On This Day in History August 23

August 23 – Events:

  • 79 – Mount Vesuvius begins stirring, on the feast day of Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.
  • 1305 – William Wallace, Scottish patriot, is executed for high treason by Edward I of England.
  • 1328 – Battle of Cassel: French troops stop an uprising of Flemish farmers.
  • 1541 – French explorer Jacques Cartier lands near Quebec City in his third voyage to Canada.
  • 1555 – Calvinists are granted rights in the Netherlands.
  • 1595 – Michael the Brave confronts the Ottoman army in the Battle of Calugareni.
  • 1708 – Meidingnu Pamheiba is crowned King of Manipur.
  • 1775 – King George III declares the American colonies exist in a state of open and avowed rebellion.
  • 1784 – Western North Carolina (now eastern Tennessee) declares itself an independent state under the name of Franklin; it wasn’t accepted into the United States, and only lasted for four years.
  • 1793 – French Revolution: a levée en masse was decreed by the National Convention.
  • 1799 – Napoleon leaves Egypt for France en route to seize power.
  • 1813 – At the Battle of Grossbeeren, the Prussians under Von Bülow repulse the French army.
  • 1833 – Slavery abolished in the British colonies.
  • 1839 – The United Kingdom captures Hong Kong as a base as it prepares to war with Qing China. The ensuing 3-year conflict will later be known as the First Opium War.
  • 1864 – The Union Navy captures Fort Morgan, Alabama, thus breaking Confederate dominance of all ports on the Gulf of Mexico.
  • 1866 – Austro-Prussian War ends with the Treaty of Prague.
  • 1889 – First wireless message from a ship to the shore received.
  • 1896 – First Cry of the Philippine Revolution is made in Pugad Lawin (Quezon City), in the province of Manila.
  • 1904 – The automobile tire chain is patented.
  • 1914 – World War I: Japan declares war on Germany and bombs Qingdao, China.
  • 1914 – World War I: the Battle of Mons; the British Army begins withdrawal.
  • 1923 – Capt. Lowell Smith and Lt. John P. Richter performed the first mid-air refueling on De Havilland DH-4B, setting an endurance flight record of 37 hours.
  • 1929 – Hebron Massacre: Arab attack of the Jewish community in the British Mandate of Palestine resulted in 133 Jews killed, 67 in Hebron.
  • 1939 – World War II: Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. In a secret addition to the pact, Baltic states, Finland, Ukraine and Poland are divided between the two nations.
  • 1940 – World War II: The Germans start bombing London.
  • 1942 – World War II: Beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad.
  • 1943 – World War II: Kharkov liberated.
  • 1944 – World War II: Marseille liberated.
  • 1944 – World War II King Michael of Romania dismisses the pro-Nazi government of General Antonescu, who is arrested. Romania switches sides from the Axis to the Allies.
  • 1944 – Freckleton Air Disaster – A United States Army Air Forces B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into a school in Freckleton, England killing 61 people.
  • 1946 – Ordinance No. 46 of the British Military Government constitutes the German Land (state) of Schleswig-Holstein.
  • 1948 – World Council of Churches is formed.
  • 1952 – The Arab League is formed.
  • 1958 – Chinese Civil War: The Second Taiwan Strait crisis begins with the People’s Liberation Army’s bombardment of Quemoy.
  • 1962 – First live television connection between the United States and Europe, via the Telstar satellite.
  • 1966 – Lunar Orbiter 1 takes the first photograph of Earth from orbit around the Moon.
  • 1973 – The Intelsat communication satellite is launched.
  • 1975 – Successful Communist coup in Laos.
  • 1977 – The Gossamer Condor wins the Kremer prize for human powered flight.
  • 1979 – Soviet dancer Alexander Godunov defects to the United States.
  • 1982 – Bachir Gemayel is elected Lebanese President amidst the raging civil war.
  • 1985 – Hans Tiedge, top counter-spy of West Germany, defects to East Germany.
  • 1985 – Famous shipwreck RMS Titanic is found.
  • 1989 – Singing Revolution: two million people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania stand on the Vilnius-Tallinn road, holding hands (Baltic Way).
  • 1989 – All of Australia’s 1,645 domestic airline pilots resign after the airlines threaten to fire them and sue them over a dispute.
  • 1990 – Saddam Hussein appears on Iraqi state television with a number of Western “guests” (actually hostages) to try to prevent the Gulf War.
  • 1990 – Armenia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
  • 1990 – West Germany and East Germany announce that they will unite on October 3.
  • 1996 – Osama bin Laden issues message entitled ‘A declaration of war against the Americans occupying the land of the two holy places.’
  • 2000 – A Gulf Air Airbus A320 crashes into the Persian Gulf near Manama, Bahrain, killing 143.
  • 2000 – Nicaragua becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty. This essentially deprecated the Buenos Aires Convention treaty, because as of this date, all members of the BA Convention were also signatories to Berne.
  • 2005 – TANS Peru Flight 204 crashes near Pucallpa, Peru, killing 41.
  • 2006 – Natascha Kampusch, who was abducted at the age of 10, managed to escape from her captor Wolfgang Priklopil, after 8 years of captivity.

August 23 – Birthdays:

  • 686 – Charles Martel, grandfather of Charlemagne (d. 741)
  • 1486 – Sigismund von Herberstein, Austrian diplomat and historian (d. 1566)
  • 1524 – François Hotman, French lawyer and writer (d. 1590)
  • 1623 – Stanislaw Lubieniecki, Polish astronomer (d. 1675)
  • 1724 – Abraham Yates, American Continental Congressman (d. 1796)
  • 1741 – Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse, French explorer (d. 1788)
  • 1754 – King Louis XVI of France (d. 1793)
  • 1769 – Georges Cuvier, French biologist and statesman (d. 1832)
  • 1783 – William Tierney Clark, English civil engineer (d. 1852)
  • 1785 – Oliver Hazard Perry, U.S. naval officer (d. 1819)
  • 1805 – Anton von Schmerling, Austrian statesman (d. 1893)
  • 1814 – James Roosevelt Bayley, first Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, and the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore (d. 1877)
  • 1829 – Moritz Cantor, German mathematician (d. 1920)
  • 1836 – Marie Henriette of Austria, Queen of the Belgians (d. 1902)
  • 1843 – William Southam, Canadian newspaper publisher (d. 1932)
  • 1846 – Alexander Milne Calder, American sculptor (d. 1923)
  • 1847 – Sarah Frances Whiting, American physicist and astronomer (d. 1927)
  • 1849 – William Ernest Henley, British poet, critic, and editor (d. 1903)
  • 1852 – Arnold Toynbee, English economist and social reformer (d. 1883)
  • 1852 – Clímaco Calderón, President of Colombia. (d. 1913)
  • 1854 – Moritz Moszkowski, Polish/German composer (d. 1925)
  • 1864 – Eleftherios Venizelos, Prime Minister of Greece (d.1936)
  • 1868 – Edgar Lee Masters, American author (d. 1950)
  • 1875 – William Eccles, English radio pioneer (d. 1966)
  • 1875 – Eugene Lanceray, Russian artist (d. 1946)
  • 1880 – Alexander Grin, Russian writer (d. 1932)
  • 1883 – Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV, U.S. general (d. 1953)
  • 1884 – Will Cuppy, American humorist (d. 1949)
  • 1884 – Ogden L. Mills, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, 1927-1932 (d. 1937)
  • 1900 – Ernst Krenek, Austrian-born composer (d. 1991)
  • 1900 – Malvina Reynolds, American folk singer/songwriter (d. 1978)
  • 1901 – John Sherman Cooper, U.S. Senator from Kentucky (d. 1991)
  • 1903 – William Primrose, Scottish violist (d. 1982)
  • 1905 – Constant Lambert, British composer (d. 1951)
  • 1908 – Hannah Frank, Scottish Artist and Sculptor
  • 1910 – Giuseppe Meazza, Italian footballer (d. 1979)
  • 1911 – Birger Ruud, Norwegian athlete (d. 1998)
  • 1912 – Gene Kelly, American dancer and actor (d. 1996)
  • 1917 – Tex Williams, American singer (d. 1985)
  • 1919 – Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin, Russian mathematician (d. 1984)
  • 1921 – Kenneth Arrow, American economist, Bank of Sweden Prize winner
  • 1922 – George Kell, baseball player
  • 1922 – Jean Darling, American child actress
  • 1922 – Pierre Gauvreau, Quebec painter, television writer and producer
  • 1923 – Edgar F. Codd, English computer scientist (d. 2003)
  • 1924 – Ephraim Kishon, Israeli writer (d. 2005)
  • 1924 – Robert Solow, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1925 – Robert Mulligan, American movie and television director
  • 1927 – Dick Bruna, Dutch illustrator
  • 1928 – Marian Seldes, American actress
  • 1929 – Vera Miles, American actress
  • 1930 – Michel Rocard, Prime Minister of France
  • 1931 – Hamilton O. Smith, American microbiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 1932 – Houari Boumedienne, President of Algeria (d. 1978)
  • 1932 – Mark Russell, American comedian, musician, and political commentator
  • 1933 – Robert Curl, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1933 – Pete Wilson, Governor of California
  • 1934 – Barbara Eden, American actress and singer
  • 1934 – Sonny Jurgensen, American football player
  • 1936 – Henry Lee Lucas, American serial killer (d. 2001)
  • 1943 – Nelson DeMille, American novelist
  • 1944 – Antonia Novello, former United States Surgeon General
  • 1946 – Keith Moon, English singer and drummer (The Who) (d. 1978)
  • 1947 – Willy Russell, British playwright
  • 1947 – David Robb, British actor
  • 1948 – Andrei Plesu, Romanian writer, essayist
  • 1948 – Daniel Ruettiger “Rudy”, University of Notre Dame football legend
  • 1949 – Katiana Balanika, Greek actress and singer
  • 1949 – Geoff Capes, English Strongman
  • 1949 – Shelley Long, American actress
  • 1949 – Rick Springfield, Australian singer and actor
  • 1951 – Akhmad Kadyrov, President of Chechnya (d. 2004)
  • 1951 – Queen Noor of Jordan
  • 1951 – Jimi Jamison, American singer (Survivor)
  • 1952 – Vicky Leandros, Greek singer and politician
  • 1953 – Bobby G, British singer (Bucks Fizz)
  • 1954 – Charles Busch, American director, writer, actor and drag queen
  • 1956 – Andreas Floer, German mathematician (d. 1991)
  • 1956 – Valgerd Svarstad Haugland, Norwegian politician
  • 1956 – Skipp Sudduth, American actor
  • 1957 – Tasos Mitropoulos, Greek footballer and politician
  • 1958 – Julio Franco, oldest regular position player in MLB history
  • 1959 – George Kalovelonis, Greek tennis player
  • 1960 – Rodney Alan Greenblat, American graphic artist
  • 1960 – Chris Potter, Canadian actor
  • 1961 – Dean DeLeo, American musician (Stone Temple Pilots)
  • 1961 – Gary Mabbutt, English footballer
  • 1962 – Martin Cauchon, Canadian politician
  • 1963 – Hans-Henning Fastrich, German field hockey player
  • 1963 – Kenny Wallace, American race car driver
  • 1963 – Park Chan-wook, Korean director and screenwriter
  • 1964 – Kong Hee, Singaporean, Founder and Senior Pastor of the City Harvest movement in Asia
  • 1965 – Roger Avary, Canadian-born screenwriter, director, and producer
  • 1966 – Rik Smits, Dutch-American basketball player
  • 1968 – Chris DiMarco, American golfer
  • 1969 – Keith Tyson, English artist
  • 1969 – Jeremy Schaap, American sportswriter
  • 1969 – Geneviève Brouillette, Quebec television and film actress
  • 1970 – Jay Mohr, American actor and comedian
  • 1970 – River Phoenix, American actor (d. 1993)
  • 1971 – Demetrio Albertini, Italian footballer
  • 1971 – BoneCrusher, American rapper
  • 1972 – Martin Grainger, English footballer
  • 1972 – Raul Casanova, Puerto Rican baseball player
  • 1974 – Ray Park, Scottish actor
  • 1974 – Shifty, American musician (Crazy Town)
  • 1974 – Benjamin Limo, Kenyan runner
  • 1974 – Christian Beranek, American graphic novelist and actor
  • 1975 – Eliza Carthy, English singer and fiddler
  • 1975 – Jarkko Ruutu, Finnish ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Scott Caan, American actor
  • 1977 – Douglas Sequeira, Costa Rican footballer
  • 1978 – Kobe Bryant, American basketball player
  • 1978 – Julian Casablancas, American musician
  • 1979 – Edgar Sosa, Mexican boxer
  • 1980 – Denny Bautista, Dominican baseball player
  • 1980 – Rex Grossman, American football player
  • 1981 – Ozzy Lusth, American Survivor contestant
  • 1981 – Stephan Loboué, Ivorian footballer
  • 1981 – Carmen Luvana, American pornographic actress.
  • 1982 – Natalie Coughlin, American swimmer
  • 1982 – YTCracker, American musician
  • 1982 – Scott Palguta, Professional soccer player
  • 1984 – Glen Johnson, English footballer
  • 1986 – Neil Cicierega, American cartoonist and musician
  • 1987 – Nikki Gil, Filipina actress, host and singer
  • 1988 – Daniel Schwaab, German footballer
  • 1995 – Eliza Pineda, Filipina child actress

August 23 – Deaths:

