On This Day in History October 27

October 27 – Events:

  • 312 – Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross.
  • 710 – Saracen invasion ofSardinia.
  • 939 – Edmund I succeeds Athelstan as King of England.
  • 1275 – Traditional founding of the city ofAmsterdam.
  • 1524 – Italian Wars: The French troops lay siege toPavia.
  • 1553 – Condemned as a heretic, Michael Servetus is burned at the stake just outsideGeneva.
  • 1644 – SecondBattleof Newbury in the English Civil War.
  • 1682 -Philadelphia,Pennsylvaniais founded.
  • 1795 – TheUnited StatesandSpainsign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and theU.S.
  • 1806 – The French Army enters inBerlin.
  • 1810 -United Statesannexes the former Spanish colony ofWest Florida.
  • 1838 -Missourigovernor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state or be exterminated.
  • 1870 – Marshal François Achille Bazaine surrenders to Prussian forces atMetzalong with 140,000 French soldiers in one of the biggest French defeats of the Franco-Prussian War.
  • 1904 – The first underground New York City Subway line opens; the system becomes the biggest inUnited States, and one of the biggest in world.
  • 1916 -Battleof Segale: Negus Mikael, marching on the Ethiopian capital in support of his son Emperor Iyasus V, is defeated by Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis, securing the throne for Empress Zauditu.
  • 1922 – A referendum inRhodesiarejects the country’s annexation to the South African Union.
  • 1924 – The Uzbek SSR is founded in theSoviet Union.
  • 1936 – Mrs Wallis Simpson filed for divorce which would eventually allow her to marry King Edward VIII of theUnited Kingdom, thus forcing his abdication from the throne.
  • 1946 – First commercially-sponsored television program airs   (Geographically Speaking, sponsored by Bristol-Myers).
  • 1948 – Léopold Sédar Senghor founds the Senegalese Democratic Bloc (BDS).
  • 1953 – British nuclear test Totem 2 is detonated atEmu Field,South Australia.
  • 1954 – Benjamin O. Davis Jr. becomes the first black general in the United States Air Force.
  • 1958 – Iskander Mirza, the first President of Pakistan, is deposed in a bloodless coup d’état by General Ayub Khan, who was appointed the enforcer of martial law by Mirza 20 days earlier.
  • 1961 – NASA launched the first Saturn I rocket in Mission Saturn-Apollo 1.
  • 1962 – Major Rudolph Anderson of the United States Air Force became the only direct human casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis when his U-2 reconnaissance airplane was shot down inCubaby a Soviet-supplied SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile.
  • 1962 – The plane of Enrico Mattei, Italian industry’s most relevant figure, crashes in mysterious circumstances.
  • 1964 – Ronald Reagan delivers a speech on behalf of Republican candidate for president, Barry Goldwater. The speech launched his political career and came to be known as “A Time for Choosing.”
  • 1971 -Democratic Republic of the Congois renamedZaire.
  • 1973 – TheCanonCitymeteorite, a 1.4 kg chondrite type meteorite strikes inFremont County,Colorado.
  • 1981 – The Soviet submarine U 137 runs aground on the east coast ofSweden.
  • 1986 – TheUnited Kingdomgovernment suddenly deregulates financial markets, leading to a total restructuring of the way in which they operate in the country, in an event now referred to as the Big Bang.
  • 1990 – Supreme Soviet of Kirghiz SSR chooses Askar Akayev as republic’s first president.
  • 1991 -Turkmenistanachieved independence from theSoviet Union.
  • 1992 – United States Navy radioman Allen R. Schindler, Jr. is brutally murdered by shipmates for being gay, precipitating first military, then national debate about gays in the military that resulted in theUnited States”Don’t ask, don’t tell” military policy.
  • 1995 -Latviaapplies for membership in the European Union.
  • 1995 – Former Italian Prime Minister Bettino Craxi is condemned in absentia for corruption.
  • 1997 – October 27, 1997 mini-crash: Stock markets around the world crash because of fears of a global economic meltdown. The Dow Jones Industrial Average plummets 554.26 points to 7,161.15. For the first time, the New York Stock Exchange activated their “circuit breakers” twice during the day eventually making the controversial move of closing the Exchange early.
  • 2002 – The ITV Network aired a constant regional service for the last time in Englandand Wales, but LWT lost its identity completely. All companies (except UTV, Channel, Scottish TV & Grampian TV) formed the national ITV1 with regional references only before regional programmes. 
  • 2005 – Riots begin in Paris after the deaths of two Muslim teenagers.

