On This Day in History March 26

March 26 – Events:

  • 1026 – Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1199 – Richard the Lionheart is fatally wounded by a crossbow bolt during a siege in France, he dies eleven days later. The marksman, a French noble named Pierre Basile, is executed.
  • 1484 – William Caxton printed his translation of Aesop’s Fables.
  • 1552 – Guru Amar Das becomes the Third Sikh Guru.
  • 1636 – Utrecht University is founded in The Netherlands.
  • 1808 – Charles IV of Spain abdicates in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII.
  • 1812 – An earthquake destroys Caracas, Venezuela.
  • 1839 – The first Henley Royal Regatta is held.
  • 1881 – Thessaly is freed and becomes part of Greece again.
  • 1913 – Balkan War: Bulgarian forces take Adrianople.
  • 1917 – World War I: First Battle of Gaza – British troops are halted after 17,000 Turks block their advance.
  • 1934 – Driving test introduced in the United Kingdom.
  • 1942 – World War II: In Poland, Auschwitz receives its first female prisoners.
  • 1945 – World War II: In Iwo Jima, US forces declare Iwo Jima as “secure.”
  • 1953 – Jonas Salk announces his polio vaccine.
  • 1958 – The United States Army launches Explorer 3.
  • 1958 – The African Regroupment Party (PRA) is launched at a meeting in Paris.
  • 1965 – A truck loses control down Moosic Street, Scranton, Pennsylvania, killing the driver. This accident later inspired the 1974 Harry Chapin song, “30,000 Pounds of Bananas.”
  • 1967 – Ten thousand people gather for the Central Park Be-In.
  • 1971 – East Pakistan declares its independence from Pakistan to form People’s Republic of Bangladesh and Bangladesh Liberation War begins.
  • 1975 – The Biological Weapons Convention enters into force.
  • 1976 – Queen Elizabeth II sent out the first royal email, from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment.
  • 1977 – Focus on the Family is founded by Dr. James Dobson.
  • 1979 – Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin and Jimmy Carter sign the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in Washington, DC.
  • 1982 – A groundbreaking ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is held in Washington, DC.
  • 1995 – The Schengen Treaty goes into effect.
  • 1996 – The International Monetary Fund approves a $10.2 billion loan for Russia.
  • 1997 – Thirty-nine bodies found in the Heaven’s Gate cult suicides.
  • 1998 – Oued Bouaicha massacre in Algeria; 52 people killed with axes and knives, 32 of them babies under the age of 2.
  • 1999 – The “Melissa worm” infects Microsoft word processing and e-mail systems around the world.
  • 1999 – A jury in Michigan finds Dr. Jack Kevorkian guilty of second-degree murder for administering a lethal injection to a terminally ill man.
  • 2005 – The Taiwanese government calls on 1 million Taiwanese to demonstrate in Taipei, in opposition to the Anti-Secession Law of the People’s Republic of China. Around 200,000 to 300,000 attend the walk.
  • 2006 – In Scotland, the prohibition of smoking in all substantially enclosed public places comes into force.
  • 2006 – The military junta ruling Myanmar officially named Naypyidaw, a new city in Mandalay Division, as the new capital. Yangon had formerly been the nation’s capital.

March 26 – Birthdays:

  • 1516 – Conrad Gessner, Swiss naturalist (d. 1565)
  • 1554 – Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne, French military leader (d. 1611)
  • 1698 – Václav Prokop Diviš, Czech theologian and natural scientist (d. 1765)
  • 1749 – William Blount, American Statesman (d. 1800)
  • 1753 – Benjamin Thompson, American physicist and inventor (d. 1814)
  • 1773 – Nathaniel Bowditch, American mathematician and navigation expert (d. 1838)
  • 1794 – Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, German painter (d. 1872)
  • 1859 – Alfred Edward Housman, English poet (d. 1936)
  • 1859 – Adolf Hurwitz, German mathematician (d. 1919)
  • 1868 – King Fuad I of Egypt (d. 1936)
  • 1874 – Robert Frost, American poet (d. 1963)
  • 1875 – Max Abraham, German physicist (d. 1922)
  • 1875 – Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea (d. 1965)
  • 1876 – Prince William of Wied, sovereign Prince of Albania (d. 1945)
  • 1879 – Othmar Ammann, Swiss-born bridge engineer (d. 1965)
  • 1882 – Hermann Obrecht, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1940)
  • 1884 – Wilhelm Backhaus, German pianist (d. 1969)
  • 1886 – Hugh Mulzac, America military officer (d. 1971)
  • 1894 – Viorica Ursuleac, Romanian soprano (d. 1985)
  • 1896 – Rudolf Dassler, Founder of PUMA AG (d. 1974)
  • 1898 – Charles Shadwell, English conductor and bandleader (d. 1979)
  • 1888 – Elsa Brändström, Swedish nurse (d. 1948)
  • 1893 – Palmiro Togliatti, Italian communist leader (d. 1964)
  • 1904 – Joseph Campbell, American author (d. 1987)
  • 1904 – Emilio Fernández, Mexican actor, screenwriter and film director (d. 1986)
  • 1904 – Xenophon Zolotas, Greek economist, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 2004)
  • 1905 – Viktor Frankl, Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist (d. 1997)
  • 1906 – Rafael Mendez, Mexican trumpetist (d. 1981)
  • 1908 – Franz Stangl, German commandant of Nazi concentration camps (d. 1971)
  • 1911 – Bernard Katz, German-born biophysicist, Nobel laureate (d. 2003)
  • 1911 – Tennessee Williams, American dramatist (d. 1983)
  • 1911 – T. Hee, American animator (d. 1988)
  • 1913 – Paul Erdos, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1996)
  • 1914 – Toru Kumon, Japanese educator (d. 1995)
  • 1914 – William Westmoreland, U.S. general (d. 2005)
  • 1916 – Christian B. Anfinsen, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1995)
  • 1916 – Bill Edrich, English cricketer (d. 1986)
  • 1916 – Sterling Hayden, American actor (d. 1986)
  • 1917 – Rufus Thomas, American musician (d. 2001)
  • 1919 – Strother Martin, American actor (d. 1980)
  • 1922 – Oscar Sala, Italian-born physicist
  • 1923 – Gert Bastian, German politician (d. 1992)
  • 1923 – Bob Elliott, American comedian
  • 1925 – Pierre Boulez, French composer and conductor
  • 1925 – James Moody, American jazz musician, composer, and actor
  • 1930 – Gregory Corso, American poet (d. 2001)
  • 1930 – Sandra Day O’Connor, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
  • 1931 – Leonard Nimoy, American actor and director
  • 1934 – Alan Arkin, American actor
  • 1935 – Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestine National Authority
  • 1937 – Wayne Embry, American basketball player
  • 1938 – Anthony James Leggett, American physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1940 – James Caan, American actor
  • 1940 – Nancy Pelosi, American politician and 60th Speaker of the House
  • 1941 – Richard Dawkins, British evolutionary biologist
  • 1941 – Yvon Marcoux, Quebec politician
  • 1942 – Erica Jong, American author
  • 1943 – Bob Woodward, American journalist
  • 1944 – Diana Ross, American singer (Supremes)
  • 1945 – Mikhail Voronin, Soviet gymnast (d. 2004)
  • 1946 – Johnny Crawford, American actor
  • 1946 – Alain Madelin, French politician
  • 1947 – Dar Robinson, American stuntman (d. 1986)
  • 1948 – Richard Tandy, British keyboardist (Electric Light Orchestra)
  • 1948 – Steven Tyler, American singer (Aerosmith)
  • 1949 – Vicki Lawrence, American actress and singer
  • 1949 – Patrick Süskind, German writer
  • 1950 – Teddy Pendergrass, American singer
  • 1950 – Martin Short, Canadian comedian
  • 1950 – Ernest Thomas, American actor
  • 1951 – Carl Wieman, American physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1952 – Didier Pironi, French Formula One driver (d. 1987)
  • 1953 – Elaine Chao, U.S. Secretary of Labor
  • 1953 – Lincoln Chafee, American Senator from Rhode Island
  • 1953 – Youssouf Togoïmi, Chadian rebel (d. 2002)
  • 1954 – Kazuhiko Inoue, Japanese seiyu (voice actor)
  • 1954 – Curtis Sliwa, American founder of the Guardian Angels
  • 1955 – Danny Arndt, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1956 – Charly McClain, American singer
  • 1957 – Leeza Gibbons, American television host
  • 1957 – Paul Morley, English music journalist and musician
  • 1958 – Chris Codiroli, American baseballer
  • 1958 – Elio de Angelis, Italian racing driver (d. 1986)
  • 1959 – Chris Hansen, American reporter and correspondent
  • 1960 – Catherine Keener, American actress
  • 1960 – Marcus Allen, American football player
  • 1960 – Jennifer Grey, American actress
  • 1961 – William Hague, British politician
  • 1962 – John Stockton, American basketball player
  • 1962 – Paul de Leeuw, Dutch television host
  • 1963 – Natsuhiko Kyogoku, Japanese writer
  • 1963 – Amparo Larrañaga, Spanish actress
  • 1963 – Roch Voisine, Canadian singer and songwriter
  • 1964 – Martin Donnelly, Irish racecar driver
  • 1964 – Ulf Samuelsson, Swedish ice hockey player
  • 1966 – Nick Wirth, British engineer
  • 1966 – Michael Imperioli, actor on The Sopranos
  • 1968 – Kenny Chesney, American singer
  • 1968 – James Iha, American musician (The Smashing Pumpkins and A Perfect Circle)
  • 1968 – Laurent Brochard, French cyclist
  • 1971 – Behzad Ghorbani, Iranian zoologist and sociobiologist
  • 1972 – Jon Reep, American comedian and actor
  • 1973 – Heather Goldenhersh, American actress
  • 1973 – Lawrence E. Page, American search engine pioneer
  • 1973 – T.R. Knight, American actor
  • 1973 – Matt Burke, Australian Rugby Union player
  • 1974 – Mike Peca, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Amy Smart, American actress
  • 1976 – Natalia Livingston, American Soap actress
  • 1976 – Nurgül Yesilçay, Turkish actress
  • 1976 – Ufuk Talay, Australian soccer player
  • 1977 – Kevin Davies, English footballer
  • 1977 – Sylvain Grenier, Canadian professional wrestler
  • 1978 – Anastasia Kostaki, Greek basketball player
  • 1979 – Hiromi Uehara, Japanese jazz pianist
  • 1979 – Pierre Wome, Cameroonian footballer
  • 1981 – Baruch Dego, Israeli football player
  • 1981 – Josh Wilson, American baseball player
  • 1982 – Mikel Arteta, Spanish footballer
  • 1983 – David Bennett, Canadian powerlifter and steamfitter
  • 1983 – Michael Brendli, American professional wrestler
  • 1984 – Gregory Strydom, Zimbabwean cricketer
  • 1984 – Stéphanie Lapointe, Canadian artist and singer, 2004 Star Académie winner
  • 1984 – Sara Jean Underwood, American model
  • 1985 – Keira Knightley, English actress
  • 1985 – Prosper Utseya, Zimbabwean cricket captain
  • 1985 – Jonathan Groff, American stage actor
  • 1987 – Yui, Japanese musician
  • 1991 – Brittney Wilson, Canadian actress

March 26 – Deaths:

  • 304 – Saint Emmanuel, Christian martyr killed under Diocletian
  • 922 – Al-Hallaj, Persian Sufi teacher and writer
  • 1130 – King Sigurd I of Norway (b. ca. 1090)
  • 1212 – King Sancho I of Portugal (b. 1154)
  • 1517 – Heinrich Isaac, Flemish composer
  • 1535 – Georg Tannstetter, Austrian scientist (b. 1482)
  • 1546 – Thomas Elyot, English diplomat
  • 1566 – Antonio de Cabezón, Spanish composer (b. 1510)
  • 1649 – John Winthrop, second governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • 1679 – Johannes Schefferus, Alsatian-born humanist (b. 1621)
  • 1697 – Godfrey McCulloch, Scottish politician and murderer (executed) (b. 1640)
  • 1726 – Sir John Vanbrugh, English dramatist (b. 1664)
  • 1772 – Charles Pinot Duclos, French writer (b. 1704)
  • 1776 – Samuel Ward, American politician (b. 1725)
  • 1780 – Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (b. 1713)
  • 1793 – John Mudge, English physician (b. 1721)
  • 1797 – James Hutton, Scottish geologist (b. 1726)
  • 1814 – Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, namesake of the guillotine (b. 1738)
  • 1827 – Ludwig van Beethoven, German composer (b. 1770)
  • 1858 – John Addison Thomas, American soldier (b. 1811)
  • 1881 – Roman Sanguszko, Polish aristocrat (b. 1800)
  • 1892 – Walt Whitman, American poet (b. 1819)
  • 1902 – Cecil Rhodes, English explorer (b. 1853)
  • 1905 – Maurice Barrymore, actor; patriarch of the Barrymore family (b. 1849)
  • 1910 – Auguste Charlois, French astronomer (b. 1864)
  • 1910 – An Jung-geun, Japanese assassin of Ito Hirobumi (executed) (b. 1879)
  • 1920 – William Chester Minor, American surgeon and contributor to the Oxford English Dictionary (b. 1834)
  • 1923 – Sarah Bernhardt, French actress (b. 1844)
  • 1926 – Konstantin Fehrenbach, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1852)
  • 1929 – Katharine Lee Bates, American poet (b. 1859)
  • 1933 – Eddie Lang, American musician (b. 1902)
  • 1940 – Spiridon Louis, Greek runner, winner of the first modern Olympics
  • marathon (b. 1873)
  • 1942 – Jimmy Burke, American baseball player (b. 1874)
  • 1945 – David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1863)
  • 1951 – James F. Hinkle, American politician, sixth Governor of New Mexico (d. 1864)
  • 1957 – Édouard Herriot, French politician (b. 1872)
  • 1958 – Phil Mead, English cricketer (b. 1887)
  • 1959 – Raymond Chandler, American-born novelist (b. 1888)
  • 1969 – John Kennedy Toole, American author (b. 1937)
  • 1973 – Noel Coward, English composer and playwright (b. 1899)
  • 1973 – Johnny Drake, American football player (b. 1916)
  • 1973 – Don Messer, Canadian fiddler (b. 1909)
  • 1973 – George Sisler, American baseball player (b. 1893)
  • 1976 – Josef Albers, German artist (b. 1888)
  • 1976 – Lin Yutang, Chinese writer (b. 1895)
  • 1978 – Wilfred Pickles, English actor and broadcaster (b. 1904)
  • 1983 – Anthony Blunt, British art historian and spy (b. 1907)
  • 1984 – Ahmed Sékou Touré, President of Guinea (b. 1922)
  • 1987 – Eugen Jochum, German conductor (b. 1902)
  • 1990 – Halston, American fashion designer (b. 1932)
  • 1992 – Barbara Frum, Canadian journalist (b. 1937)
  • 1995 – Eazy-E, American rapper (b. 1963)
  • 1996 – Edmund Muskie, American politician (b. 1914)
  • 1996 – David Packard, American engineer and businessman (b. 1912)
  • 1997 – Marshall Applewhite, American cult leader (b. 1931)
  • 2000 – Alex Comfort, American author (b. 1920)
  • 2002 – Randy Castillo, American drummer (Ozzy Osbourne, Mötley Crüe) (b. 1950)
  • 2003 – Daniel Patrick Moynihan, U.S. Senator (b. 1927)
  • 2004 – Jan Berry, American musician (Jan and Dean) (b. 1941)
  • 2004 – Jan Sterling, American actress (b. 1921)
  • 2005 – James Callaghan, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1912)
  • 2005 – Paul Hester, Australian drummer (Split Enz and Crowded House) (b. 1959)
  • 2005 – Marius Russo, American baseball player (b. 1914)
  • 2006 – Anil Biswas, Indian politician (b. 1944)
  • 2006 – Paul Dana, American race car driver (b. 1975)
  • 2006 – Nikki Sudden, British singer/songwriter (b. 1956)

March 26 – Holidays:

  • Independence Day – Bangladesh
  • Zoroastrianism – Prophet Zoroaster’s Birthday.
  • Prince Kuhio Day in Hawaii
  • Saint Emmanuel (died 304)
  • Saint Ludger
  • Saint Larissa
  • Eastern (Byzantine) Catholic Church: Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel
  • Orthodox Christian liturgical calendar – Synaxis of St. Gabriel the Archangel

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On This Day in History March 25

March 25 – Events:

  • 1199 – Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6th.
  • 1306 – Robert the Bruce becomes King of Scotland.
  • 1409 – The Council of Pisa opens.
  • 1584 – Sir Walter Raleigh is granted a patent to exploit Virginia.
  • 1634 – The first settlers arrive in Maryland.
  • 1655 – Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens.
  • 1655 – Protestants take control of Maryland at the Battle of the Severn.
  • 1802 – The Treaty of Amiens is signed as a “Definitive Treaty of Peace” between France and United Kingdom.
  • 1807 – The Slave Trade Act becomes law, abolishing the slave trade in the British Empire.
  • 1807 – The Swansea and Mumbles Railway, then known as the Oystermouth Railway, became the first passenger carrying railway in the world.
  • 1811 – Percy Bysshe Shelley is expelled from the University of Oxford for his publication of the pamphlet The Necessity of Atheism.
  • 1821 – (Julian Calendar) Greeks revolt against the Ottoman Empire, beginning the Greek War of Independence.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: In Virginia, Confederate forces capture Fort Stedman from the Union in a bloody battle.
  • 1894 – Coxey’s Army, the first significant American protest march, departs Massillon, Ohio for Washington D.C..
  • 1903 – Racing Club de Avellaneda, one of the big five of Argentina, was founded.
  • 1908 – Clube Atletico Mineiro, Founded in Belo Horizonte,Brazil.
  • 1911 – In New York City the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire kills 146 garment workers.
  • 1917 – The Georgian Orthodox Church restores its autocephaly abolished by Imperial Russia in 1811.
  • 1918 – The Belarusian People’s Republic was established.
  • 1931 – The Scottsboro Boys are arrested in Alabama and charged with rape.
  • 1939 – Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli becomes Pope Pius XII.
  • 1941 – Kingdom of Yugoslavia joins the Axis powers with the signing of the Tripartite Pact.
  • 1947 – An explosion in a coalmine in Centralia, Illinois kills 111.
  • 1949 – The extensive deportation campaign known as March deportation was conducted in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to force collectivisation by way of terror. The Soviet authorities deported more than 92,000 people from Baltics to remote areas of the Soviet Union.
  • 1955 – United States Customs seizes copies of Allen Ginsberg’s poem “Howl” as obscene.
  • 1957 – The European Economic Community is established (West Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg).
  • 1958 – Canada’s Avro Arrow makes its debut flight.
  • 1965 – Civil rights activists led by Martin Luther King, Jr. successfully complete their 4-day 50-mile march from Selma to the capitol in Montgomery.
  • 1969 – During their honeymoon, John Lennon and Yoko Ono hold their first Bed-In for Peace in the Amsterdam Hilton Hotel (until March 31).
  • 1971 – Bangladesh Liberation War: Beginning of Operation Searchlight of Pakistan Army against East Pakistani civilians.
  • 1975 – Faisal of Saudi Arabia is shot and killed by a mentally ill nephew.
  • 1979 – The first fully functional space shuttle orbiter, Columbia, is delivered to the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be prepared for its first launch.
  • 1988 – The Candle demonstration in Bratislava was the first mass demonstration of the 1980’s against the communist regime in Czechoslovakia.
  • 1990 – In the Bronx, New York City, a fire at an illegal social club called “Happy Land” kills 87 people.
  • 1992 – Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev returns to Earth after a 10-month stay aboard the Mir space station.
  • 1996 – An 81-day-long standoff between the anti-government group Montana Freemen and law enforcement near Jordan, Montana, begins.
  • 1996 – The Labour Party is founded in Turkey.
  • 1996 – The EU’s Veterinarian Committee bans the export of British beef and its byproducts as a result of mad cow disease (BSE).
  • 2006 – The Capitol Hill massacre occurs: a gunman kills six people before taking his own life at a party in Seattle’s Capitol Hill neighborhood; it is one of the largest crime scenes the city has ever had.
  • 2006 – Protesters demanding a re-election in Belarus following the rigged Belarusian presidential election, 2006 clash with riot police.

March 25 – Birthdays:

  • 1252 – Conradin, Duke of Swabia (d. 1268)
  • 1259 – Andronikos II Palaiologos, Byzantine emperor (d. 1332)
  • 1297 – Andronicus III Palaeologus, Eastern Roman Emperor (d. 1341)
  • 1297 – Arnost of Pardubice, Archbishop of Prague (d. 1364)
  • 1345 – Blanche of Lancaster, wife of John of Gaunt (d. 1369)
  • 1347 – Catherine of Siena, Italian saint (d. 1380)
  • 1404 (baptism) – John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, English military leader (d. 1444)
  • 1479 – Vasili III, Grand Prince of Moscow (d. 1533)
  • 1539 – Christopher Clavius, German mathematician (d. 1612)
  • 1541 – Francesco I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (d. 1587)
  • 1593 – Jean de Brébeuf, French Jesuit missionary (d. 1649)
  • 1643 – Louis Moréri, French encylopedist (d. 1680)
  • 1661 – Paul de Rapin, French historian (d. 1725)
  • 1699 – Johann Adolph Hasse, German composer (d. 1783)
  • 1767 – Joachim Murat, King of Naples (d. 1815)
  • 1782 – Caroline Bonaparte, Queen of Naples (d. 1839)
  • 1800 – Heinrich von Dechsen, German geologist (d. 1889)
  • 1824 – Clinton L. Merriam, American politician (d. 1900)
  • 1840 – Myles Keogh, U.S. Soldier in U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment & Irish Soldier of Fortune (d. 1876)
  • 1863 – Simon Flexner, American pathologist (d. 1946)
  • 1867 – Arturo Toscanini, Italian conductor, (d. 1957)
  • 1868 – William Lockwood, English cricketer (d. 1932)
  • 1873 – Rudolf Rocker, German anarchist (d. 1958)
  • 1877 – Walter Little, Canadian politician (d. 1961)
  • 1881 – Béla Bartók, Hungarian composer (d. 1945)
  • 1881 – Mary Gladys Webb, English writer (d. 1927)
  • 1884 – Georges Imbert, Alsatian chemist (d. 1950)
  • 1886 – Athenagoras, Patriarch of Constantinople (d. 1972)
  • 1892 – Andy Clyde, American actor (d. 1967)
  • 1895 – Siegfried Handloser, German physician (d. 1954)
  • 1897 – John Laurie, Scottish actor (d. 1980)
  • 1899 – Burt Munro, New Zealand motorcycle racer (d. 1978)
  • 1901 – Ed Begley, American actor (d. 1970)
  • 1903 – Nahum Norbert Glatzer, Jewish-American scholar (d. 1990)
  • 1903 – Frankie Carle, American pianist and bandleader (d. 2001)
  • 1906 – A.J.P. Taylor, British historian (d. 1990)
  • 1906 – Jean Sablon, French singer (d. 1994)
  • 1908 – Helmut Käutner, German actor and director (d. 1980)
  • 1908 – David Lean, English film director (d. 1991)
  • 1910 – Magda Olivero, Italian soprano
  • 1911 – Jack Ruby, killer of Lee Harvey Oswald (d. 1967)
  • 1912 – Jean Vilar, French stage and film actor (d. 1971)
  • 1913 – Sir Reo Stakis, Anglo-Cypriot hotel magnate, head of Stakis Hotels (d. 2001)
  • 1914 – Norman Borlaug, American agricultural scientist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1918 – Howard Cosell, American sports reporter (d. 1995)
  • 1920 – Patrick Troughton, English actor (d. 1987)
  • 1920 – Arthur Wint, Jamaican runner (d. 1992)
  • 1921 – Nancy Kelly, American actress (d. 1995)
  • 1921 – Simone Signoret, French actress (d. 1985)
  • 1921 – Alexandra of Greece and Denmark, Queen of Yugoslavia (d. 1993)
  • 1922 – Eileen Ford, American model agency executive
  • 1925 – Flannery O’Connor, American author (d. 1964)
  • 1926 – László Papp, Hungarian boxer (d. 2003)
  • 1926 – Jaime Sabines, Mexican poet (d. 1999)
  • 1928 – Jim Lovell, American astronaut
  • 1929 – Wim van Est, Dutch cyclist (d. 2003)
  • 1931 – Paul Motian, American jazz drummer and composer
  • 1932 – Gene Shalit, American film critic
  • 1934 – Gloria Steinem, American feminist and publisher
  • 1935 – Flash Elorde, Filipino boxer
  • 1938 – Hoyt Axton, American actor and country music singer-songwriter (d. 1999)
  • 1938 – Fritz d’Orey, Brazilian racing driver
  • 1939 – Toni Cade Bambara, American author (d. 1995)
  • 1940 – Anita Bryant, American singer
  • 1941 – Gudmund Hernes, Norwegian politician
  • 1942 – Aretha Franklin, American singer
  • 1942 – Richard O’Brien, English actor and writer, host of The Crystal Maze
  • 1942 – Kim Woodburn, English television personality
  • 1943 – Paul Michael Glaser, American actor
  • 1946 – Cliff Balsam, English footballer
  • 1946 – Maurice Krafft, French vulcanologist (d. 1991)
  • 1946 – Gerard John Schaefer, American serial killer (d. 1995)
  • 1947 – Elton John, English singer and songwriter
  • 1948 – Bonnie Bedelia, American actress
  • 1948 – Lynn Faulds Wood, Scottish television presenter
  • 1950 – Chuck Greenberg, American musician (Shadowfax) (d. 1995)
  • 1952 – Antanas Mockus, Colombian mathematician
  • 1954 – Elli Stai, Greek journalist and TV presenter
  • 1954 – Thom Loverro, American sportswriter
  • 1955 – Daniel Boulud, French chef and restaurateur
  • 1955 – Lee Mazzilli, American baseball player
  • 1956 – Matthew Garber, English actor (d. 1977)
  • 1958 – Ray Tanner, American college baseball coach
  • 1958 – Sisy Chen, Taiwanese politician and television commentator
  • 1958 – Åsa Torstensson, Swedish politician
  • 1960 – Idy Chan Yuk-Lin, Hong Kong actress
  • 1960 – Steve Norman, British saxophonist (Spandau Ballet)
  • 1960 – Peter O’Brien, Australian actor
  • 1960 – Haywood Nelson, American actor
  • 1960 – Brenda Strong, American actress
  • 1961 – Fred Goss, American actor, comedian, and writer
  • 1962 – Marcia Cross, American actress
  • 1964 – Ken Wregget, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1964 – Alex Solis, Panamanian jockey
  • 1965 – Sarah Jessica Parker, American actress
  • 1965 – Avery Johnson, American basketball player and coach
  • 1965 – Stefka Kostadinova, Bulgarian high jumper
  • 1966 – Tom Glavine, American baseball player
  • 1966 – Jeff Healey, Canadian guitarist (d. 2008)
  • 1966 – Tatjana Patitz, German supermodel
  • 1966 – Anton Rogan, Irish footballer
  • 1967 – Matthew Barney, American media artist
  • 1967 – Debi Thomas, American figure skater
  • 1967 – Doug Stanhope, American Comedian
  • 1969 – Dale Davis, American basketball player
  • 1969 – Cathy Dennis, English singer, songwriter, and actress
  • 1970 – Kari Matchett, Canadian actress
  • 1971 – Cammi Granato, American ice hockey player
  • 1973 – Anthony Barness, English footballer
  • 1973 – Anders Fridén, Swedish singer (In Flames)
  • 1974 – Lark Voorhies, American actress
  • 1975 – Ladislav Benysek, Czech ice hockey player
  • 1975 – Melanie Blatt, British singer (All Saints)
  • 1976 – Francis Bellew, Irish Gaelic footballer
  • 1976 – Cha Tae-hyun, South Korean actor
  • 1976 – Juvenile, American rapper
  • 1976 – Wladimir Klitschko, Ukrainian boxer
  • 1976 – Gigi Leung, Hong Kong singer/actress
  • 1978 – Baek Ji Young, South Korean singer
  • 1979 – Lee Pace, American actor
  • 1979 – Natasha Yi, American supermodel
  • 1979 – Gorilla Zoe, rapper
  • 1980 – Carrie Lam, Hong Kong actress
  • 1982 – Danica Patrick, American race car driver
  • 1982 – Sean Faris, American actor and model
  • 1982 – Sergey Yakovlev, russian musical artist and painter
  • 1982 – Álvaro Saborío, Costa Rican footballer
  • 1984 – Katharine McPhee, American Idol contestant
  • 1987 – Nobunari Oda, Japanese figure skater
  • 1987 – Jason Castro, American Idol contestant
  • 1989 – Alyson Michalka, American actress/singer

March 25 – Deaths:

  • 752 – Pope-elect Stephen (died before taking office)
  • 1223 – Afonso II of Portugal (b. 1185)
  • 1345 – Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, English politician (b. 1281)
  • 1458 – Marqués de Santillana, Spanish poet (b. 1398)
  • 1558 – Marcos de Niza, French Franciscan explorer
  • 1561 – Conrad Lycosthenes, humanist and encyclopedist (b. 1518)
  • 1603 – Ikoma Chikamasa, Japanese warlord (b. 1526)
  • 1609 – Olaus Martini, Swedish Archbishop of Uppsala (b. 1557)
  • 1620 – Johannes Nucius, German composer
  • 1625 – Giambattista Marini, Italian poet (b. 1569)
  • 1712 – Nehemiah Grew, English naturalist (b. 1641)
  • 1736 – Nicholas Hawksmoor, British architect
  • 1738 – Turlough O’Carolan, Irish harper and composer (b. 1670)
  • 1751 – Frederick I of Sweden (b. 1676)
  • 1801 – Novalis, German poet (b. 1772)
  • 1917 – Spyros Samaras, Greek composer of the Olympic Anthem (b. 1861)
  • 1818 – Caspar Wessel, Danish mathematician (b. 1745)
  • 1917 – Elizabeth Storrs Mead, American educator (b. 1832)
  • 1860 – James Braid, Scottish surgeon (b. 1795)
  • 1908 – Durham Stevens, American diplomat (b. 1851)
  • 1914 – Frédéric Mistral, French poet, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1830)
  • 1918 – Claude Debussy, French composer (b. 1862)
  • 1951 – Eddie Collins, baseball player (b. 1887)
  • 1957 – Max Ophüls, German-born director and writer (b. 1902)
  • 1958 – Tom Brown, American musician (b. 1888)
  • 1967 – Renato Cellini, Italian conductor (b.c.1913)
  • 1969 – Max Eastman, American writer (b. 1883)
  • 1969 – Billy Cotton, British bandleader & entertainer (b. 1889)
  • 1975 – King Faisal of Saudi Arabia (b. 1906)
  • 1975 – Juan Gaudino, Argentine racing driver (b. 1893)
  • 1980 – Roland Barthes, French literary critic and writer (b. 1915)
  • 1980 – Milton H. Erickson, American psychiatrist (b. 1901)
  • 1980 – Walter Susskind, Czech conductor (b. 1913)
  • 1980 – James Wright, American poet (b. 1927)
  • 1988 – Robert Joffrey, American dancer, teacher, and choreographer (b. 1930)
  • 1991 – Marcel Lefebvre, French Catholic prelate (b. 1905)
  • 1992 – Nancy Walker, American actress (b. 1922)
  • 1994 – Max Petitpierre, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1899)
  • 1995 – James Coleman, American sociologist (b. 1926)
  • 1995 – Krešimir Cosic, Croatian basketball player (b. 1948)
  • 1995 – John Hugenholtz, Dutch race track designer (b. 1914)
  • 1996 – John Snagge, British radio personality (b. 1904)
  • 1998 – Max Green, Australian lawyer (b. 1952)
  • 1999 – Cal Ripken, Sr., American baseball manager (b. 1936)
  • 2000 – Helen Martin, American actress (b. 1909)
  • 2002 – Kenneth Wolstenholme, English football commentator (b. 1920)
  • 2005 – Paul Henning, American TV/film producer and writer (b. 1911)
  • 2006 – Rocío Dúrcal, Spanish singer and actress (b. 1944)
  • 2006 – Richard Fleischer, American film director (b. 1916)
  • 2006 – Buck Owens, American singer and television personality (b. 1929)
  • 2007 – Andranik Margaryan, 14th Prime Minister of Armenia (b. 1951)

March 25 – Holidays:

  • In Christianity, March 25 is typically celebrated as the day of the Annunciation so long as it does not fall on a Sunday or during Holy Week or Easter Week.
  • Hilaria, day of resurrection of Attis, a Phrygian deity
  • istoric start of the new year (Lady Day) in England, Wales, Ireland, and the future United States until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in 1752. (The year 1751 began on 25 March; the year 1752 began on 1 January.)
  • As the day falls close to the vernal equinox, similar to the way Christmas falls near the December solstice, both days are regarded as one of the Quarter Days to Christians in the British Isles.
  • Maryland Day.
  • Greek Independence Day.
  • Freedom Day in Belarus.
  • Mother’s Day in Slovenia.
  • One of the four Irish Quarter days in the Irish calendar.
  • Saint Dysmas, the ‘Good Thief’
  • Saint Humbert

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On This Day in History March 24

March 24 – Events:

  • 1401 – Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus.
  • 1603 – James VI of Scotland also becomes James I King of England.
  • 1731 – An Act to naturalize Hieronimus De Salis Esquire, passed.
  • 1765 – American Revolutionary War: The Kingdom of Great Britain passes the Quartering Act that requires the 13 American colonies to house British troops.
  • 1832 – In Hiram, Ohio a group of men beat, tar and feather Mormon leader Joseph Smith, Jr.
  • 1837 – Canada gives African men the right to vote.
  • 1868 – Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is formed.
  • 1878 – The British frigate HMS Eurydice sinks, killing more than 300.
  • 1882 – Robert Koch announces the discovery of the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis).
  • 1898 – Robert Allison of Port Carbon, Pennsylvania becomes the first person to buy an American-built automobile when he buys a Winton automobile that was advertised in Scientific American.
  • 1900 – New York City Mayor Robert Anderson Van Wyck breaks ground for a new underground “Rapid Transit Railroad” that would link Manhattan and Brooklyn.
  • 1923 – Greece becomes a republic.
  • 1934 – U.S. Congress passes Tydings-McDuffie Act.
  • 1944 – German troops kill 335 Italian civilians in the Ardeatine Massacre in Rome.
  • 1944 – In an event later dramatized in the movie The Great Escape, 76 prisoners begin breaking out of Stalag Luft III.
  • 1959 – The Party of the African Federation (PFA) is launched by Léopold Sédar Senghor and Modibo Keita.
  • 1965 – NASA spacecraft Ranger 9, equipped to convert its signals into a form suitable for showing on domestic television, brings images of the Moon into ordinary homes before crash-landing.
  • 1972 – The United Kingdom imposes “Direct Rule” over Northern Ireland.
  • 1973 – Kenyan track runner Kip Keino defeats Jim Ryun at the first-ever professional track meet in Los Angeles, sanctioned by the International Track Association.
  • 1976 – Argentina’s military forces depose president Isabel Perón and start the National Reorganization Process.
  • 1980 – Archbishop Óscar Romero is killed by right-wing terrorists while celebrating Mass in San Salvador.
  • 1989 – Exxon Valdez oil spill: In Alaska’s Prince William Sound the Exxon Valdez spills 240,000 barrels (42,000 m³) of petroleum after running aground.
  • 1998 – Jonesboro massacre: Two students, ages 11 and 13, fire upon teachers and students at Westside Middle School in Jonesboro, Arkansas; five people are dead and ten are wounded.
  • 1998 – Tornado sweeps through Dantan in India killing 250 people and injuring 3,000 others.
  • 1999 – Kosovo War: NATO commences air bombardment against Yugoslavia, marking the first time NATO has attacked a sovereign country.
  • 1999 – Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire: 39 people died when a Belgian transport truck carrying flour and margarine caught fire in Mont Blanc Tunnel.
  • 2000 – The S&P 500 reaches an all-time high of 1527.46.
  • 2003 – The Arab League votes 21-1 in favor of a resolution demanding the immediate and unconditional removal of U.S. and British soldiers from Iraq.
  • 2006 – Long-term protests in Belarus are broken by police.
  • 2006 – Pope Benedict XVI adds 15 men to the College of Cardinals, in the first consistory of his Pontificate.
  • 2007 – The Australian Labor Party is reinstated after the NSW state elections.