  • 93 – Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman Governor of Britain (b. 40)
  • 634 – Abu Bakr, Arabian caliph
  • 1106 – Magnus, Duke of Saxony
  • 1176 – Emperor Rokujo of Japan (b. 1164)
  • 1305 – William Wallace, Scottish patriot
  • 1387 – King Olav IV of Norway (b. 1370)
  • 1507 – Jean Molinet, French writer (b. 1435)
  • 1519 – Philibert Berthelier, Swiss patriot
  • 1540 – Guillaume Budé, French scholar
  • 1591 – Luis Ponce de León, Spanish poet and mystic (b. 1527)
  • 1618 – Gerbrand Adriaensz Bredero, Dutch writer (b. 1585)
  • 1628 – George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, English statesman (b. 1592)
  • 1652 – John Byron, 1st Baron Byron, English royalist politician (b. 1600)
  • 1706 – Colonel Edward Nott, Esq., British Crown Governor of Virginia (b. 1654)
  • 1723 – Increase Mather, New England Puritan minister (b. 1639)
  • 1806 – Charles Augustin de Coulomb, French physicist (b. 1736)
  • 1813 – Alexander Wilson, Scottish-born ornithologist (b. 1766)
  • 1819 – Oliver Hazard Perry, American naval officer (b. 1785)
  • 1853 – Alexander Calder, first mayor of Beaumont, Texas (b. 1806)
  • 1867 – Auguste-Marseille Barthélemy, French poet (b. 1796)
  • 1892 – Deodoro da Fonseca, 1 President of Brazil (b. 1827)
  • 1926 – Rudolph Valentino, Italian actor (b. 1895)
  • 1927 – Nicola Sacco, Italian anarchist (b. 1891)
  • 1927 – Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Italian anarchist (b. 1888)
  • 1937 – Albert Roussel, French composer (b. 1869)
  • 1955 – Reginald Tate, British actor (b. 1896)
  • 1960 – Oscar Hammerstein II, American lyricist (b. 1895)
  • 1962 – Walter Anderson, German folklorist (b. 1885)
  • 1962 – Hoot Gibson, American actor (b. 1892)
  • 1963 – Glen Gray, American jazz musician and leader of the Casa Loma Orchestra (b. 1900)
  • 1966 – Francis X. Bushman, American actor (b. 1883)
  • 1967 – Georges Berger, Belgian racing driver (b. 1918)
  • 1971 – The original Shamu, Sea World orca
  • 1974 – Roberto Assagioli, Italian psychiatrist (b. 1888)
  • 1982 – Stanford Moore, American biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1913)
  • 1987 – Didier Pironi, French racing car driver (b. 1952)
  • 1989 – Mohammed Abed Elhai, Sudanese writer and academic (b. 1944)
  • 1989 – R. D. Laing, Scottish psychiatrist (b. 1927)
  • 1990 – David Rose, American composer and orchestra leader (b. 1910)
  • 1995 – Dwayne Goettel, Canadian musician (Skinny Puppy)(b. 1964)
  • 1997 – John Kendrew, British molecular biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (b. 1917)
  • 1999 – Norman Wexler, American screenwriter (b.1926)
  • 1999 – James White, Northern Irish writer (b. 1928)
  • 2000 – John Anthony Kaiser, Roman Catholic priest (b. 1932)
  • 2001 – Kathleen Freeman, American actress (b. 1919)
  • 2001 – Peter Maas, American novelist (b. 1929)
  • 2002 – Hoyt Wilhelm, American baseball player (b. 1922)
  • 2003 – Bobby Bonds, American baseball player and manager (b. 1946)
  • 2003 – Jack Dyer, Australian rules footballer (b. 1913)
  • 2003 – John Geoghan, American Catholic priest (b. 1935)
  • 2005 – Brock Peters, American actor (b. 1927)
  • 2005 – Ninjalicious, Canadian author and urban explorer (b. 1973)
  • 2006 – Maynard Ferguson, Canadian jazz trumpeter and bandleader (b. 1928)
  • 2007 – Robert Symonds, American actor (b. 1926)

August 23 – Holidays:

  • Roman festivals – Vulcanalia.
  • RC Saints – Saint Rose of Lima, Philip Benitius
  • Romania – Liberation Day (1944).
  • Swaziland – Umhlanga Day.
  • Ukraine – Flag Day.

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On This Day in History August 22

August 22 – Events:

  • 392 – Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor.
  • 476 – Odoacer is named Rex italiae by his troop.
  • 565 – St. Columba reports seeing a monster in Loch Ness, Scotland.
  • 851 : The army of Erispoe, King of Brittany, defeats that of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks, near the Breton town of Jengland. Beginning of the Breton state.
  • 1138 – Battle of the Standard between Scotland and England.
  • 1485 – The Battle of Bosworth Field death of Richard III and end of the House of Plantagenet.
  • 1559 – Bartolomé Carranza, Spanish archbishop, is arrested for heresy.
  • 1639 – Madras (now Chennai), India, is founded by the British East India Company after buying a sliver of land from local Nayak rulers.
  • 1642 – Charles I calls the English Parliament traitors. Beginning of the English Civil War.
  • 1654 – Jacob Barsimson arrives in New Amsterdam. He is the first known Jewish immigrant to America.
  • 1717 – Spanish troops land on Sardinia.
  • 1770 – James Cook’s expedition lands on the east coast of Australia.
  • 1775 – King George III declares the American colonies to be in open rebellion.
  • 1780 – James Cook’s ship HMS Resolution returns to England (Cook having been killed on Hawaii during the voyage).
  • 1791 – Beginning of the Haitian Slave Revolution in Saint-Domingue.
  • 1798 – French troops land in Kilcummin harbour, County Mayo, Ireland to aid Wolfe Tone’s United Irishmen’s Irish Rebellion.
  • 1827 – José de La Mar becomes President of Peru.
  • 1831 – Nat Turner’s slave rebellion revolt commences just after midnight in Southampton, Virginia, leading to the deaths of more than 50 whites and several hundred blacks who were killed in retaliation for the uprising.
  • 1848 – The United States annexes New Mexico.
  • 1849 – First air raid in history. Austria launched pilotless balloons against the Italian city of Venice.
  • 1851 – The first America’s Cup is won by the yacht America.
  • 1875 – The Treaty of Saint Petersburg between Japan and Russia is ratified, providing for the exchange of Sakhalin for the Kuril Islands.
  • 1864 – Twelve nations sign the First Geneva Convention. The Red Cross is formed.
  • 1901 – Cadillac Motor Company founded.
  • 1902 – Theodore Roosevelt became the first President of the United States to ride in an automobile.
  • 1902 – The German Luger becomes the official German sidearm for both World Wars.
  • 1910 – Japan illicitly annexes Korea with the signing of the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty. The name Korea was abolished and replaced with the ancient name Joseon.
  • 1911 – Theft of the Mona Lisa is discovered.
  • 1914 – World War I: In Belgium, British and German troops clash for the first time in the war.
  • 1922 – Michael Collins, Commander-in-Chief of the Irish Free State Army is shot dead during an Anti- Treaty ambush at Beal County Cork, during the Irish Civil War.
  • 1926 – Gold discovered in Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • 1932 – The BBC first experiments with television broadcasting.
  • 1941 – World War II: German troops reach Leningrad, leading to the siege of Leningrad.
  • 1942 – World War II: Brazil declared war on Germany and Italy.
  • 1944 – World War II: Thirty-two Spaniards & four French Maquis tackle a German column (1,300 men in 60 lorries, with 6 tanks & 2 self-propelled guns), at La Madeiline, France. Three Maquis are wounded, with 110 Germans killed and 200 wounded.
  • 1944 – World War II: Romania captured by the Soviet Union.
  • 1950 – Althea Gibson becomes the first black competitor in international tennis.
  • 1952 – The penal colony on Devil’s Island is permanently closed.
  • 1962 – An attempt to assassinate French president Charles de Gaulle fails.
  • 1962 – The NS Savannah, the world’s first nuclear-powered cargo ship, completes its maiden voyage.
  • 1963 – Joe Walker in X-15 test plane reaches altitude of 106 km (67 miles).
  • 1966 – Labor movements NFWA and AWOC merge to become the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC), predecessor of the United Farm Workers.
  • 1968 – Pope Paul VI arrives in Bogotá, Colombia. It is the first visit of a pope to Latin America.
  • 1971 – J. Edgar Hoover and John Mitchell announce the arrest of 20 of the Camden 28.
  • 1972 – Rhodesia is expelled by the IOC for its racist policies.
  • 1978 – The Frente Sandinista de Liberacion or FSLN occupies national palace in Nicaragua.
  • 1988 – The Perth Mint issues the first platinum coin, the koala.
  • 1989 – The first ring of Neptune is discovered.
  • 1989 – Nolan Ryan strikes out Rickey Henderson to become the first Major League Baseball pitcher to record 5,000 strikeouts.
  • 1992 – FBI HRT sniper Lon Horiuchi shoots and kills Vicki Weaver during an 11-day siege at her home at Ruby Ridge, Idaho.
  • 2003 – Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore was suspended after refusing to comply with a federal court order to remove a rock inscribed with the Ten Commandments from the lobby of the Alabama Supreme Court building.
  • 2004 – A version of The Scream and Madonna, two paintings by Edvard Munch, are stolen at gunpoint from a museum in Oslo, Norway.
  • 2007 – The Texas Rangers rout the Baltimore Orioles 30-3, the most runs scored by a team in modern MLB history.
  • 2007 – The Storm botnet, a botnet created by the Storm Worm, sends out a record 57 million e-mails in one day

August 22 – Birthdays:

  • 1601 – Georges de Scudéry, French writer (d. 1667)
  • 1624 – Jean Renaud de Segrais, French writer (d. 1701)
  • 1647 – Denis Papin, French physicist and inventor (d. c. 1712)
  • 1679 – Pierre Guérin de Tencin, French cardinal (d. 1758)
  • 1760 – Pope Leo XII (d. 1829)
  • 1764 – Charles Percier, French architect (d. 1838)
  • 1771 – Henry Maudslay, English inventor (d. 1831)
  • 1773 – Aimé Bonpland, French explorer (d. 1858)
  • 1779 – James Kirke Paulding, American author (d. 1860)
  • 1800 – William S. Harney, U.S. general (d. 1889)
  • 1800 – Samuel David Luzzatto, Italian-Jewish scholar (d. 1865)
  • 1811 – William Kelly, American inventor (d. 1888)
  • 1822 – Virginia Clemm Poe, wife of Edgar Allan Poe (d. 1847)
  • 1827 – Ezra Butler Eddy, Canadian businessman, industrialist and politician (d. 1906)
  • 1834 – Samuel Pierpont Langley, American astronomer (d. 1906)
  • 1836 – Archibald MacNeal Willard, American artist (d. 1918)
  • 1845 – William Lewis Douglas, 42 Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1924)
  • 1848 – Melville E. Stone, American newspaper publisher (d. 1929)
  • 1854 – Milan I, King of Serbia (d. 1901)
  • 1857 – Ned Hanlon, American baseball player and manager (d. 1937)
  • 1860 – Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, German inventor (d. 1940)
  • 1860 – Eleonore of Reuss-Köstritz, tsaritsa of Bulgaria (d. 1917)
  • 1862 – Claude Debussy, French composer (d. 1918)
  • 1867 – Maximilian Bircher-Benner, Swiss physician and nutritionist (d. 1939)
  • 1873 – Alexander Bogdanov, Russian physician and philosopher (d. 1928)
  • 1874 – Max Scheler, German philosopher (d. 1928)
  • 1880 – George Herriman, American cartoonist (d. 1944)
  • 1880 – Gorch Fock, German author and poet (d. 1916)
  • 1887 – Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk, German minister of finance (d. 1977)
  • 1891 – Jacques Lipchitz, Lithuanian-born American sculptor (d. 1973)
  • 1893 – Dorothy Parker, American writer (d. 1967)
  • 1893 – Wilfred Kitching, British Salvation Army general (d. 1977)
  • 1895 – Paul Comtois, French Canadian politician (d. 1966)
  • 1900 – Sergei Ozhegov, Russian lexicographer (d. 1964)
  • 1902 – Leni Riefenstahl, German film director (d. 2003)
  • 1902 – Thomas Pelly, American politician (d. 1973)
  • 1904 – Deng Xiaoping, Premier of the People’s Republic of China (d. 1997)
  • 1908 – Henri Cartier-Bresson, French photographer (d. 2004)
  • 1909 – Julius J. Epstein, American screenwriter (d. 2000)
  • 1909 – Mel Hein, American football player (d. 1992)
  • 1909 – Lucille Ricksen, American actress (d. 1925)
  • 1913 – Bruno Pontecorvo, Italian physicist (d. 1993)
  • 1915 – Hugh Paddick, British actor (d. 2000)
  • 1915 – James Hillier, Co-inventor of the electron microscope (d. 2007)
  • 1915 – Edward Szczepanik, former Polish Prime Minister (d. 2005)
  • 1917 – John Lee Hooker, American guitarist and singer (d. 2001)
  • 1918 – Mary McGrory, American journalist (d. 2004)
  • 1920 – Ray Bradbury, American writer
  • 1920 – Denton Cooley, American heart surgeon
  • 1922 – Micheline Presle, French actress
  • 1925 – James Kirkwood, Jr., American playwright and author (d. 1989)
  • 1928 – Tinga Seisay, Sierra Leonean diplomat and pro-democracy advocate
  • 1928 – Karlheinz Stockhausen, German composer (d. 2007)
  • 1930 – Gilmar, Brazilian football player
  • 1932 – Gerald P. Carr, American astronaut
  • 1934 – Norman Schwarzkopf, U.S. general
  • 1934 – Sir Donald McIntyre, English bass-baritone
  • 1935 – E. Annie Proulx, American author
  • 1936 – Dale Hawkins, American singer and songwriter
  • 1938 – Paul Maguire, American football commentator
  • 1939 – George Reinholt, American actor
  • 1939 – Carl Yastrzemski, baseball player
  • 1940 – Valerie Harper, American actress
  • 1940 – Bill McCartney, former college football coach
  • 1941 – Bill Parcells, American football coach
  • 1942 – Ugur Mumcu, Turkish journalist and writer (d. 1993)
  • 1943 – Masatoshi Shima, Japanese computer scientist
  • 1945 – Ron Dante, American songwriter and record producer (The Archies)
  • 1945 – Erol Gelenbe, Turkish computer scientist and mathematician
  • 1947 – Cindy Williams, American actress
  • 1947 – Donna Godchaux, singer (Grateful Dead)
  • 1948 – Eleonora Brown, Italian actress
  • 1949 – Diana Nyad, American swimmer, world record holder
  • 1949 – Doug Bair, baseball player
  • 1949 – Þórarinn Eldjárn, an Icelandic writer
  • 1949 – Alfred Musema, Rwandan genocidaire
  • 1950 – Ray Burris, baseball player
  • 1952 – Peter Laughner, American singer and guitarist (Rocket From the Tombs, Pere Ubu) (d. 1977)
  • 1953 – Paul Ellering, American wrestling manager
  • 1955 – Will Shetterly, writer
  • 1955 – Chiranjeevi, Telugu film actor
  • 1956 – Paul Molitor, baseball player
  • 1957 – Steve Davis, English snooker player
  • 1958 – Colm Feore, American-born actor
  • 1958 – Lane Huffman, American professional wrestler
  • 1958 – Vernon Reid, American musician (Living Colour)
  • 1959 – Juan Croucier, American musician
  • 1959 – Pia Gjellerup, Danish politician
  • 1961 – Roland Orzabal, British musician (Tears for Fears)
  • 1961 – Debbi Peterson, American singer (The Bangles)
  • 1963 – Tori Amos, American singer/songwriter
  • 1963 – Terry Catledge, American basketball player
  • 1964 – Mats Wilander, Swedish tennis player
  • 1965 – Tom Gibis, American voice actor
  • 1966 – Eric Andolsek, American football player (d. 1992)
  • 1966 – GZA, American rapper
  • 1966 – Rob Witschge, Dutch footballer
  • 1967 – Layne Staley, American musician (Alice in Chains) (d. 2002)
  • 1967 – Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje, British actor
  • 1967 – Ant, American comedian
  • 1967 – Ty Burrell, American actor
  • 1967 – Alfred Gough, American screenwriter
  • 1967 – Yukiko Okada, Japanese singer (d. 1986)
  • 1968 – Paul Colman, Australian guitarist (Newsboys)
  • 1968 – Alexander Mostovoi, Russian footballer
  • 1968 – Horst Skoff, Austrian tennis player
  • 1968 – Rich Lowry, American magazine editor
  • 1970 – Charlie Connelly, English writer
  • 1970 – Giada De Laurentiis, Italian-born American chef and television host
  • 1971 – Richard Armitage, English actor
  • 1971 – Rick Yune, Korean American actor
  • 1972 – Steve Kline, American baseball player
  • 1972 – Okkert Brits, South African pole vaulter
  • 1972 – Max Wilson, Brazilian racing driver
  • 1973 – Kristen Wiig, American comedian
  • 1973 – Howie Dorough, American singer (Backstreet Boys)
  • 1974 – William Kucmierowski, American professional wrestler
  • 1974 – Agustín Pichot, Argentine rugby player
  • 1974 – Stefano Verderi, Italian guitarman
  • 1975 – Clint Bolton, Australian footballer
  • 1975 – Sheree Murphy, British actress
  • 1975 – Rodrigo Santoro, Brazilian actor
  • 1977 – Heiðar Helguson, Icelandic footballer
  • 1977 – Keren Cytter, Israeli visual artist
  • 1977 – Jenna Leigh Green, American actress
  • 1978 – Jeff Stinco, Canadian musician (Simple Plan)
  • 1980 – Christi Shake, American model and actress
  • 1980 – Roland Benschneider, German footballer
  • 1980 – Nicolas Macrozonaris, French-Canadian track-and-field athlete
  • 1981 – Alex Holmes, American football player
  • 1982 – Heather Campbell, Canadian writer
  • 1983 – Theo Bos, Dutch cyclist
  • 1983 – Laura Breckenridge, American actress

