Prinz, German footballer
  • 1978 – Russell Anderson, Scottish footballer
  • 1979 – Rob Hulse, English footballer
  • 1979 – Sarah Thompson, American actress
  • 1979 – Tony Torcato, American baseball player
  • 1980 – Mehcad Brooks, American actor and former model
  • 1981 – Shaun Wright-Phillips, English footballer
  • 1981 – Jerome Isaac Jones, American singer
  • 1981 – Austin Winkler, American lead vocalist (Hinder)
  • 1982 – Jerome Carter, American football player
  • 1982 – Eman Lam, Hong Kong singer
  • 1983 – Han Yeo-reum, South Korean actress
  • 1984 – Danny .S., English record producer
  • 1984 – Sara Helena Lumholdt, Swedish musician (A-Teens)
  • 1985 – Ciara Harris, American singer
  • 1986 – DJ Webstar, American disc jockey
  • 1986 – Eddie Gaven, American footballer
  • 1987 – Darron Gibson, Irish football player
  • 1988 – Jonathan Wilson, American Novelist
  • 1995 – Conchita Campbell, Canadian actress
  • 2001 – Princess Elisabeth of Belgium

October 25 – Deaths:

  • 304 – Pope Marcellinus (martyred)
  • 625 – Pope Boniface V
  • 1047 – King Magnus I of Norway (b. 1024)
  • 1154 – King Stephen of England (b. 1096)
  • 1200 – Conrad of Wittelsbach, German Archbishop
  • 1230 – Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, English soldier (b. 1180)
  • 1400 – Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet
  • 1415 – Killed in the Battle of Agincourt:
  • Charles d’Albret, Count of Dreux and Constable of France
  • John I of Alençon (b. 1385)
  • Antoine, Duke of Brabant (b. 1384)
  • Philip of Burgundy, Count of Nevers and Rethel (b. 1389)
  • Frederick of Lorraine (b. 1371)
  • Philip II, Count of Nevers (b. 1389)
  • Michael de la Pole, 3rd Earl of Suffolk (b. 1394)
  • Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York (b. 1373)
  • 1492 – Thaddeus McCarthy, Irish Catholic bishop
  • 1495 – King John II of Portugal (b. 1455)
  • 1514 – William Elphinstone, Scottish bishop and statesman (b. 1431)
  • 1555 – Olympia Fulvia Morata, Italian classical scholar (b. 1526)
  • 1557 – William Cavendish, English politician (b. 1505)
  • 1633 – Jean Titelouze, French organist
  • 1647 – Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist and mathematician (b. 1608)
  • 1683 – William Scroggs, Lord Chief Justice of England
  • 1733 – Giovanni Gerolamo Saccheri, Italian mathematician (b. 1667)
  • 1757 – Antoine Augustine Calmet, French theologian (b. 1672)
  • 1760 – George II of Great Britain (b. 1683)
  • 1826 – Philippe Pinel, French psychiatrist (b. 1745)
  • 1833 – Abbas Mirza, prince of Persia (b. 1789)
  • 1852 – John C. Clark, American politician (b. 1793)
  • 1889 – Émile Augier, French dramatist (b. 1820) 
  • 1895 – Charles Hallé, German pianist and conductor (b. 1819)
  • 1910 – Willie Anderson, Scottish-born golfer (b. 1878)
  • 1920 – King Alexander I of Greece (b. 1893)
  • 1921 – Bat Masterson, American journalist and lawman
  • 1938 – Alfonsina Storni, Argentine poet (b. 1892)
  • 1945 – Robert Ley, Nazi German leader (b. 1890)
  • 1953 – Holger Pedersen, Danish linguist (b. 1867)
  • 1955 – Sadako Sasaki atomic bomb victim (b. 1943)
  • 1957 – Albert Anastasia, Italian-born gangster (b. 1902)
  • 1957 – Lord Dunsany, Irish writer (b. 1878)
  • 1960 – Harry Ferguson, farm equipment manufacturer (b. 1884)
  • 1963 – Roger Désormière, French conductor (b. 1898)
  • 1965 – Eduard Einstein, son of Albert Einstein (b. 1910)
  • 1973 – Cleo Moore, American actress (b. 1928)
  • 1973 – Abebe Bikila, Ethiopian athlete (b. 1932)
  • 1976 – Raymond Queneau, French poet and novelist (b. 1903)
  • 1980 – Virgil Fox, American organist (b. 1912)
  • 1985 – Gary Holton, English actor (b. 1952)
  • 1986 – Forrest Tucker, American actor (b. 1919)
  • 1991 – Bill Graham, American rock promoter (b. 1931)
  • 1992 – Roger Miller, American musician and composer (b. 1936)
  • 1993 – Danny Chan, Hong Kong singer/songwriter (b. 1958)
  • 1993 – Vincent Price, American actor (b. 1911)
  • 1994 – Kara Spears Hultgreen, American naval pilot (b. 1965)
  • 1994 – Mildred Natwick, American actress (b. 1905)
  • 1995 – Bobby Riggs, American tennis player (b. 1918)
  • 1995 – Viveca Lindfors, Swedish-born actress (b. 1920)
  • 1999 – Payne Stewart, American golfer (b. 1957)
  • 2002 – Richard Harris, Irish actor (b. 1930)
  • 2002 – Paul Wellstone, U.S. Senator from Minnesota (b. 1944)
  • 2002 – René Thom, French mathematician (b. 1923)
  • 2003 – Pandurang Shastri Athavale, Founder Swadhyay Movement (b. 1920)
  • 2003 – Veikko Hakulinen, Finnish cross-country skier (b. 1925)
  • 2003 – Robert Strassburg, American composer (b. 1915)
  • 2004 – John Peel, British disc jockey (b. 1939)
  • 2005 – Wellington Mara, American football team owner (b. 1916)
  • 2006 – Danny Rolling, American murderer (b. 1954) (executed)

October 25 – Holidays:

  • R.C. Saints feast days: Saints Chrysanthus and Daria, Saints Crispin and Crispian, Blessed Thaddeus McCarthy
  • French Republican Calendar – Betterave (Beetroot) Day, fourth day in the Month of Brumaire
  • Grenada – Thanksgiving Day (commemorates Invasion of Grenada)
  • Kazakhstan – Republic Day
  • Taiwan – Retrocession Day (1945)
  • Virgin Islands – Thanksgiving Day
  • Day of the Romanian Army

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