October 27 – Birthdays:

  • 1156 – Count Raymond VI ofToulouse(d. 1222)
  • 1401 – Catherine of Valois, queen of Henry V ofEngland(d. 1437)
  • 1466 – Erasmus, Dutch humanist and theologian (d. 1536)
  • 1728 – James Cook, British naval captain and explorer (d. 1779)
  • 1744 – Mary Moser, English painter (d. 1819)
  • 1760 – August von Gneisenau, Prussian field marshal (d. 1831)
  • 1782 – Niccolò Paganini, Italian violinist and composer (d. 1840)
  • 1811 – Isaac Singer, American inventor (d. 1875)
  • 1811 – Stevens Thomson Mason, first Governor of Michigan (d. 1843)
  • 1838 – John Davis Long, 32 Governor ofMassachusetts(d. 1915)
  • 1842 – Giovanni Giolitti, Italian statesman (d. 1928)
  • 1844 – Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Swedish writer and pacifist, recipient of the  Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1916)
  • 1854 – Sir William Smith, Scottish founder of the Boys’ Brigade (d. 1914)
  • 1858 – Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of theUnited States, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1919)
  • 1865 – Charles Spencelayh, English painter (d. 1958)
  • 1873 – Emily Post, American etiquette author (d. 1960)
  • 1877 – George Thompson, English cricketer (d. 1943)
  • 1885 – Sigrid Hjertén, Swedish modernist painter (d. 1948)
  • 1894 – Oliver Leese, British general (d. 1978)
  • 1896 – Edith Brown, survivor of the Titanic (d. 1997)
  • 1906 – Earle Cabell, American politician (d. 1975)
  • 1910 – Jack Carson, Canadian actor (d. 1963)
  • 1911 – Leif Erickson, American actor and singer (d. 1986)
  • 1914 – Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet (d. 1953)
  • 1915 – Harry Saltzman, American film producer (d. 1994)
  • 1917 – Augustine Harris, British Bishop ofMiddlesbrough(d. 2007)
  • 1917 – Oliver Tambo, South African freedom fighter (d. 1993)
  • 1918 – Teresa Wright, American actress (d. 2005)
  • 1920 – Nanette Fabray, American actress
  • 1920 – K. R. Narayanan, 10th President ofIndia 
  • 1921 – Warren Allen Smith, American encyclopedist 
  • 1922 – Poul Bundgaard, Danish actor and singer (d. 1998)
  • 1922 – Ralph Kiner, American baseball player
  • 1923 – Roy Lichtenstein, American artist (d. 1997)
  • 1924 – Ruby Dee, American actress
  • 1924 – Michel Galabru, French actor
  • 1925 – Albert Medwin, American inventor
  • 1925 -Warren Christopher,USSecretary of State (1993–1997)
  • 1926 – H.R. Haldeman, American political personality (d. 1993)
  • 1928 – Gilles Vigneault, Canadian poet, singer and songwriter
  • 1931 – Nawal el-Saadawi, Egyptian writer
  • 1932 – Sylvia Plath, American poet (d. 1963)
  • 1932 – Jean-Pierre Cassel, French actor (d. 2007)
  • 1933 – Floyd Cramer, American popular pianist (d. 1997)
  • 1934 – Giorgos Konstadinou, Greek actor and director
  • 1937 – Lara Parker, American actress
  • 1939 – John Cleese, British actor and writer
  • 1940 – John Gotti, American gangster (d. 2002)
  • 1940 – Maxine Hong Kingston, American writer