August 22 – Deaths:

  • 408 – Stilicho, Roman general (b. 359)
  • 1155 – Konoe, Emperor of Japan (b. 1139)
  • 1188 – Ferdinand II, King of Leon (b. 1137)
  • 1241 – Gregory IX, Italian religious leader, 178th Pope (b. c. 1143)
  • 1280 – Nicholas III, Italian religious leader, 188th Pope (b. c. 1216)
  • 1304 – John II, Count of Hainaut (b. 1247)
  • 1350 – Philip VI, King of France (b. 1293)
  • 1485 – Richard III, King of England (b. 1452)
  • 1553 – John Dudley, English admiral and politician (b. 1501)
  • 1572 – Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland (b. 1528)
  • 1584 – Jan Kochanowski, Polish writer (b. 1530)
  • 1599 – Beatrice Cenci, Italian noblewoman (b. 1577)
  • 1599 – Luca Marenzio, Italian composer (b. c. 1553)
  • 1607 – Bartholomew Gosnold, English explorer and privateer (b. 1572)
  • 1609 – Maharal of Prague, Jewish mystic and philosopher (b. 1525)
  • 1652 – Jacob De la Gardie, Swedish soldier and statesman (b. 1583)
  • 1680 – John George II, Elector of Saxony (b. 1613)
  • 1701 – John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath, English royalist statesman (b. 1628)
  • 1711 – Louis François, duc de Boufflers, French marshal (b. 1644)
  • 1752 – William Whiston, English mathematician (b. 1667)
  • 1773 – George Lyttelton, English writer and politician (b. 1709)
  • 1793 – Louis, 4th duc de Noailles, Marshal of France (b. 1713)
  • 1797 – Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser, Alsatian-born Austrian general (b. 1724)
  • 1806 – Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French artist (b. 1732)
  • 1818 – Warren Hastings, British Governor-General of India (b. 1732)
  • 1828 – Franz Joseph Gall, Austrian neuroscientist (b. 1758)
  • 1850 – Nikolaus Lenau, Austrian poet (b. 1802)
  • 1861 – Xianfeng, Emperor of China (b. 1831)
  • 1891 – Jan Neruda, Czech author (b. 1834)
  • 1903 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1830)
  • 1914 – Giacomo Radini-Tedeschi bishop of Bergamo
  • 1918 – Korbinian Brodmann, German neurologist (b. 1868)
  • 1922 – Michael Collins, Irish revolutionary (b. 1890)
  • 1926 – Charles W. Eliot, American President of Harvard University (b. 1834)
  • 1940 – Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge, English physicist, spiritualist, pioneer in wireless telegraphy (b. 1851)
  • 1942 – Michel Fokine, Russian choreographer and dancer (b. 1880)
  • 1950 – Kirk Bryan, American geologist (b. 1888)
  • 1953 – Jim Tabor, baseball player (b. 1916)
  • 1958 – Roger Martin du Gard, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1881)
  • 1965 – Ellen Church, First American airline stewardess (b. 1904)
  • 1967 – Gregory Goodwin Pincus, American endocrinologist (b. 1903)
  • 1970 – Vladimir Propp, Russian structuralist scholar (b. 1895)
  • 1973 – Louise Huff, American actress (b. 1895)
  • 1974 – Jacob Bronowski, Polish-English mathematician & TV presenter (b. 1908)
  • 1976 – Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, President of Brazil (b. 1902)
  • 1976 – Gina Bachauer, Greek pianist (b. 1913)
  • 1977 – Sebastian Cabot, English-born actor (b. 1918)
  • 1978 – Jomo Kenyatta, first President of Kenya (b. c. 1892)
  • 1979 – James T. Farrell, American novelist (b. 1904)
  • 1980 – James Smith McDonnell, American aircraft manufacturer (b. 1899)
  • 1980 – Alfred Neubauer, German racing team manager (Mercedes Benz) (b. 1891)
  • 1989 – Huey P. Newton, American activist (b. 1942)
  • 1991 – Colleen Dewhurst, Canadian actress (b. 1924)
  • 1994 – Gilles Groulx, French Canadian film director (b. 1931)
  • 2003 – Arnold Gerschwiler, Swiss-born figure skating trainer (b. 1914)
  • 2003 – Generosa Ammon, widow of Ted Ammon (b. 1956)
  • 2003 – Imperio Argentina, Argentinian singer and actress (b. 1906)
  • 2004 – Konstantin Aseev, Russian chess player (b. 1960)
  • 2004 – Daniel Petrie, Canadian-born television and movie director (b. 1920)
  • 2004 – Al Dvorin, American announcer on Elvis Presley’s shows (b. c.1923)
  • 2005 – Luc Ferrari, French composer (b. 1929)
  • 2006 – Bruce Gary, American rock drummer, producer (The Knack) (b. 1951)

August 22 – Holidays:

  • RC feasts – Mary Queen of angels, Immaculate Heart

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On This Day in History August 21

August 21-Events

  • 1192 – Minamoto Yoritomo becomes Seii Tai Shogun and the de facto ruler of Japan.
  • 1680 – Pueblo Indians capture Santa Fe from Spanish during the Pueblo Revolt.
  • 1689 – The Battle of Dunkeld in Scotland.
  • 1760 – The church (later cathedral) of “Our Lady of Candlemas of Mayagüez (Puerto Rico)” is founded, establishing the basis for the founding of the city.
  • 1770 – James Cook formally claims eastern Australia for Great Britain, naming it New South Wales.
  • 1772 – King Gustav III completes his coup d’etat by adopting a new Constitution, ending half a century of parliamentary rule in Sweden and installing him as an enlightened despot.
  • 1810 – Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, is elected Crown Prince of Sweden by the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates.
  • 1821 – Jarvis Island is discovered by the crew of the Eliza Frances.
  • 1831 – Nat Turner leads black slaves and free blacks in a rebellion.
  • 1841 – The Venetian blind is first patented in the United States by John Hampson.
  • 1842 – The city of Hobart, Tasmania, is founded.
  • 1852 – Tlingit Indians destroy Fort Selkirk, Yukon Territory.
  • 1856 – America’s first consul to Japan, Townsend Harris, arrives in Shimoda.
  • 1858 – The Lincoln-Douglas debates begin.
  • 1862 – The Vienna Stadtpark opens its gates.
  • 1863 – Lawrence, Kansas is destroyed by Confederate guerillas Quantrill’s Raiders in the Lawrence Massacre.
  • 1878 – The American Bar Association is founded.
  • 1879 – The Virgin Mary, along with St. Joseph and St. John the Evangelist reportedly appear to the people of Knock, County Mayo, Ireland.
  • 1888 – The first successful adding machine in the United States is patented by William Seward Burroughs.
  • 1911 – The Mona Lisa is stolen by a Louvre employee.
  • 1942 – World War II: The Battle of Stalingrad began.
  • 1942 – World War II: A Nazi flag is installed atop the Mount Elbrus.
  • 1942 – World War II: Allied forces involved in the Guadalcanal campaign defeated an attack by Imperial Japanese Army soldiers in the Battle of the Tenaru.
  • 1944 – Dumbarton Oaks Conference, prelude to the United Nations, begins.
  • 1959 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order proclaiming Hawaii the 50th state of the union.
  • 1963 – Xa Loi Pagoda raids: The Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces loyal to Ngo Dinh Nhu, brother of President Ngo Dinh Diem, vandalizes Buddhist pagodas across the country, arresting thousands and leaving an estimated hundreds dead.
  • 1968 – Soviet Union-dominated Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia, crushing the Prague Spring; on the same day, Nicolae Ceausescu, leader of Communist Romania, publicly condemns the Soviet maneuver, encouraging the Romanian population to arm itself against possible Soviet reprisals.
  • 1968 – James Anderson, Jr. posthumously receives the first Medal of Honor to be awarded to an African American U.S. Marine.
  • 1969 – An Australian, Michael Dennis Rohan, sets the Al-Aqsa Mosque on fire
  • 1971 – A bomb exploded in the Liberal Party campaign rally in Plaza Miranda, Manila, Philippines with several anti-Marcos political candidates injured.
  • 1976 – Operation Paul Bunyan at Panmunjeom, Korea.
  • 1983 – Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. was assassinated at the Manila International Airport (now renamed Ninoy Aquino International Airport).
  • 1986 – Carbon dioxide gas erupts from volcanic Lake Nyos in Cameroon, killing up to 1,800 people within a 20-kilometer range.
  • 1991 – Latvia declares renewal of its full independence after the occupation of Soviet Union.
  • 1991 – Coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev collapses.
  • 1993 – NASA loses contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft.
  • 2001 – NATO decides to send a peace-keeping force to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
  • 2001 – The Red Cross announces a famine is striking Tajikistan, and calls for international financial aid for Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
  • 2007 – Hurricane Dean makes its first landfall in Costa Maya, Mexico with winds at 165 mph. Dean is the first storm since Hurricane Andrew to make landfall as a Category 5.

August 21 – Birthdays:

  • 1165 – King Philip II of France (d. 1223)
  • 1535 – Shimazu Yoshihiro, Japanese samurai and warlord (d. 1619)
  • 1567 – Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva and saint (d. 1622)
  • 1597 – Roger Twysden, English antiquarian and royalist (d. 1672)
  • 1643 – King Afonso VI of Portugal (d. 1683)
  • 1660 – Hubert Gautier, French scientist and civil engineer (d. 1737)
  • 1665 – Giacomo F. Maraldi, French-Italian astronomer (d. 1729)
  • 1670 – James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, French military leader (d. 1734)
  • 1725 – Jean-Baptiste Greuze, French painter (d. 1805)
  • 1754 – William Murdoch, Scottish inventor (d. 1839)
  • 1754 – Banastre Tarleton, British soldier and politician (d. 1833)
  • 1765 – William IV of the United Kingdom (d. 1837)
  • 1789 – Augustin Louis Cauchy, French mathematician (d. 1857)
  • 1798 – Jules Michelet, French historian (d. 1874)
  • 1800 – Hiram Walden, American politician (d. 1880)
  • 1801 – Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer, Dutch politician (d. 1876)
  • 1813 – Jean Stas, Belgian chemist (d. 1891)
  • 1816 – Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, French chemist (d. 1856)
  • 1826 – Karl Gegenbaur, German anatomist (d. 1903)
  • 1872 – Aubrey Beardsley, English illustrator (d. 1898)
  • 1891 – Emiliano Mercado del Toro, World’s oldest living man 2004-2007 (d. 2007)
  • 1892 – Charles Vanel, French actor and director (d. 1989)
  • 1904 – William “Count” Basie, American bandleader (d. 1984)
  • 1906 – Friz Freleng, American movie animator (d. 1995)
  • 1908 – M. M. Kaye, British writer (d. 2004)
  • 1909 – Nikolay Bogolyubov, Russian mathematician (d. 1992)
  • 1912 – Toe Blake, National Hockey League player and coach (Montreal Canadiens) (d. 1995)
  • 1915 – Raquel Rastenni, Danish singer (d. 1998)
  • 1918 – Billy Reay, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2004)
  • 1920 – Christopher Robin Milne, inspiration for the Winnie-the-Pooh stories (d. 1996)
  • 1924 – Jack Buck, American sports announcer (d. 2002)
  • 1924 – Chris Schenkel, American sports journalist (d. 2005)
  • 1924 – Jack Weston, American actor (d. 1996)
  • 1925 – Maurice Pialat, French actor and director (d. 2003)
  • 1925 – Jorge Rafael Videla, ex-dictator of Argentina
  • 1928 – Art Farmer, American trumpet player (d. 1999)
  • 1929 – X. J. Kennedy, American poet
  • 1930 – Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (d. 2002)
  • 1930 – Frank Perry, American film director (d. 1995)
  • 1932 – Melvin Van Peebles, American actor and screenwriter
  • 1933 – Janet Baker, English mezzo-soprano
  • 1934 – Paul Panhuysen, Dutch composer, visual and sound artist
  • 1936 – Wilt Chamberlain, American basketball player (d. 1999)
  • 1936 – Radish Tordia, Painter Of Figurative Art From Georgia
  • 1938 – Kenny Rogers, American singer and actor
  • 1937 – Robert Stone, American novelist
  • 1939 – James Burton, American guitarist
  • 1939 – Clarence Williams III, American actor
  • 1939 – Festus Mogae, president of Botswana
  • 1943 – Hugh Wilson, American director, writer and actor
  • 1944 – Jackie DeShannon, American singer
  • 1944 – Peter Weir, Australian film director
  • 1944 – Perry Christie, former prime minister of the Bahamas
  • 1945 – Jerry DaVanon, baseball player
  • 1945 – Basil Poledouris, American film score composer (d. 2006)
  • 1949 – Loretta Devine, American actress
  • 1950 – Patrick Juvet, Swiss singer
  • 1951 – Eric Goles, Chilean mathematician and computer scientist
  • 1951 – Char Margolis, American medium
  • 1951 – Harry Smith, American television journalist
  • 1951 – Margo Kane, Canadian playwright.
  • 1952 – Joe Strummer, British musician and singer (The Clash) (d. 2002)
  • 1952 – Glenn Hughes, British bassist and vocalist (Finders Keepers/Trapeze/Deep Purple)
  • 1954 – Archie Griffin, former American football player and only two-time Heisman Trophy winner.
  • 1954 – Ivan Stang, American writer
  • 1956 – Kim Cattrall, English-born actress
  • 1959 – Jim McMahon, American football player
  • 1961 – David Morales, American disc jockey
  • 1961 – Stephen Hillenburg, American animator and cartoonist
  • 1962 – Jeff Stryker, American actor
  • 1963 – King Mohammed VI of Morocco
  • 1963 – Richmond Arquette, American actor
  • 1964 – Trinity Loren, American actress and model (d. 1998)
  • 1965 – Jim Bullinger, American baseball player
  • 1966 – John Wetteland, Major League Baseball player
  • 1967 – Carrie-Anne Moss, Canadian actress
  • 1967 – Serj Tankian, Armenian-born singer (System of a Down)
  • 1967 – Darren Bewick, AFL footballer
  • 1969 – Josée Chouinard, Canadian figure skater
  • 1970 – Nathan Jones, American professional wrestler
  • 1970 – Erik Dekker, Dutch cyclist
  • 1971 – Liam Howlett, British musician (The Prodigy)
  • 1971 – Matthew Noonan, American Concert Organist
  • 1971 – Robert Harvey, Australian Rules Footballer (St Kilda Football Club)
  • 1973 – Steve McKenna, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1973 – Sergey Brin, Co-founder of Google
  • 1975 – Alicia Witt, American actress
  • 1975 – Simon Katich, Australian cricketer
  • 1976 – Alex Brooks, American ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Jeff Cunningham, Jamaican American soccer player
  • 1978 – Reuben Droughns, American football player
  • 1978 – Jason Marquis, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Alan Lee, Irish footballer
  • 1978 – Lee Gronkiewicz, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Peter Buxton, English rugby union player
  • 1979 – Kelis Rogers-Jones, American singer
  • 1980 – Burney Lamar, American race car driver
  • 1981 – Andreas Glyniadakis, Greek basketball player
  • 1983 – Josh Harrington, American professional BMX rider
  • 1983 – Chantelle Houghton, British TV personality
  • 1983 – Scott McDonald, Australian footballer
  • 1984 – Neil Dexter, South African cricketer
  • 1984 – Alizée Jacotey, French singer
  • 1984 – Melissa Schuman, American actress
  • 1984 – B.J. Upton, American baseball player
  • 1988 – Louise Setara, English singer-songwriter
  • 1988 – Paris Bennett, American singer and finalist on American Idol 5
  • 1989 – Hayden Panettiere, American actress, model and singer
  • 1996 – Jamia Simone Nash, American singer and actress

August 21 – Deaths:

  • 1157 – King Alfonso VII of Castile (b. 1104/1105)
  • 1153 – Bernard of Clairvaux, French theologian (b. 1090)
  • 1271 – Alphonse of Toulouse, son of Louis VIII of France (b. 1220)
  • 1581 – Sakuma Nobumori, Japanese retainer and samurai (b. 1527)
  • 1614 – Elizabeth Báthory, the world’s most prolific female serial killer (b. 1560)
  • 1627 – Jacques Mauduit, French composer (b. 1557)
  • 1673 – Henry Grey, 1st Earl of Stamford, English soldier
  • 1689 – William Cleland, Scottish poet and soldier
  • 1762 – Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, English writer (b. 1689)
  • 1763 – Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont, British statesman (b. 1710)
  • 1796 – John McKinly, American physician and President of Delaware (b. 1721)
  • 1814 – Benjamin Thompson, American physicist and inventor (b. 1753)
  • 1836 – Claude-Louis Navier, French physicist (b. 1785)
  • 1838 – Adelbert von Chamisso, German writer (b. 1781)
  • 1935 – John Hartley, English tennis player, double winner of Wimbledon (b. 1849)
  • 1940 – Leon Trotsky, Russian revolutionary (b. 1879)
  • 1940 – Ernest Lawrence Thayer, American poet (b. 1863)
  • 1940 – Hermann Obrecht, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1882)
  • 1943 – Henrik Pontoppidan, Danish writer, Nobel Prize (b. 1857)
  • 1947 – Ettore Bugatti, Italian automobile manufacturer (b. 1881)
  • 1951 – Constant Lambert, British composer and conductor (b. 1905)
  • 1957 – Harald Ulrik Sverdrup, Norwegian meteorologist and oceanographer (b. 1888)
  • 1957 – Nels Stewart, professional ice hockey player (b. 1902)
  • 1960 – David Barnard Steinman, American civil engineer and bridge designer (b. 1886)
  • 1964 – Palmiro Togliatti, Italian communist leader (b. 1893)
  • 1978 – Charles Eames, American designer and architect (b. 1907)
  • 1979 – Giuseppe Meazza, Italian footballer (b. 1910)
  • 1981 – Michael Devine, the last man to die in the 1981 Irish hunger strike (b. 1954)
  • 1982 – Sobhuza II, King of Swaziland (b. 1899)
  • 1983 – Benigno Aquino, Jr., Philippine opposition leader (b. 1932)
  • 1988 – Ray Eames, American designer, artist and architect (b. 1912)
  • 1989 – Raul Seixas, Brazilian singer (b. 1945)
  • 1995 – Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Indian-born astrophysicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1910)
  • 1997 – Yuri Nikulin, Russian clown and actor (b. 1921)
  • 2000 – Daniel Lisulo, Prime Minister of Zambia (b. 1930)
  • 2001 – Calum MacKay, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1927)
  • 2003 – Kathy Wilkes, English philosopher and aid worker (b. 1946)
  • 2003 – Wesley Willis, American musician (b. 1963)
  • 2005 – Marcus Schmuck, Austrian mountaineer (b. 1925)
  • 2005 – Robert Moog, American pioneer of electronic music (b. 1934)
  • 2005 – Dahlia Ravikovitch, Israeli poet (b. 1936)
  • 2005 – Martin Dillon, tenor, American opera singer (b. 1957)
  • 2006 – Paul Fentener van Vlissingen, Dutch businessman and philanthropist (b. 1941)
  • 2006 – Ustad Bismillah Khan, Indian musician (b. 1916)
  • 2007 – Siobhan Dowd, British/Irish writer (b. 1960)
  • 2007 – Elizabeth P. Hoisington, American Brigadier General (b. 1918)
  • 2007 – Haley Paige, American pornographic actress (b. 1981)

August 21 – Holidays:

  • Ninoy Aquino Day – special holiday in the Philippines.

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On This Day in History August 20

August 20 – Events:

  • 636 – Battle of Yarmuk: Arab forces led by Khalid bin Walid take control of Syria and Palestine away from the Byzantine Empire, marking the first great wave of Muslim conquests and the rapid advance of Islam outside Arabia.
  • 917 – Battle of Anchialus: Tsar Simeon I of Bulgaria invades Thrace and drives the Byzantines out.
  • 1000 – The foundation of the Hungarian state, Hungary is established as a Christian kingdom by Stephen I of Hungary.
  • 1391 – Konrad von Wallenrode becomes the 24th Hochmeister of the Teutonic Order.
  • 1672 – Former Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt and his brother Cornelis were brutally murdered by an angry mob in The Hague.
  • 1794 – Battle of Fallen Timbers – American troops force a confederacy of Shawnee, Mingo, Delaware, Wyandot, Miami, Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi warriors into a disorganized retreat.
  • 1804 – Lewis and Clark Expedition: The “Corps of Discovery,” exploring the Louisiana Purchase, suffers its only death when Sergeant Charles Floyd dies, apparently from acute appendicitis.
  • 1866 – President Andrew Johnson formally declared the U.S. Civil War over.
  • 1882 – Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture debuts in Moscow.
  • 1888 – Mutineers imprison Emin Pasha at Dufile.
  • 1900 – Japan’s primary school law is amended to provide for four years of mandatory schooling.
  • 1914 – World War I: German forces occupy Brussels.
  • 1920 – The first commercial radio station, 8MK (WWJ), begins operations in Detroit, Michigan.
  • 1926 – Japan’s public broadcasting company, Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) is established.
  • 1938 – Lou Gehrig hits his 23rd career grand slam – a record that still stands.
  • 1940 – Exiled Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky is fatally wounded in Mexico City by an assassin’s ice axe. He dies the next day.
  • 1944 – World War II: The Battle of Romania begins with a major Soviet offensive.
  • 1953 – The Soviet Union publicly acknowledged it had tested a hydrogen bomb.
  • 1955 – In Morocco, a force of Berbers from the Atlas Mountains region of Algeria raid two rural settlements and kill 77 French nationals.
  • 1960 – Senegal breaks from the Mali federation, declaring independence.
  • 1968 – 200,000 Warsaw Pact troops and 5,000 tanks invade Czechoslovakia to end the “Prague Spring” of political liberalization.
  • 1969 – All four Beatles were together in the recording studio for the final time as they finished the Abbey Road LP.
  • 1974 – Congress votes to reduce aid to South Vietnam from $1 Billion to $700 Million. Majority of the cuts were for military supplies.
  • 1975 – Viking Program: NASA launches the Viking 1 planetary probe toward Mars.
  • 1977 – Voyager Program: The United States launches the Voyager 2 spacecraft.
  • 1979 – The East Coast Main Line rail route between England and Scotland is restored when the Penmanshiel Diversion opens.
  • 1982 – Lebanese Civil War: A multinational force lands in Beirut to oversee the PLO withdrawal from Lebanon.
  • 1986 – In Edmond, Oklahoma, U.S. Postal employee Patrick Sherrill guns down 14 of his co-workers and then commits suicide.
  • 1988 – “Black Saturday” of the Yellowstone fire in Yellowstone National Park
  • 1988 – Peru becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.
  • 1988 – Iran-Iraq War: A cease-fire is agreed to after almost eight years of war.
  • 1991 – Collapse of the Soviet Union, August Coup: More than 100,000 people rally outside the Soviet Union’s parliament building protesting the coup aiming to depose President Mikhail
  • 1991 – Estonia secedes from the Soviet Union.
  • 1993 – After rounds of secret negotiations in Norway, the Oslo Peace Accords were signed, followed by a public ceremony in Washington, D.C. the next month.
  • 1997 – Souhane massacre in Algeria; over 60 people killed, 15 kidnapped.
  • 1998 – The Supreme Court of Canada states Quebec cannot legally secede from Canada without the federal government’s approval.
  • 2002 – A group of Iraqis opposed to the regime of Saddam Hussein took over the Iraqi Embassy in Berlin for five hours before releasing their hostages and giving up.