March 24 – Birthdays:

  • 1494 – Georg Agricola, German scientist (d. 1555)
  • 1607 – Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter, Dutch admiral (d. 1667)
  • 1628 – Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, queen of Denmark and Norway (d. 1685)
  • 1657 – Arai Hakuseki, Japanese writer and politician (d. 1725)
  • 1693 – John Harrison, British clockmaker (d. 1776)
  • 1725 – Samuel Ashe, Governor of North Carolina (d. 1813)
  • 1725 – Thomas Cushing, American Continental Congressman and acting Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1788)
  • 1782 – Orest Kiprensky, Russian painter (d. 1836)
  • 1796 – John Corry Wilson Daly, Canadian politician (d. 1878)
  • 1809 – Mariano José de Larra, Spanish journalist and writer (d. 1837)
  • 1809 – Joseph Liouville, French mathematician (d. 1882)
  • 1820 – A. E. Becquerel, French physicist (d. 1891)
  • 1820 – Fanny Crosby, American hymnist (d. 1915)
  • 1828 – Horace Gray, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1902)
  • 1829 – George Francis Train, American businessman (d. 1904)
  • 1829 – Ignacio Zaragoza, Mexican general (d. 1862)
  • 1830 – Robert Hamerling, Austrian poet (d. 1889)
  • 1834 – William Morris, English writer and designer (d. 1896)
  • 1834 – John Wesley Powell, American explorer and environmentalist (d. 1902)
  • 1835 – Jožef Stefan, Slovenian physicist (d. 1893)
  • 1848 – Honoré Beaugrand, Quebec journalist and newspaper publisher (La Patrie) (d. 1906)
  • 1850 – Silas Hocking, British novelist and preacher (d. 1935)
  • 1855 – Andrew Mellon, American financier (d. 1937)
  • 1855 – Olive Schreiner, South African writer (d. 1920)
  • 1874 – Harry Houdini, (Weisz Erik), Hungarian-born magician (d. 1926)
  • 1884 – Peter Debye, Dutch chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1966)
  • 1886 – Athenagoras I, Greek Patriarch of Constantinople (d. 1972)
  • 1886 – Edward Weston, American photographer (d. 1958)
  • 1887 – Roscoe Arbuckle, American actor (d. 1933)
  • 1888 – Viktor Kingissepp, Estonian Bolshevik politician (d. 1922)
  • 1889 – Albert Hill, British athlete (d. 1969)
  • 1891 – Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov, Soviet physicist (d. 1951)
  • 1893 – George Sisler, American baseball player (d. 1973)
  • 1893 – Walter Baade, German astronomer (d. 1960)
  • 1897 – Wilhelm Reich, Austrian-born psychotherapist (d. 1957)
  • 1901 – Ub Iwerks, American cartoonist (d. 1971)
  • 1902 – Thomas Dewey, American politician (d. 1971)
  • 1903 – Adolf Butenandt, German chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1995)
  • 1903 – Malcolm Muggeridge, British author and scholar (d. 1990)
  • 1906 – Klavdiya Shulzhenko, Soviet singer (d. 1984)
  • 1907 – Paul Sauvé, Quebec politician (d. 1960)
  • 1909 – Clyde Barrow, American crime figure (d. 1934)
  • 1910 – Richard Conte, American actor (d. 1975)
  • 1911 – Joseph Barbera, American cartoonist (d. 2006)
  • 1915 – Gorgeous George, American professional wrestler (d. 1963)
  • 1916 – Donald Hamilton, Swedish-American novelist (d. 2006)
  • 1917 – John Kendrew, British molecular biologist, Nobel laureate (d. 1997)
  • 1917 – Constantine Andreou, Greek-Brazilian artist (d. 2007)
  • 1919 – Lawrence Ferlinghetti, American author and publisher
  • 1919 – Robert Heilbroner, American economist (d. 2005)
  • 1920 – Gene Nelson, American actor (d. 1996)
  • 1921 – Vasily Smyslov, Russian chess player
  • 1922 – Onna White, Canadian choreographer (d. 2005)
  • 1923 – Murray Hamilton, American actor (d. 1986)
  • 1924 – Norman Fell, American actor (d. 1998)
  • 1925 – Puig Aubert, French rugby league footballer (d. 1994)
  • 1926 – Dario Fo, Italian writer, Nobel laureate
  • 1927 – Martin Walser, German author
  • 1928 – Byron Janis, American pianist
  • 1930 – David Dacko, 1st President of the Central African Republic (d. 2003)
  • 1930 – Agustín González, Spanish actor (d. 2005)
  • 1930 – Steve McQueen, American actor (d. 1980)
  • 1934 – William Smith, American actor
  • 1935 – Peter Bichsel, Swiss writer
  • 1936 – David Suzuki, Canadian scientist and environmentalist
  • 1937 – Billy Stewart, American singer (d. 1970)
  • 1938 – Holger Czukay, German musician (Can)
  • 1938 – David Irving, British historian
  • 1940 – Bob Mackie, American fashion designer
  • 1940 – Don Jardine, Canadian professional wrestler (d. 2006)
  • 1944 – R. Lee Ermey, American actor
  • 1944 – Vojislav Koštunica, Serbian Prime Minister
  • 1945 – Robert T. Bakker, American paleontologist
  • 1945 – Curtis Hanson, American film director
  • 1946 – Klaus Dinger, German musician (Neu!, Kraftwerk)
  • 1947 – Meiko Kaji, Japanese singer and actress
  • 1947 – Alan Sugar, English businessman
  • 1949 – Nick Lowe, British musician
  • 1951 – Pat Bradley, American golfer
  • 1951 – Tommy Hilfiger, American fashion designer
  • 1951 – Dougie Thomson, British bassist (Supertramp)
  • 1953 – Louie Anderson, American comedian
  • 1954 – Robert Carradine, American actor
  • 1954 – Donna Pescow, American actress
  • 1955 – Doug Jarvis, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1957 – Pierre Harvey, Quebec cyclist and cross-country skier
  • 1958 – Mike Woodson, American basketball player and head coach
  • 1958 – El Duce, American drummer/singer The Mentors (d. 1997)
  • 1960 – Kelly LeBrock, American actress
  • 1960 – Barry Horowitz, American professional wrestler
  • 1960 – Nena, German singer
  • 1960 – Scott Pruett, American race car driver
  • 1961 – Dean Jones, Australian cricketer
  • 1962 – Star Jones Reynolds, American television personality
  • 1962 – Angèle Dubeau, Quebec violinist
  • 1964 – Annabella Sciorra, American actress
  • 1965 – The Undertaker, American professional wrestler
  • 1965 – Gurmit Singh, Singaporean actor
  • 1969 – Houston, American pornographic actress
  • 1970 – Lara Flynn Boyle, American actress
  • 1970 – Sharon Corr, Irish musician (The Corrs)
  • 1970 – Judith Draxler, Austrian swimmer
  • 1972 – Steve Karsay, American baseball player
  • 1973 – Jacek Bak, Polish footballer
  • 1973 – Steve Corica, Australian soccer player
  • 1974 – Chad Butler, American drummer (Switchfoot)
  • 1974 – Alyson Hannigan, American actress
  • 1975 – Thomas Johansson, Swedish tennis player
  • 1976 – Aaron Brooks, American football player
  • 1976 – Peyton Manning, American football player
  • 1976 – Aliou Cissé, Senegalese footballer
  • 1976 – Athanasios Kostoulas, Greek footballer
  • 1977 – Darren Lockyer, Australian rugby league footballer
  • 1977 – Corneille, Canadian-Rwandan singer
  • 1978 – Michael Braun, Australian Football League player (West Coast Eagles)
  • 1979 – Graeme Swann, English cricketer
  • 1979 – Periklis Iakovakis, Greek athlete
  • 1980 – Tassos Venetis, Greek footballer
  • 1981 – Ron Hainsey, American hockey player
  • 1982 – Dustin McGowan, American baseball player
  • 1982 – Corey Hart, American baseball player
  • 1982 – Nivea Hamilton, American R&B singer.
  • 1983 – T.J. Ford, American basketball player
  • 1984 – Chris Bosh, American basketball player
  • 1985 – Haruka Ayase, Japanese actress and model
  • 1986 – Kohei Hirate, Japanese racing driver
  • 1986 – Anthony McMahon, English footballer
  • 1988 – Ryan Higgins, Zimbabwean cricketer
  • 1990 – Keisha Castle-Hughes, Australian-born New Zealand actress