  • 1941 – Dick Trickle, American auto racer
  • 1942 – Lee Greenwood, American singer
  • 1945 – Luis Inácio Lula da Silva, President of Brazil
  • 1945 – John Kane, actor/writer
  • 1946 – Carrie Snodgress, American actress (d. 2004)
  • 1946 – Ivan Reitman, Czechoslovakian-born Canadian film actor, producer  and director
  • 1949 – Garry Tallent, American bass player (E Street Band)
  • 1949 – Clifford Antone, American businessman (d. 2006)
  • 1950 – Fran Lebowitz, American writer
  • 1951 – K.K. Downing, English guitarist (Judas Priest)
  • 1951 – Carlos Frenk, Mexican/British cosmologist
  • 1951 – Nancy Jacobs, American politician
  • 1951 – Jayne Kennedy, American actress, model, and sportscaster
  • 1952 – Hameed Haroon, Pakistani publisher
  • 1952 – Roberto Benigni, Italian director and actor
  • 1953 – Peter Firth, British actor
  • 1953 – Robert Picardo, American actor
  • 1955 – Debra Bowen, American politician
  • 1956 – Jaq D. Hawkins, British author, occultist and lecturer
  • 1956 – Veronica Hart, American porn actress
  • 1957 – Jeff East, American actor
  • 1957 – Glenn Hoddle, English footballer
  • 1958 – Simon Le Bon, English singer (Duran Duran)
  • 1958 -Lee Carter,AlabamaJudge of the 25th Judicial Circuit
  • 1960 – Tom Nieto, American baseball player
  • 1963 – Marla Maples, American actress and model
  • 1964 – Mark Taylor, Australian test cricket captain (1994-1999)
  • 1967 – Scott Weiland, American singer (Stone Temple Pilots and Velvet   Revolver)
  • 1968 – Vinny Samways, English footballer
  • 1970 – Adrian Erlandsson, Swedish drummer (Cradle of Filth)
  • 1971 – JadeArcade, American comics artist and writer 
  • 1971 – Theodoros Zagorakis, Greek footballer 
  • 1971 – Jorge Soto, Peruvian footballer
  • 1972 – Lee Clark, English footballer
  • 1972 – Evan Coyne Maloney, American filmmaker
  • 1972 – Brad Radke, American baseball player
  • 1972 – Marika Krook, Finnish singer (Edea)
  • 1972 – Maria Mutola, Mozambican athlete
  • 1973 – Jason Johnson, American baseball pitcher (Cincinnati Reds)
  • 1975 – Zadie Smith, British novelist
  • 1977 – Jirí Jarosík, Czech footballer
  • 1977 – Kumar Sangakkara, Sri Lankan cricketer
  • 1978 -Vanessa-Mae,Singaporemusician
  • 1978 – Sergei Samsonov, Russian ice hockey player
  • 1979 – Melanie Vallejo, Australian TV actress
  • 1980 – Tanel Padar, Estonian singer
  • 1980 – Cassia Riley, American model
  • 1981 – Han Hye-jin, South Korean actress
  • 1981 – Kristi Richards, Canadian freestyle skier
  • 1982 – Patrick Fugit, American actor
  • 1982 – Dennis Moran, American computer hacker
  • 1982 – Takashi Tsukamoto, Japanese actor
  • 1982 – Keri Hilson, American singer
  • 1983 – Brent Clevlen, American baseball player
  • 1984 – Kelly Osbourne, English television personality
  • 1984 – Brady Quinn, American football player
  • 1984 – Irfan Pathan, Indian cricketer
  • 1986 – Matty Pattison, English footballer
  • 1987 – Andrew Bynum, American basketball player

October 27 – Deaths:

  • 939 – King Athelstan I ofEngland(b. 895)
  • 1271 – Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, French crusader (b. 1213)
  • 1312 – John II, Duke ofBrabant(b. 1275)
  • 1327 – Elizabeth de Burgh, queen of Robert I ofScotland(b. 1289)
  • 1331 – Abu al-Fida, Arab historian and geographer (b. 1273)
  • 1430 – Vytautas the Great, Grand Duke ofLithuania(b. 1350)
  • 1439 – Albert II ofGermany, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1397)
  • 1449 – Ulugh Beg, Timurid ruler and astronomer (b. 1394)
  • 1505 – Ivan III ofRussia(b. 1440)
  • 1553 – Michael Servetus, Spanish theologian and doctor (burned at the stake) (b. 1511)
  • 1561 – Lope de Aguirre, Spanish conquistador (b. 1510)
  • 1573 – Laurentius Petri, first Lutheran Archbishop ofSweden(b. 1499)
  • 1605 – Akbar, Jellaladin Mahommed, Mughal Emperor (born 1542)
  • 1617 – Ralph Winwood, English politician (b. 1563)
  • 1670 – Vavasor Powell, Welsh non-conformist leader (b. 1617)
  • 1674 – Hallgrímur Pétursson, Icelandic poet (b. 1614)
  • 1675 – Gilles de Roberval, French mathematician (b. 1602)
  • 1789 – John Cook, American farmer and Governor of Delaware (b. 1730)
  • 1917 – Arthur Rhys Davids, English pilot (b. 1897)
  • 1935 – E. A. D. Eldridge, British racing driver (b. 1897)
  • 1942 – Helmuth Hubener, Youth Political Activist against the Hitler regime (b. 1925)
  • 1949 – Marcel Cerdan, French boxer (b. 1916)
  • 1949 – Ginette Neveu, French violinist (b. 1919)
  • 1953 – Thomas Wass, English cricketer (b. 1873)
  • 1962 – Enrico Mattei, Italian politician (b. 1906)
  • 1968 – Lise Meitner, German physicist (b. 1878)
  • 1975 – Rex Stout, American novelist (b. 1886)
  • 1977 – James M. Cain, American novelist (b. 1892)
  • 1980 – Steve Peregrin Took, English singer and songwriter (b. 1949)
  • 1980 – John Hasbrouck van Vleck, American physicist, Nobel Prize  Laureate (b. 1899)
  • 1980 – Judy LaMarsh, Canadian politician, author and broadcaster (b. 1924)
  • 1990 – Xavier Cugat, Spanish-born musician (b. 1900) 
  • 1990 – Princess Sophie von Hohenberg, daughter of assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand ofAustria(b. 1901)
  • 1990 – Elliott Roosevelt, American war hero, author, and advertising executive (b. 1910)
  • 1990 – Jacques Demy, French film director (b. 1931)
  • 1990 – Ugo Tognazzi, Italian actor (b. 1922)
  • 1991- George Barker, English poet (b. 1913)
  • 1992 – David Bohm, American-born physicist, philosopher, and neuropsychologist (b. 1917)
  • 1996 – MoreyAmsterdam, American actor (b. 1908)
  • 1996 – Arthur Tremblay, French Canadian politician (b. 1917)
  • 1999 – Robert Mills, American physicist (b. 1927)
  • 1999 – Charlotte Perriand, French architect and designer (b. 1903)
  • 2000 – Walter Berry, Austrian bass-baritone (b. 1929)
  • 2002 – Tom Dowd, American recording engineer (b. 1925)
  • 2003 – Rod Roddy, American television announcer (b. 1937)
  • 2004 – Serginho, Brazilian footballer (b. 1974)
  • 2006 – Joe Niekro, American baseball player (b. 1944)
  • 2006 – Brad Will, American anarchist and independent journalist (b. 1970)

October 27 – Holidays:

  • United States- Navy Day
  • Greece- Flag Day
  • Turkmenistan- Independence Day (fromUSSR, 1991)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines- Independence Day (fromBritain, 1979)
  • R.C. saints – October 27th is the feast day of the following Roman Catholic Saints:
    • Abban of Magheranoidhe
    • Abban of New Ross
    • St. Elesbaan
    • St. Frumentius, the saint who introduced Christianity intoEthiopia.

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