August 20 – Birthdays:

  • 1517 – Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, French church leader (d. 1586)
  • 1561 – Jacopo Peri, Italian composer (d. 1633)
  • 1625 – Thomas Corneille, French dramatist (d. 1709)
  • 1632 – Louis Bourdaloue, French Jesuit preacher (d. 1704)
  • 1710 – Thomas Simpson, British mathematician (d. 1761)
  • 1719 – Christian Mayer, Czech astronomer (d. 1783)
  • 1719 – Charles-François de Broglie, marquis de Ruffec, French soldier and diplomat (d. 1791)
  • 1776 – Bernardo O’Higgins, South American revolutionary (d. 1842)
  • 1779 – Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Swedish chemist (d. 1848)
  • 1833 – Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President of the United States (d. 1901)
  • 1845 – St. Albert Chmielowski, Polish Catholic Saint (d. 1916)
  • 1847 – Boleslaw Prus, Polish writer (d. 1912)
  • 1856 – Jakub Bart-Cišinski, Sorbian writer (d. 1909)
  • 1860 – Raymond Poincaré, French statesman (d. 1934)
  • 1873 – Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen, Finnish architect (d. 1950)
  • 1881 – Edgar Guest, English poet (d. 1959)
  • 1890 – H. P. Lovecraft, American writer (d. 1937)
  • 1897 – Tarjei Vesaas, Norwegian writer (d. 1970)
  • 1898 – Vilhelm Moberg, Swedish author and historian (d. 1973)
  • 1901 – Salvatore Quasimodo, Italian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1968)
  • 1905 – Jean Gebser, German-born author, linguist, and poet (d. 1973)
  • 1905 – Jack Teagarden, American musician (d. 1964)
  • 1908 – Al Lopez, baseball player and manager (d. 2005)
  • 1910 – Eero Saarinen, Finnish architect (d. 1961)
  • 1913 – Roger Wolcott Sperry, American neurobiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1994)
  • 1916 – Paul Felix Schmidt, Estonian–German chess player (d. 1984)
  • 1918 – Jacqueline Susann, American novelist (d. 1974)
  • 1923 – Jim Reeves, American singer (d. 1964)
  • 1926 – Nobby Wirkowski, American and Canadian football player and coach
  • 1927 – Geriatric1927, English video blogger
  • 1927 – Yootha Joyce, English actress (d. 1980)
  • 1930 – Mario Bernardi, Canadian conductor
  • 1932 – Anthony Ainley, British actor (d. 2004)
  • 1932 – Vasily Aksyonov, Russian novelist
  • 1933 – George J. Mitchell, former United States Senator
  • 1934 – Armi Kuusela, Finnish beauty queen
  • 1936 – Hideki Shirakawa, Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1937 – Andrei Konchalovsky, Russian film director
  • 1937 – El Fary, Spanish singer and actor (d. 2007)
  • 1937 – Jim Bowen, English comedian
  • 1938 – Alain Vivien, French politician
  • 1939 – Fernando Poe Jr., Filipino actor and presidential candidate (d. 2004)
  • 1940 – Rubén Hinojosa, American politician
  • 1941 – Slobodan Miloševic, President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia (d. 2006)
  • 1941 – Rich Brooks, American football coach
  • 1941 – Robin Oakley, British journalist
  • 1941 – Jo Ramirez, Mexican motor racing team manager and author
  • 1942 – Isaac Hayes, American singer, songwriter, and actor
  • 1942 – Fred Norman, American baseball player
  • 1943 – Sylvester McCoy, Scottish actor
  • 1944 – Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (d. 1991)
  • 1946 – Connie Chung, American journalist
  • 1946 – Ralf Hütter, German musician (Kraftwerk)
  • 1946 – N.R. Narayana Murthy, Indian businessman
  • 1947 – Alan Lee, English conceptual artist
  • 1948 – Robert Plant, English singer (Led Zeppelin)
  • 1948 – John Noble, Australian actor
  • 1949 – Phil Lynott, Irish musician (d. 1986)
  • 1949 – Nikolas Asimos, Greek composer and singer (d. 1988)
  • 1951 – Greg Bear, American author
  • 1952 – John Hiatt, American musician
  • 1952 – Doug Fieger, American musician (The Knack)
  • 1954 – Tawn Mastrey, American disc jockey, music video producer (d. 2007)
  • 1954 – Al Roker, American television broadcaster
  • 1954 – Don Stark, American actor
  • 1955 – Agnes Chan, Hong Kong singer and writer
  • 1956 – Joan Allen, American actress
  • 1957 – Finlay Calder, Scottish rugby player
  • 1961 – Greg Egan, Australian author
  • 1961 – Joe Pasquale, English comedian
  • 1962 – Sophie Aldred, English actress
  • 1962 – James Marsters, American actor
  • 1962 – Dong-Wook Song, South Korean tennis player
  • 1965 – KRS-One, American rapper
  • 1966 – Dimebag Darrell, American guitarist (Pantera and Damageplan) (d. 2004)
  • 1967 – Andy Benes, baseball player
  • 1967 – Colin Cunningham, American actor
  • 1967 – Terri Poch, American yogini and former professonal wrestler
  • 1968 – Klas Ingesson, former Swedish footballer
  • 1968 – Yuri Shiratori, Japanese voice actress and singer
  • 1969 – Duke Droese, American professional wrestler
  • 1970 – John D. Carmack, American computer game programmer
  • 1970 – Fred Durst, American singer (Limp Bizkit)
  • 1971 – Brad Avery, American musician (guitarist for Third Day)
  • 1971 – Jonathan Ke Quan, Vietnamese American actor
  • 1971 – Steve Stone, English footballer
  • 1971 – David Walliams, British comedian
  • 1973 – Todd Helton, baseball player
  • 1974 – Amy Adams, American actress
  • 1974 – Big Moe, American rapper (d. 2007)
  • 1974 – Maxim Vengerov, Russian violinist
  • 1975 – Marcus Mastin, American author
  • 1975 – Andy Strachan, Australian musician (The Living End)
  • 1976 – Chris Drury, American hockey player
  • 1977 – Felipe Contepomi, Argentine rugby player
  • 1977 – Manuel Contepomi, Argentine rugby player
  • 1977 – Ivar Ingimarsson, Icelandic footballer
  • 1977 – Mayra Veronica, Cuban model and actress
  • 1979 – Cory Sullivan, baseball player
  • 1980 – Rochelle Gadd, British actress
  • 1980 – Corey Carrier, American actor
  • 1981 – Bernard Mendy, French footballer
  • 1982 – Joshua Kennedy, Australian footballer
  • 1982 – Youssouf Hersi, Ethiopian footballer
  • 1982 – Cléber Luis Alberti, Brazilian footballer
  • 1984 – Mirai Moriyama, Japanese actor
  • 1986 – Robert Clark, Canadian actor
  • 1987 – Catalina Ponor, Romanian gymnast
  • 2003 – Prince Gabriel of Belgium

August 20 – Deaths:

  • 535 – Mochta of Louth, disciple of St. Patrick
  • 984 – Pope John XIV
  • 1384 – Geert Groote, Dutch founder of the Brethren of the Common Life (b. 1340)
  • 1572 – Miguel López de Legazpi, Spanish conquistador (b. 1502)
  • 1580 – Jeronymo Osorio, Portuguese historian (b. 1506)
  • 1611 – Tomás Luis de Victoria, Spanish composer (b. 1548)
  • 1639 – Martin Opitz von Boberfeld, German poet (b. 1597)
  • 1643 – Anne Hutchinson, English Puritan preacher (b. 1591)
  • 1648 – Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, English diplomat, poet, and philosopher (b. 1583)
  • 1672 – Johan de Witt, Dutch politician (b. 1625)
  • 1672 – Cornelis de Witt, Dutch politician (b. 1623)
  • 1680 – William Bedloe, English informer (b. 1650)
  • 1701 – Charles Sedley, English playwright (b. 1639)
  • 1707 – Nicolas Gigault, French organist and composer (b. 1627)
  • 1773 – Enrique Florez, Spanish historian (b. 1701)
  • 1811 – Louis Antoine de Bougainville, French explorer (b. 1729)
  • 1823 – Pope Pius VII (b. 1740)
  • 1825 – William Waldegrave, 1st Baron Radstock, Governor of Newfoundland (b. 1753)
  • 1887 – Jules Laforgue, French poet (b. 1860)
  • 1904 – René Waldeck-Rousseau, French statesman (b. 1846)
  • 1912 – William Booth, English founder of the Salvation Army (b. 1829)
  • 1914 – Pope Pius X (b. 1835)
  • 1915 – Paul Ehrlich, German scientist, Nobel laureate (b. 1854)
  • 1917 – Adolf von Baeyer, German chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 1835)
  • 1959 – William Halsey, Jr, American admiral (b. 1882)
  • 1930 – Charles Bannerman, Australian cricketer (b. 1851)
  • 1961 – Percy Williams Bridgman, American physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1882)
  • 1965 – Jonathan Myrick Daniels, Civil Rights Martyr (b. 1939)
  • 1971 – Rashid Minhas, Pakistani Air Force pilot (b. 1951)
  • 1980 – Joe Dassin, American singer (b. 1938)
  • 1982 – Ulla Jacobsson, Swedish actress (b. 1929)
  • 1986 – Milton Acorn, Canadian poet (b. 1923)
  • 1989 – George Adamson, India-born English game warden and lion expert (b. 1906)
  • 1993 – Bernard Delfgaauw, Dutch philosopher (b. 1912)
  • 1997 – Norris Bradbury, American physicist (b. 1909)
  • 1997 – Léon Dion, French-Canadian political scientist (b. 1922)
  • 1998 – Raquel Rastenni, Danish singer (b. 1915)
  • 2001 – Sir Fred Hoyle, English astronomer and science fiction writer (b. 1915)
  • 2001 – Kim Stanley, American actress (b. 1925)
  • 2005 – Thomas Herrion, American football player (b. 1981)
  • 2005 – Krzysztof Raczkowski, Polish drummer (b. 1970)
  • 2006 – Claude Blanchard, French-Canadian singer, comedian and actor (b. 1932)
  • 2006 – Joe Rosenthal, American photographer (b. 1911)
  • 2006 – Cpl Bryan Budd VC, British soldier (Afghanistan) (b. 1977)
  • 2007 – Leona Helmsley, American hotel operator and real estate investor (b. 1920)

August 20 – Holidays:

  • World Union – World Union Day.
  • Roman Catholic saints – Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
  • Hungary – St. Stephen’s day, the main national holiday in Hungary.

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On This Day In History August 19

August 19 – Events:

  • 43 BC – Octavian, later known as Augustus, compels the senate to elect him Consul.
  • 1504 – Battle of Knockdoe.
  • 1561 – An 18-year-old Mary Queen of Scots returns to Scotland, after spending 13 years in France.
  • 1692 – Salem witch trials: In Salem, Massachusetts, Province of Massachusetts Bay five people, one woman and four men, including a clergyman, are executed after being convicted of witchcraft.
  • 1745 – Jacobite Rising, Prince Charles Edward Stuart lands from a French warship in Glenfinnan, raises his standard and marches on London – the start of the Second Jacobite Rebellion known as “the 45.”
  • 1768 – Saint Isaac’s Cathedral is founded in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
  • 1782 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Blue Licks – The last major engagement of the war, almost ten months after the surrender of the British commander Lord Cornwallis following the Siege of Yorktown.
  • 1812 – War of 1812: American frigate USS Constitution defeats the British frigate HMS Guerrière off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada earning her nickname “Old Ironsides.”
  • 1813 – Gervasio Antonio de Posadas joins Argentina’s second triumvirate.
  • 1839 – Presentation of Jacque Daguerre’s new photographic process to the French Academy of Sciences.
  • 1848 – California Gold Rush: The New York Herald breaks the news to the East Coast of the United States of the gold rush in California (although the rush started in January).
  • 1862 – Indian Wars: During an uprising in Minnesota, Lakota warriors decide not to attack heavily-defended Fort Ridgely and instead turn to the settlement of New Ulm, killing white settlers along the way.
  • 1895 – American frontier murderer and outlaw, John Wesley Hardin, is killed by an off-duty policeman in a saloon in El Paso, Texas.
  • 1915 – World War I: The Battle of Van begins
  • 1919 – Afghanistan gains full independence from the United Kingdom.
  • 1927 – Metropolitan Sergius proclaimed the declaration of loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet state.
  • 1934 – The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio.
  • 1934 – The creation of the position Führer approved by the German electorate with 89.9% of the popular vote.
  • 1942 – World War II: Operation Jubilee – The 2nd Canadian Infantry Division leads an allied forces amphibious assault on Dieppe, France.
  • 1944 – World War II: Liberation of Paris – Paris rises against German occupation with the help of Allied troops.
  • 1945 – Vietnam War: Viet Minh led by Ho Chi Minh take power in Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • 1955 – In the Northeast United States, severe flooding caused by Hurricane Diane, claims 200 lives.
  • 1960 – Cold War: In Moscow, downed American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to ten years imprisonment by the Soviet Union for espionage.
  • 1960 – Sputnik program: Sputnik 5 – The Soviet Union launches the satellite with the dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants.
  • 1965 – Japanese prime minister Eisaku Sato becomes the first post-World War II sitting prime minister to visit Okinawa.
  • 1975 – The cricket test match between England and Australia is called off after the pitch is vandalized by supporters of George Davis.
  • 1980 – Saudia Flight 163, a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar burns after making an emergency landing at King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, killing 301 people.
  • 1981 – Gulf of Sidra Incident: United States fighters intercept and shoot down two Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 fighter jets over the Gulf of Sidra.
  • 1987 – Hungerford Massacre: In the United Kingdom, Michael Ryan kills sixteen people with an assault rifle and then commits suicide.
  • 1989 – Polish president Wojciech Jaruzelski nominates Solidarity activist Tadeusz Mazowiecki to be the first non-communist Prime Minister in 42 years.
  • 1989 – Raid on offshore pirate station, Radio Caroline in North Sea by British and Dutch governments.
  • 1990 – Leonard Bernstein conducts his final concert, ending with Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 7.
  • 1991 – Collapse of the Soviet Union, August Coup: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev placed under house arrest while on holiday in the town of Foros, Crimea.
  • 1991 – Hurricane Bob hits the Northeast.
  • 1997 – The Teamsters end their 15-day walkout against United Parcel Service.
  • 1999 – In Belgrade, tens of thousands of Serbians rally to demand the resignation of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia President Slobodan Miloševic.
  • 2002 – A Russian Mi-26 helicopter carrying troops is hit by a Chechen missile outside of Grozny, killing 118 soldiers.
  • 2003 – A car-bomb attack on United Nations headquarters in Iraq kills the agency’s top envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello and 21 other employees.
  • 2003 – A Hamas planned suicide attack on a bus in Jerusalem kills 23 Israelis, 7 of them children in the Jerusalem bus 2 massacre.
  • 2005 – The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins.
  • 2005 – A series of strong storms lash Southern Ontario spawning several tornadoes as well as creating extreme flash flooding within the city of Toronto and its surrounding communities.

August 19 – Birthdays:

  • 1342 – Katharine of Bohemia, Duchess of Bavaria (d. 1395)
  • 1398 – Marqués de Santillana, Spanish poet (d. 1458)
  • 1557 – Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1608)
  • 1590 – Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, English soldier (d. 1649)
  • 1596 – Elizabeth Stuart, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (d. 1662)
  • 1621 – Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Dutch painter (d. 1674)
  • 1631 – John Dryden, English poet (d. 1700)
  • 1646 – John Flamsteed, English astronomer (d. 1719)
  • 1686 – Eustace Budgell, English writer (d. 1737)
  • 1686 – Nicola Porpora, Italian composer (d. 1768)
  • 1689 – Samuel Richardson, English writer (d. 1761)
  • 1711 – Edward Boscawen, British admiral (d. 1761)
  • 1743 – Madame du Barry, French courtesan (d. 1793)
  • 1846 – Luis Martín, Spanish Superior-General of the Society of Jesus (d. 1906)
  • 1853 – Aleksei Brusilov, Russian general (d. 1926)
  • 1870 – Bernard Baruch, American financier (d. 1965)
  • 1871 – Orville Wright, American aviation pioneer (d. 1948)
  • 1875 – Stjepan Seljan, Croatian explorer (d. 1936)
  • 1878 – Manuel Quezon, President of the Philippines (d. 1944)
  • 1881 – George Enescu, Romanian composer (d. 1955)
  • 1883 – José Mendes Cabeçadas, 95 Prime Minister of Portugal and 9 President of Portugal (d. 1965)
  • 1883 – Coco Chanel, French clothing designer (d. 1971)
  • 1883 – Elsie Ferguson, American film actress (d. 1961)
  • 1892 – Alfred Lunt, American actor (d. 1977)
  • 1896 – Olga Baclanova, Russian-born actress (d. 1974)
  • 1899 – Charlie Hall, English comedian actor (d. 1959)
  • 1900 – Gilbert Ryle, British philosopher (d. 1976)
  • 1902 – Ogden Nash, American poet (d. 1971)
  • 1903 – James Gould Cozzens, American novelist (d. 1978)
  • 1906 – Philo Farnsworth, American inventor (d. 1971)
  • 1907 – Thruston B. Morton, American politician (d. 1982)
  • 1912 – Austin Dobson, British racing driver (d. 1963)
  • 1913 – Richard Simmons, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1913 – John Argyris, Greek aeronautical engineer, one of the creators of the Finite Element Method (d. 2004)
  • 1914 – Lajos Baróti, Hungarian footballer (d. 2005)
  • 1915 – Ring Lardner Jr, American journalist and screenwriter (d. 2000)
  • 1915 – Alfred Rouleau, French Canadian businessman and administrator (Desjardins Group) (d. 1985)
  • 1919 – Malcolm Forbes, American publisher (d. 1990)
  • 1921 – Gene Roddenberry, American television producer (d. 1991)
  • 1925 – Claude Gauvreau, Canadian playwright (d. 1971)
  • 1926 – Arthur Rock, American venture capitalist
  • 1928 – Bernard Levin, English journalist, author, and broadcaster (d. 2004)
  • 1928 – Norman Brooks, Canadian singer (d. 2006)
  • 1930 – Frank McCourt, Irish-American author
  • 1931 – Willie Shoemaker, American jockey (d. 2003)
  • 1934 – Renee Richards, American physician
  • 1935 – Bobby Richardson, American baseball player
  • 1938 – Diana Muldaur, American actress
  • 1939 – Ginger Baker, English drummer (Cream)
  • 1940 – Johnny Nash, American singer-songwriter
  • 1940 – Jill St. John, American actress
  • 1942 – Fred Thompson, American politician and actor
  • 1943 – Billy J. Kramer, British singer
  • 1944 – Bodil Malmsten, Swedish writer
  • 1944 – Charles Wang, Chinese-born philanthropist
  • 1945 – Ian Gillan, English singer (Deep Purple)
  • 1946 – Bill Clinton, Former American president
  • 1946 – Beat Raaflaub, Swiss conductor
  • 1946 – Dawn Steel, American film producer (d. 1997)
  • 1947 – Dave Dutton, English actor
  • 1947 – Terry Hoeppner, American football coach (d. 2007)
  • 1947 – Gerard Schwarz, American conductor
  • 1948 – Gerald McRaney, American actor
  • 1948 – Tipper Gore, Second Lady of the United States
  • 1950 – Jennie Bond, British journalist
  • 1951 – John Deacon, English musician (Queen)
  • 1952 – Jonathan Frakes, American actor and director
  • 1953 – Nanni Moretti, Italian film actor, director and producer
  • 1953 – Mary Matalin, US political consultant and commentator
  • 1954 – Oscar Larrauri, Argentine racing driver
  • 1955 – Peter Gallagher, American actor
  • 1955 – Ned Yost, American baseball player and manager
  • 1956 – Adam Arkin, American actor
  • 1957 – Li-Young Lee, Indonesia-born American poet
  • 1958 – Anthony Muñoz, American football player
  • 1958 – Gary Gaetti, American baseball player
  • 1958 – Brendan Nelson, Australian politician
  • 1959 – Susan Cummings, Monegasque-born American heiress and convicted murderer
  • 1960 – Morten Andersen, American football player
  • 1960 – Antonio Banderas, Spanish actor
  • 1961 – Jonathan Coe, British author
  • 1962 – Tammy Bruce, American political commentator
  • 1962 – Valérie Kaprisky, French actress
  • 1963 – John Stamos, American actor
  • 1963 – Yip Sai Wing, Hong Kong musician (Beyond)
  • 1963 – Joey Tempest, Swedish singer (Europe)
  • 1964 – Whitney Prescott, American model
  • 1965 – Kyra Sedgwick, American actress
  • 1965 – Kevin Dillon, American actor
  • 1965 – Maria de Medeiros, Portuguese actress and director
  • 1966 – Lee Ann Womack, American musician
  • 1968 – Nikolaos Kaklamanakis, Greek windsurfer
  • 1969 – Nate Dogg, American rapper
  • 1969 – Kirk Herbstreit, American football analyst (College GameDay)
  • 1969 – Emigdio Preciado, Hispanic fugitive on FBI’s Most Wanted list
  • 1969 – Paula Jai Parker, American actress
  • 1969 – Matthew Perry, American actor
  • 1969 – Kazuyoshi Tatsunami, Japanese baseball player
  • 1969 – Patrick Van Horn, American actor
  • 1969 – Clay Walker, American singer
  • 1970 – Fat Joe, American rapper
  • 1971 – João Vieira Pinto, Portuguese football player
  • 1972 – Roberto Abbondanzieri, Argentine footballer
  • 1972 – Sammi Cheng Sau Man, Hong Kong singer and actress
  • 1972 – Chihiro Yonekura, Japanese singer
  • 1973 – Mette-Marit, Crown Princess of Norway
  • 1973 – Callum Blue, British actor
  • 1973 – Marco Materazzi, Italian footballer
  • 1973 – Lilian Garcia, wrestling announcer
  • 1975 – Tracie Thoms, American actress
  • 1977 – Iban Mayo, Spanish cyclist
  • 1978 – Chris Capuano, American baseball player
  • 1979 – Dave Douglas, American musician (Relient K)
  • 1979 – Oumar Kondé, Swiss footballer
  • 1980 – Jun Jin, Korean rapper (Shinhwa)
  • 1980 – Darius Danesh, Scottish singer-songwriter & actor
  • 1980 – Paul Parry, Welsh footballer
  • 1982 – Erika Christensen, American actress
  • 1982 – J. J. Hardy, American baseball player
  • 1983 – Missy Higgins, Australian singer-songwriter
  • 1983 – John McCargo, American football player
  • 1983 – Tammin Sursok, Australian actress & singer
  • 1983 – Mike Conway, British racing driver
  • 1984 – Micah Alberti, American actor
  • 1984 – Alessandro Matri, Italian footballer
  • 1984 – Alex Khadivi, French philosopher, drinker, and all-round good guy
  • 1984 – Ryan Taylor, English footballer
  • 1985 – Megan Rochell, American singer
  • 1986 – Saori Kimura, Japanese volleyball player
  • 1987 – Anaïs Lameche, Swedish singer (Play)
  • 1987 – Ileana D’Cruz, Indian actress
  • 1987 – Richard Stearman, English footballer
  • 1987 – William Blake, Famous mathematician
  • 1988 – Travis Tedford, American actor
  • 1989 – Lil Romeo, American rapper
  • 1998 – Ella Guevara, Filipino child actress

August 19 – Deaths:

  • 14 – Augustus, Roman Emperor (b. 63 BC)
  • 1186 – Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany (b. 1158)
  • 1245 – Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (b. 1195)
  • 1284 – Alphonso, Earl of Chester, son of Edward I of England (b. 1273)
  • 1297 – Saint Louis of Toulouse, French Catholic bishop (b. 1274)
  • 1493 – Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1415)
  • 1580 – Andrea Palladio, Italian architect (b. 1508)
  • 1646 – Alexander Henderson, Scottish theologian
  • 1662 – Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher (b. 1623)
  • 1680 – Jean Eudes, French catholic priest, founder of the Eudists (b. 1601)
  • 1753 – Balthasar Neumann, German architect (b. 1687)
  • 1819 – James Watt, Scottish inventor (b. 1736)
  • 1822 – Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre, French mathematician (b. 1749)
  • 1883 – Jeremiah S. Black, American statesman (b. 1810)
  • 1889 – Auguste Villiers de l’Isle-Adam, French writer (b. 1838)
  • 1895 – John Wesley Hardin, American gunfighter (b. 1853)
  • 1900 – Jean-Baptiste Accolay, Belgian composer (b. 1833)
  • 1914 – Franz Xavier Wernz, German Superior General of the Society of Jesus (b. 1844)
  • 1923 – Vilfredo Pareto, Italian sociologist and economist (b. 1845)
  • 1929 – Sergei Diaghilev, Russian ballet impresario (b. 1872)
  • 1936 – Federico García Lorca, Spanish author (b. 1898)
  • 1944 – Günther von Kluge, German field marshal (b. 1882)
  • 1945 – Tomas Burgos, Chilean philanthropist (b.1875)
  • 1950 – Giovanni Giorgi, Italian physicist (b. 1871)
  • 1954 – Alcide De Gasperi, Prime Minister of Italy (b. 1881)
  • 1957 – David Bomberg, English painter (b. 1890)
  • 1957 – Carl-Gustaf Rossby, Swedish meteorologist (b. 1898)
  • 1959 – Jacob Epstein, American-born sculptor (b. 1880)
  • 1963 – Kathleen Parlow, Canadian violinist (b. 1890)
  • 1967 – Hugo Gernsback, Luxembourg-born editor and publisher (b. 1884)
  • 1968 – George Gamow, Ukrainian-born physicist (b. 1904)
  • 1969 – Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, German architect (b. 1886)
  • 1970 – Pawel Jasienica, Polish historian (b. 1909)
  • 1975 – Mark Donohue, American race car driver and engineer (b.1937)
  • 1975 – Jim Londos, wrestler (b. 1897)
  • 1976 – Alastair Sim, Scottish actor and rector of Edinburgh University (b. 1900)
  • 1977 – Groucho Marx, American comedian and actor (b. 1890)
  • 1979 – Dorsey Burnette, American singer (b. 1932)
  • 1980 – Otto Frank, father of Anne Frank (b. 1889)
  • 1981 – Jessie Matthews, English actress (b. 1907)
  • 1982 – August Neo, Estonian wrestler (b. 1908)
  • 1986 – Hermione Baddeley, English actress (b. 1906)
  • 1994 – Linus Pauling, American chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Peace (b. 1901)
  • 1995 – Pierre Schaeffer, French composer (b. 1910)
  • 2000 – Antonio Pugliese, Italian professional wrestler (b. 1941)
  • 2001 – Donald Woods, South African journalist and anti-apartheid activist (b. 1933)
  • 2001 – Betty Everett, American singer and pianist (b. 1939)
  • 2003 – Carlos Roberto Reina, President of Honduras (b. 1926)
  • 2003 – Sérgio Vieira de Mello, Brazilian diplomat (b. 1948)
  • 2005 – Bueno de Mesquita, Dutch comedian and actor (b. 1918)
  • 2005 – Mo Mowlam, British politician (b. 1949)

August 19 – Holidays:

  • Roman festivals – Vinalia Rustica celebrated in honor of Venus Libitina commemorating the founding of the oldest known temple to her, on the Esquiline Hill, in 293 BC on this date.
  • Russian and Georgian Orthodox churches celebrate the Saviour’s Transfiguration, popularly known in Russia as the “Apples Feast” (it’s the first day of the year when eating apples is allowed).
  • Afghanistan – Afghan Independence Day
  • National Day of the Filipino Language, Philippines – Holiday for Quezon City, Quezon Province and other municipalities named after Manuel Quezon.
  • National Aviation Day, USA.

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On This Day In History August 18

August 18 – Events:

  • 293 BC – The oldest known Roman temple to Venus was founded, starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica.
  • 1201 – The city of Riga is founded.
  • 1541 – A Portuguese ship drifts ashore in the ancient Japanese province of Higo (modern day Kumamoto Prefecture).
  • 1572 – Wedding in Paris of the Huguenot King Henry IV of Navarre with Marguerite de Valois, in a supposed attempt to reconcile Protestants and Catholics.
  • 1590 – John White, the governor of the Colony of Roanoke, returns from a supply-trip to England and finds his settlement deserted.
  • 1634 – Urbain Grandier, accused and convicted of sorcery, burned alive in Loudun, France.
  • 1636 – The Covenant of the Town of Dedham, Massachusetts was first signed.
  • 1775 – The Spanish established a presidio (fort) and the town came to be called Tucson, Arizona.
  • 1838 – The Wilkes Expedition, which would explore the Puget Sound and Antarctica, weighs anchor at Hampton Roads in 1838
  • 1848 – Camila O’Gorman and Ladislao Gutierrez executed on orders by Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Globe Tavern – Union forces try to cut a vital Confederate supply-line into Petersburg, Virginia, by attacking the Weldon Railroad.
  • 1868 – French astronomer Pierre Jules César Janssen discovers helium.
  • 1870 – Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Gravelotte is fought.
  • 1877 – Asaph Hall discovers Martian moon Phobos.
  • 1903 – German engineer Karl Jatho allegedly flies his self-made, motored gliding airplane four months before the first flight of the Wright Brothers.
  • 1904 – Chris Watson resigns as Prime Minister of Australia and is succeeded by George Reid.
  • 1909 – Tokyo mayor Yukio Ozaki presents Washington, D.C. with 2,000 cherry trees, which President Taft decides to plant near the Potomac River.
  • 1917 – A Great Fire in Thessaloniki, Greece destroys 32% of the city leaving 70,000 individuals homeless.
  • 1920 – Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution ratified, guaranteeing women’s suffrage.
  • 1938 – The Thousand Islands Bridge, connecting New York State, United States with Ontario, Canada over the St. Lawrence River, is dedicated by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
  • 1941 – Adolf Hitler orders a temporary halt to Nazi Germany’s systematic euthanasia of mentally ill and handicapped due to protests.
  • 1946 – Around 70 people died in the Vergarolla explosion.
  • 1950 – Julien Lahaut, the chairman of the Communist Party of Belgium is assassinated by far-right elements.
  • 1958 – Vladimir Nabokov’s controversial novel Lolita is published in the United States.
  • 1963 – American civil rights movement: James Meredith becomes the first black person to graduate from the University of Mississippi.
  • 1965 – Vietnam War: Operation Starlite begins – United States Marines destroy a Viet Cong stronghold on the Van Tuong peninsula in the first major American ground battle of the war.
  • 1966 – Vietnam War: The Battle of Long Tan occurs, when a patrol of Royal Australian Regiment encounter the Viet Cong.
  • 1968 – Two charter buses push into the Hida river on national highway route 41 in Japan, in an accident caused by heavy rain. 104 killed. This accident is worst road disaster in northeast Asia.
  • 1969 – Jimi Hendrix plays the unofficial last day of Woodstock.
  • 1971 – Vietnam War: Australia and New Zealand decide to withdraw their troops from Vietnam.
  • 1976 – In the Korean Demilitarized Zone at Panmunjeom, the Axe Murder Incident results in the death of two US soldiers.
  • 1977 – Steve Biko was arrested at a police roadblock under the Terrorism Act No 83 of 1967 in King William’s Town, South Africa. He would later die of the injuries sustained during this arrest bringing attention to apartheid.
  • 1982 – Japanese election law is amended to allow for proportional representation.
  • 1983 – Hurricane Alicia hits the Texas coast, killing 22 people and causing over USD $1 billion in damage (1983 dollars).
  • 1989 – Leading presidential hopeful Luis Carlos Galán is assassinated near Bogotá in Colombia.
  • 1992 – Wang Laboratories files for bankruptcy.
  • 2000 – Federal jury found the US EPA guilty of discrimination against Dr. Marsha Coleman-Adebayo, under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, later inspiring passage of the No FEAR Act.
  • 2002 – MTR Tseung Kwan O Line officially opened.
  • 2004 – In Dublin, Ireland the Dublin Port Tunnel excavation works are completed.
  • 2005 – Dennis Rader is sentenced to 175 years in prison for the BTK serial killings.
  • 2005 – Massive power blackout hits the Indonesian island of Java, affecting almost 100 million people.

August 18 – Birthdays:

  • 1414 – Jami, Persian poet (d. 1492)
  • 1450 – Marko Marulic, Croatian poet (d. 1524)
  • 1579 – Charlotte Flandrina of Nassau, Roman Catholic nun (died 1640)
  • 1587 – Virginia Dare, first English child born in North America (d. 1588)
  • 1596 – Jean Bolland, Flemish Jesuit writer (d. 1665)
  • 1605 – Henry Hammond, English churchman (d. 1660)
  • 1606 – Maria Anna of Spain, Holy Roman Empire Empress and Queen of Hungary (d. 1646)
  • 1611 – Ludwika Maria Gonzaga, queen of Poland (d. 1650)
  • 1657 – Ferdinando Galli Bibiena, Italian architect/designer (d. 1743)
  • 1685 – Brook Taylor, English mathematician (d. 1731)
  • 1692 – Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon, Prime Minister of France (d. 1740)
  • 1720 – Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers, English murderer (d. 1760)
  • 1750 – Antonio Salieri, Italian composer (d. 1825)
  • 1754 – François, marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat, French general (d. 1833)
  • 1774 – Meriwether Lewis, American explorer (d. 1809)
  • 1792 – John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1878)
  • 1803 – Nathan Clifford, American statesman, diplomat, and Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1881)
  • 1819 – Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaievna, Duchess of Leuchtenberg (d. 1876)
  • 1822 – Isaac P. Rodman, American Union general (d. 1862)
  • 1830 – Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria (d. 1916)
  • 1841 – William Halford, American naval officer (d. 1919)
  • 1855 – Alfred Wallis, English artist and mariner (d. 1942)
  • 1857 – Libert H. Boeynaems, Belgian Catholic prelate (d. 1926)
  • 1870 – Lavr Georgevich Kornilov, Russian general (d. 1918)
  • 1879 – Aleksandr Rodzyanko, Russian general (d. 1970)
  • 1890 – Walther Funk, German Nazi politician (d. 1960)
  • 1893 – Ernest MacMillan, Canadian musician (d. 1973)
  • 1893 – Burleigh Grimes, baseball player (d. 1985)
  • 1896 – Jack Pickford, Canadian-born actor (d. 1933)
  • 1900 – Glenn Albert Black, American archaeologist (d. 1964)
  • 1902 – Adamson-Eric, Estonian painter (d. 1968)
  • 1903 – Lucienne Boyer, French singer (d. 1983)
  • 1904 – Max Factor, Polish-born cosmetics entrepreneur (d. 1996)
  • 1906 – Marcel Carné, French film director (d. 1996)
  • 1908 – Edgar Faure, French politician and historian (d. 1988)
  • 1909 – Gérard Filion, French Canadian businessman and journalist (d. 2005)
  • 1913 – Romain Maes, Belgian cyclist (d. 1983)
  • 1915 – Max Lanier, baseball player (d. 2007)
  • 1916 – Dame Moura Lympany, British pianist (d. 2005)
  • 1917 – Caspar Weinberger, American politician (d. 2006)
  • 1918 – Walter Joseph Hickel, American politician
  • 1918 – Cisco Houston, American folk singer (d. 1961)
  • 1920 – Bob Kennedy, baseball player (d. 2005)
  • 1920 – Shelley Winters, American actress (d. 2006)
  • 1921 – Zdzislaw Zygulski, Jr., Polish art historian
  • 1922 – Alain Robbe-Grillet, French writer
  • 1925 – Brian Aldiss, English writer
  • 1925 – Pierre Grondin, French Canadian cardiac surgeon (d. 2006)
  • 1927 – Rosalynn Carter, First Lady of the United States
  • 1928 – Marge Schott, baseball team owner (d. 2004)
  • 1929 – Hugues Aufray, French singer
  • 1930 – Liviu Librescu, Israeli professor, killed in the Virginia Tech massacre
  • 1931 – Bramwell Tillsley, Canadian Salvation Army general
  • 1931 – Dick White, English footballer
  • 1932 – William R. Bennett, Premier of British Columbia
  • 1933 – Roman Polanski, French-born director and actor
  • 1933 – Just Fontaine, French footballer
  • 1934 – Vincent Bugliosi, American attorney
  • 1934 – Roberto Clemente, Puerto Rican baseball player and humanitarian (d. 1972)
  • 1934 – Ronnie Carroll, British singer
  • 1935 – Rafer Johnson, American athlete
  • 1935 – Howard Morrison, New Zealand entertainer
  • 1936 – Robert Redford, American actor
  • 1939 – Robert Horton, British businessman
  • 1939 – Johnny Preston, American singer
  • 1943 – Martin Mull, American comedian
  • 1943 – Gianni Rivera, Italian footballer and politician
  • 1943 – Carl Wayne, English singer (d. 2004)
  • 1945 – Barbara Harris, American singer (Toys)
  • 1948 – Joseph Marcell, British actor
  • 1949 – Rudy Hartono, Indonesian badminton player
  • 1952 – Elayne Boosler, American comedian
  • 1952 – Patrick Swayze, American actor (d. 2009)
  • 1952 – Ricky Villa, Argentine former footballer
  • 1953 – Louie Gohmert, American politician
  • 1955 – Taher ElGamal, Egyptian scientist
  • 1956 – John Debney, American composer
  • 1956 – Jon “Bermuda” Schwartz, American musician
  • 1957 – Carole Bouquet, French actress
  • 1957 – Denis Leary, American comedian and actor
  • 1958 – Madeleine Stowe, American actress
  • 1959 – Tom Prichard, American wrestler
  • 1960 – Fat Lever, American basketball player
  • 1960 – Mike LaValliere, baseball player
  • 1961 – Bob Woodruff, American journalist, anchor
  • 1962 – Felipe Calderón, President of Mexico
  • 1962 – Geoff Courtnall, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1964 – Edith Frost, American singer/songwriter
  • 1965 – Koji Kikkawa, Japanese singer
  • 1965 – Jim Florentine, American comedian
  • 1966 – Gustavo Charif, Argentine artist
  • 1966 – Kang Soo-yeon, South Korean actress
  • 1967 – Brian Michael Bendis, American comic book writer
  • 1967 – Daler Mehndi, Indian bhangra/pop singer
  • 1968 – Lee Seung-yeon, South Korean actress
  • 1968 – Dan Peters, American musician
  • 1969 – Masta Killa, American rapper
  • 1969 – Everlast, American musician
  • 1969 – Edward Norton, American actor
  • 1969 – Christian Slater, American actor
  • 1970 – Jessica Hsuan, Hong Kong actress
  • 1970 – Malcolm-Jamal Warner, American actor
  • 1971 – Richard D James, Irish-born musician (Aphex Twin)
  • 1972 – Keiko Yamada, Japanese singer
  • 1972 – Leo Ku, Hong Kong singer
  • 1972 – Shaun Wilson, Australian artist
  • 1976 – Daphnee Duplaix Samuel, American actress, Playboy Playmate
  • 1977 – Régine Chassagne, member of the Canadian rock band Arcade Fire
  • 1978 – Andy Samberg, American comedian
  • 1979 – Selena Silver, pornographic actress
  • 1980 – Esteban Cambiasso, Argentine footballer
  • 1980 – Preeti Jhangiani, Indian actress
  • 1980 – Rob Nguyen, Australian racing driver
  • 1980 – Athina Papayianni, Greek race walker
  • 1980 – Jeremy Shockey, American football Tight End
  • 1981 – César Delgado, Argentine footballer
  • 1981 – Jonathan Schneck, American musician (Relient K)
  • 1983 – Kris Boyd, Scottish footballer
  • 1983 – Mica Penniman (Mika), Lebanese-born musician
  • 1983 – Daniel Keith Swain (Danny!), American record producer/hip-hop artist
  • 1984 – Robert Huth, German footballer
  • 1987 – Mika Boorem, American actress
  • 1992 – Frances Bean Cobain, daughter Kurt Cobain and Courtney Love
  • 1992 – Riko Narumi, Japanese actress
  • 1994 – Jessie Flower, American actress and voice actress
  • 1995 – Parker McKenna Posey, American actress

August 18 – Deaths:

  • 353 – Decentius, Roman usurper
  • 472 – Ricimer, Roman general
  • 849 – Walafrid Strabo, German monk and theologian
  • 1227 – Genghis Khan, Khagan of Mongol Empire
  • 1258 – Theodore II Lascaris, Emperor of the Empire of Nicaea
  • 1276 – Pope Adrian V
  • 1318 – Clare of Montefalco, Italian Abbess and religious leader (born c. 1268)
  • 1430 – Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros, English soldier and politician (drowned) (b. 1406)
  • 1503 – Pope Alexander VI (b. 1431)
  • 1559 – Pope Paul IV (b. 1476)
  • 1563 – Étienne de La Boétie, French judge and writer (b. 1530)
  • 1613 – Giovanni Artusi, Italian composer
  • 1620 – Wanli, Emperor of China (b. 1563)
  • 1634 – Urbain Grandier, French priest (b. 1590)
  • 1642 – Guido Reni, Italian painter (b. 1575)
  • 1645 – Eudoxia Streshneva, Tsarina of Mikhail I of Russia (b. 1608)
  • 1683 – Charles Hart, English actor (b. 1625)
  • 1707 – William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire, English soldier and statesman (b. 1640)
  • 1712 – Richard Savage, 4th Earl Rivers, English soldier
  • 1765 – Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1708)
  • 1809 – Matthew Boulton, English manufacturer and engineer (b. 1728)
  • 1815 – Chauncey Goodrich, American politician (b. 1759)
  • 1842 – Louis de Freycinet, French explorer (b. 1779)
  • 1850 – Honoré de Balzac, French writer (b. 1799)
  • 1919 – Joseph E. Seagram, Canadian distillery founder (b. 1841)
  • 1940 – Walter P. Chrysler, American automobile executive (b. 1875)
  • 1943 – Ali-Agha Shikhlinski, Russian-Azerbaijani general (b. 1865)
  • 1949 – Paul Mares, American musician (b. 1900)
  • 1952 – Alberto Hurtado Cruchaga, Chilean Jesuit saint (b. 1901)
  • 1963 – Clifford Odets, American playwright (b. 1906)
  • 1981 – Anita Loos, American screenwriter (b. 1889)
  • 1983 – Nikolaus Pevsner, German-born art historian (b. 1902)
  • 1990 – Grethe Ingmann, Danish singer (b. 1938)
  • 1990 – B.F. Skinner, American psychological theorist (b. 1904)
  • 1992 – John Sturges, American film director (b. 1911)
  • 1994 – Martin Cahill, The General, infamous Dublin criminal (b. 1949)
  • 1998 – Persis Khambatta, Indian actress (b. 1950)
  • 2001 – David Peakall, British scientist (b. 1931)
  • 2002 – Dean Riesner, American film and television writer (b. 1918)
  • 2003 – Tony Jackson, English musician (The Searchers) (b. 1938)
  • 2004 – Elmer Bernstein, American composer (b. 1922)
  • 2005 – Christopher Bauman, American wrestler (b. 1982)
  • 2005 – Gao Xiumin, Chinese comedy actress (b. 1959)
  • 2006 – Fernand Gignac, Canadian singer and actor (b. 1934)
  • 2006 – Jamie Astaphan, Caribbean-born physician (b. 1946)
  • 2007 – Michael Deaver, Reagan Administration Deputy White House Chief of Staff (b. 1938)

August 18 – Holidays:

  • International Lighthouse Day
  • Australia – Long Tan Day (also called Vietnam Veterans’ Day) named after the Battle of Long Tan

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On This Day In History August 17

August 17 – Events:

  • 1807 – Robert Fulton’s first American steamboat leaves New York City for Albany, New York on the Hudson River, inaugurating the first commercial steamboat service in the world.
  • 1862 – Indian Wars: The Lakota (Sioux) Dakota War of 1862 begins in Minnesota as vicious Lakota attack white settlements along the Minnesota River.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Major General JEB Stuart is assigned command of all the cavalry of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: In Charleston, South Carolina, Union batteries and ships bombard Confederate-held Fort Sumter.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Gainesville – Confederate forces defeat Union troops near Gainesville, Florida.
  • 1883 – The first public performance of the Dominican Republic’s national anthem, Himno Nacional.
  • 1907 – Pike Place Market, the longest continuously-running public farmers market in the US, opened in Seattle.
  • 1914 – World War I: Battle of Stalluponen – The German army of General Hermann von François defeats the Russian force commanded by Pavel Rennenkampf near modern-day Nesterov, Russia.
  • 1918 – Bolshevik revolutionary leader Moisei Uritsky is assassinated.
  • 1942 – U.S. Marines raid the Japanese-held Pacific island of Makin (Butaritari).
  • 1943 – World War II: The U.S. Eighth Air Force suffers the loss of 60 bombers on the Schweinfurt- Regensburg mission.
  • 1943 – World War II: The U.S. Seventh Army under General George S. Patton arrive in Messina, Italy, followed several hours later by the British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery, thus completing the Allied conquest of Sicily.
  • 1943 – World War II: First Québec Conference of Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and William Lyon Mackenzie King begins.
  • 1945 – Indonesian Declaration of Independence.
  • 1945 Animal Farm by George Orwell is first published by Fredric Warburg
  • 1947 – The Radcliffe Line, the border between Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan is revealed.
  • 1953 – Addiction: First meeting of Narcotics Anonymous in Southern California.
  • 1959 – Quake Lake: Quake Lake was formed by the magnitude 7.5 1959 Yellowstone earthquake near Hebgen Lake in Montana.
  • 1960 – Decolonization: Gabon gains independence from France.
  • 1962 – East German border guards kill 18-year-old Peter Fechter as he attempts to cross the Berlin Wall into West Berlin becoming the first victim of the wall.
  • 1969 – Category 5 Hurricane Camille hits the Mississippi coast, killing 248 people and causing $1.5 billion in damage.
  • 1970 – Venera Program: Venera 7 launched. It will later become the first spacecraft to successfully transmit data from the surface of another planet (Venus).
  • 1978 – Double Eagle II becomes first balloon to cross the Atlantic Ocean when it lands in Miserey near Paris, 137 hours after leaving Presque Isle, Maine.
  • 1979 – Two Soviet Aeroflot jetliners collide in mid-air over Ukraine, killing 156.
  • 1980 – Azaria Chamberlain disappears, likely taken by a dingo, leading to what was then the most publicized trial in Australian history.
  • 1982 – The first Compact Discs (CD’s) were released to the public in Germany.
  • 1988 – Pakistani President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq and U.S. Ambassador Arnold Raphel are killed in a plane crash.
  • 1998 – Monica Lewinsky scandal: US President Bill Clinton admits in taped testimony he had an “improper physical relationship” with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. On the same day he admits before the nation he “misled people” about his relationship.
  • 1999 – A 7.4-magnitude earthquake strikes Izmit, Turkey, killing more than 17,000 and injuring 44,000.
  • 2004 – MD5 collision found by Chinese researchers.
  • 2004 – The National Assembly of Serbia unanimously adopts new state symbols for Serbia: Boze Pravde becomes the new anthem and the coat of arms is adopted for the whole country.

August 17 – Birthdays:

  • 1473 – Richard, Duke of York (d. 1483?)
  • 1562 – Hans Leo Hassler (baptized), German composer (d. 1612)
  • 1578 – Francesco Albani, Italian painter (d. 1660)
  • 1601 – Pierre de Fermat, French mathematician (d. 1665)
  • 1629 – King John III of Poland (d. 1696)
  • 1768 – Louis Charles Antoine Desaix, French general (d. 1800)
  • 1786 – Davy Crockett, American frontiersman and soldier (d. 1836)
  • 1786 – Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, mother of Queen Victoria (d. 1861)
  • 1794 – Prince Alexander of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, German priest (d. 1849)
  • 1828 – Jules Bernard Luys, French neurologist (d. 1897)
  • 1844 – Menelek II of Ethiopia (d. 1913)
  • 1863 – Gene Stratton-Porter, American author and naturalist (d. 1924)
  • 1866 – Mir Mahboob Ali Khan, 6th Nizam of Hyderabad (d. 1911)
  • 1866 – Julia Marlowe, English actress (d. 1950)
  • 1873 – John A. Sampson, American gynecologist (d. 1946)
  • 1882 – Samuel Goldwyn, Hollywood producer (d. 1974)
  • 1887 – Marcus Garvey, Jamaican-born Black rights activist (d. 1940)
  • 1887 – Charles I of Austria (d. 1922)
  • 1888 – Monty Woolley, American actor (d. 1963)
  • 1890 – Harry Hopkins, 8th United States Secretary of Commerce (d. 1946)
  • 1890 – Stefan Bastyr, Polish aviator (d. 1920)
  • 1893 – Mae West, American actress (d. 1980)
  • 1896 – Leslie Groves, American military engineer (d. 1970)
  • 1904 – Leopold Nowak, Austrian musicologist (d. 1991)
  • 1904 – Mary Cain, American newspaper editor and politician (d. 1984)
  • 1909 – Larry Clinton, American trumpeter and bandleader (d. 1985)
  • 1911 – Mikhail Botvinnik, Russian chess player (d. 1995)
  • 1913 – W. Mark Felt, American Watergate informant
  • 1913 – Rudy York, American baseball player (d. 1970)
  • 1913 – Oscar Alfredo Gálvez, Argentine racing driver (d. 1989)
  • 1914 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., son of Franklin Delano Roosevelt (d. 1988)
  • 1919 – Georgia Gibbs, American singer (d. 2006)
  • 1920 – Maureen O’Hara, Irish actress
  • 1921 – Geoffrey Rudolph Elton, British historian (d. 1994)
  • 1926 – Jiang Zemin, Chinese politician
  • 1926 – George Melly, British singer (d. 2007)
  • 1926 – Jean Poiret, French actor, director and screenwriter (d. 1992)
  • 1929 – Francis Gary Powers, American U-2 pilot (d. 1977)
  • 1930 – Glenn Corbett, American actor (d. 1993)
  • 1930 – Ted Hughes, English poet (d. 1998)
  • 1932 – V. S. Naipaul, West Indian writer, Nobel Laureate
  • 1933 – Eugene F. Kranz, American NASA executive
  • 1933 – Mark Dinning, American singer (d. 1986)
  • 1935 – Oleg Tabakov, Russian actor
  • 1936 – Floyd Red Crow Westerman, Native American musician-actor (d. 2007)
  • 1938 – Abu Bakar Bashir, Indonesian Muslim cleric
  • 1938 – Theodoros Pangalos, Greek politician
  • 1939 – Luther Allison, American musician
  • 1939 – Anthony Valentine, British actor
  • 1940 – Eduardo Mignogna, Argentinian film director (d. 2006)
  • 1941 – Jean Pierre Lefebvre, French Canadian film director
  • 1941 – Boog Powell, American baseball player
  • 1943 – Robert De Niro, American actor
  • 1943 – Dave “Snaker” Ray, American musician (d. 2002)
  • 1944 – Lawrence Joseph Ellison, CEO of Oracle Corporation, Billionaire
  • 1946 – Martha Coolidge, American film director
  • 1947 – Gary Talley, American guitarist (Box Tops)
  • 1947 – Sylvia Nasar, German-born American economist and author
  • 1948 – Rod MacDonald, American musician
  • 1949 – Sib Hashian, American drummer (Boston)
  • 1951 – Robert Joy, Canadian actor
  • 1951 – Alan Minter, British boxer
  • 1952 – Nelson Piquet, Brazilian race car driver
  • 1952 – Dr. Mario Theissen, German F1 team principal (BMW Sauber)
  • 1952 – Guillermo Vilas, Argentinian tennis player
  • 1953 – Judith Regan, American book publisher
  • 1953 – Kevin Rowland, English musician (Dexys Midnight Runners)
  • 1954 – Eric Johnson, American guitarist
  • 1955 – Richard Hilton, American heir
  • 1956 – Gail Berman, American film executive
  • 1956 – Álvaro Pino, Spanish cyclist
  • 1957 – Robin Cousins, British figure skater
  • 1958 – Belinda Carlisle, American singer
  • 1958 – Kirk Stevens, Canadian snooker player
  • 1959 – David Koresh, American cult leader (d. 1993)
  • 1959 – Jonathan Franzen, American author
  • 1960 – Sean Penn, American actor and director
  • 1960 – Stephan Eicher, Swiss singer
  • 1962 – Gilby Clarke, American musician (Guns N’ Roses)
  • 1963 – S. Shankar, Indian film director.
  • 1964 – Colin James, Canadian musician
  • 1966 – Maysa Leak, American Jazz Singer
  • 1966 – Rodney Mullen, American skateboarder
  • 1966 – Don Sweeney, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1967 – Kevin Max, American singer (dc_talk)
  • 1968 – Ed McCaffrey, American football player
  • 1968 – Helen McCrory, English actress
  • 1969 – Christian Laettner, American basketball player
  • 1969 – Donnie Wahlberg, American actor and singer
  • 1970 – Jim Courier, American tennis player
  • 1970 – Rupert Degas, English actor and voice artist
  • 1970 – Oyvind Leonhardsen, Norwegian footballer
  • 1971 – Jorge Posada, Puerto Rican baseball player
  • 1971 – Uhm Jung-hwa, South Korean singer and actress
  • 1972 – Habibul Bashar, Bangladeshi cricketer
  • 1972 – Ken Ryker, American pornographic actor
  • 1974 – Tony Hajjar, Lebanese drummer (At the Drive-In, Sparta)
  • 1974 – Nicola Kraus, American novelist
  • 1975 – Giuliana DePandi, Italian-born American television personality
  • 1975 – Ilhan Mansiz, Turkish footballer
  • 1976 – Scott Halberstadt, American actor
  • 1977 – Thierry Henry, French footballer
  • 1977 – Tarja Turunen, Finnish singer
  • 1977 – William Gallas, French footballer
  • 1978 – Vibeke Stene, Norwegian singer (Tristania)
  • 1978 – Karena Lam, Hong Kong actress
  • 1979 – Antwaan Randle El, American football player
  • 1979 – Marcus Patric, British actor
  • 1980 – Lene Marlin, Norwegian singer
  • 1980 – Keith Dabengwa, Zimbabwean cricketer
  • 1980 – Jan Kromkamp, Dutch footballer
  • 1982 – Melissa Anderson, American professional wrestler
  • 1982 – Phil Jagielka, English footballer
  • 1983 – Dustin Pedroia, American baseball player
  • 1984 – Dee Brown, American basketball player
  • 1985 – Yu Aoi, Japanese actress
  • 1986 – Rudy Gay, American basketball player
  • 1986 – Tyrus Thomas, American basketball player
  • 1988 – Erika Toda, Japanese actress
  • 1990 – Rachel Hurd-Wood, British actress
  • 1990 – Colin Bates, American actor
  • 1996 – Ella Cruz, Filipina actress

August 17 – Deaths:

  • 1153 – Eustace IV of Boulogne, son of Stephen of England (b. 1130)
  • 1304 – Emperor Go-Fukakusa of Japan (b. 1243)
  • 1510 – Edmund Dudley, English statesman (b. 1462)
  • 1657 – Robert Blake, British admiral (b. 1599)
  • 1673 – Regnier de Graaf, Dutch physician and anatomist (b. 1641)
  • 1676 – Hans Jakob Christoph von Grimmelshausen, German novelist (b. 1621)
  • 1720 – Anne Lefèvre, French scholar (b. 1654)
  • 1723 – Joseph Bingham, English scholar (b. 1668)
  • 1768 – Vasily Kirillovich Trediakovsky, Russian poet (b. 1703)
  • 1785 – Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of the Colony and the state of Connecticut (b. 1710)
  • 1786 – King Frederick II of Prussia (b. 1712)
  • 1834 – Husein Gradašcevic, Bosnian rebel leader (b. 1802)
  • 1850 – Don José de San Martín, Argentine general (b. 1778)
  • 1861 – Alcée Louis la Branche, American Politician (b. 1806)
  • 1875 – Wilhelm Bleek, German linguist (b. 1827)
  • 1880 – Ole Bull, Norwegian violinist (b. 1810)
  • 1896 – Bridget Driscoll, world’s first automobile fatality
  • 1901 – Edmond Audran, French composer (b. 1842)
  • 1903 – Hans Gude, Norwegian romanticist landscape painter (b. 1825)
  • 1918 – Moisei Uritsky, Russian revolutionary (b. 1873)
  • 1920 – Ray Chapman, American baseball player (b. 1891)
  • 1925 – Ioan Slavici, Transylvanian writer of Romanian origin (b. 1848)
  • 1940 – Billy Fiske, American aviator and Olympic athlete (b. 1911)
  • 1954 – Billy Murray, American recording artist (b. 1877)
  • 1962 – Peter Fechter trying to cross the Berlin Wall (b. 1944)
  • 1969 – Otto Stern, German physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1888)
  • 1970 – Rattana Pestonji, Thai filmmaker (b. 1908)
  • 1971 – Wilhelm List, German field marshal (b. 1880)
  • 1973 – Jean Barraqué, French composer (b. 1928)
  • 1973 – Paul Williams, American singer (The Temptations) (b. 1939)
  • 1973 – Conrad Aiken, American author (b. 1889)
  • 1979 – Vivian Vance, American actress (b. 1909)
  • 1983 – Ira Gershwin, American lyricist (b. 1896)
  • 1987 – Rudolf Hess, Nazi deputy (b. 1894)
  • 1988 – Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, 6th President of Pakistan (b. 1924)
  • 1988 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., son of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States (b. 1914)
  • 1988 – Victoria Shaw, Australian-born American actress (b. 1935)
  • 1990 – Pearl Bailey, American singer and actress (b. 1918)
  • 1992 – Al Parker, American adult film actor (b. 1952)
  • 1993 – Feng Kang, Chinese mathematician (b. 1920)
  • 1994 – Luigi Chinetti, Italian-American race car driver and team owner (NART; b. 1901)
  • 1994 – Jack Sharkey, American boxer (b. 1902)
  • 1995 – Howard Koch, American screenwriter (b. 1902)
  • 1995 – Ted Whitten, Australian rules footballer (b. 1933)
  • 2004 – Thea Astley, Australian writer (b. 1925)
  • 2004 – Gérard Souzay, French baritone (b. 1918)
  • 2005 – John Bahcall, American astrophysicist (b. 1934)
  • 2007 – Bill Deedes, British journalist and politician (b. 1913)
  • 2007 – Eddie Griffin, American basketball player (b. 1982)

August 17 – Holidays:

  • Independence Day – observance in Indonesia.
  • Slovenia: Slovenians in Prekmurje Incorporated into the Mother Nation Day

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