March 24 – Deaths:

  • 809 – Harun al-Rashid, Abbasid caliph (b. 763)
  • 1284 – King Hugh III of Cyprus
  • 1361 – Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, English soldier and diplomat
  • 1381 – Catherine of Sweden, Swedish saint
  • 1396 – Walter Hilton, English mystic
  • 1455 – Pope Nicholas V (b. 1397)
  • 1558 – Anna of Egmond, Countess of Egmond and Buren (b. 1533)
  • 1563 – Hosokawa Harumoto, Japanese military leader (b. 1514)
  • 1575 – Yosef Karo, Spanish-born rabbi (b. 1488)
  • 1603 – Queen Elizabeth I of England (b. 1533)
  • 1653 – Samuel Scheidt, German composer (b. 1587)
  • 1773 – Philip Dormer Stanhope, English statesman (b. 1694)
  • 1776 – John Harrison, English clockmaker (b. 1693)
  • 1869 – Antoine-Henri Jomini, French general (b. 1779)
  • 1881 – Joseph Delesse, French geologist (b. 1817)
  • 1882 – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, American author (b. 1807)
  • 1887 – Ivan Kramskoi, Russian painter and art critic (b. 1837)
  • 1888 – Vsevolod Garshin, Russian author (b. 1855)
  • 1905 – Jules Verne, French author (b. 1828)
  • 1909 – John Millington Synge, Irish playwright (b. 1871)
  • 1915 – Karol Olszewski, Polish scientist (b. 1846)
  • 1916 – Enrique Granados, Spanish composer (b. 1867)
  • 1921 – Larry McLean, Canadian baseball player (b. 1881)
  • 1944 – Orde Wingate, British soldier (b. 1903)
  • 1946 – Alexander Alekhine, Russian chess player (b. 1892)
  • 1948 – Sigrid Hjertén, Swedish modernist painter (b. 1885)
  • 1950 – James Rudolph Garfield, American politician (b. 1865)
  • 1953 – Mary of Teck, queen consort to George V of the United Kingdom (b. 1867)
  • 1962 – Jean Goldkette, Greek-born musician (b. 1899)
  • 1962 – Auguste Piccard, Swiss physicist and explorer (b. 1884)
  • 1968 – Alice Guy-Blaché, American film director (b. 1873)
  • 1976 – Bernard Montgomery, British field marshal (b. 1887)
  • 1980 – Óscar Romero, Archbishop of El Salvador (b. 1917)
  • 1984 – Sam Jaffe, American actor (b. 1891)
  • 1990 – Ray Goulding, American comedian (b. 1922)
  • 1990 – An Wang, Chinese-born computer innovator (b. 1920)
  • 1991 – Sir John Kerr, 18th Governor General of Australia (b. 1914)
  • 1993 – John Hersey, American author (b. 1914)
  • 1997 – Martin Caidin, American writer noted for his focus on aviation (b. 1927)
  • 1997 – Harold Melvin, American singer (Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes) (b. 1939)
  • 1999 – Gertrud Scholtz-Klink, German women’s leader (b. 1902)
  • 1999 – Birdie Tebbetts, American baseball player and manager (b. 1912)
  • 2001 – Muriel Young, English TV entertainer (b. 1928)
  • 2002 – César Milstein, Argentine scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1927)
  • 2003 – Hans Hermann Groër, Austrian Catholic archbishop (b. 1919)
  • 2006 – Lynne Perrie, English actress (b. 1931)

March 24 – Holidays:

  • Ancient Latvia – Kazimiras Diena observed.
  • World Tuberculosis Day.
  • Labor Day Melbourne, Australia
  • Liturgical feasts:
    • Saint Macartan
    • Saint Simeon (d. 1475)
    • Saint Catharine of Sweden (d. 1381)

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On This Day in History March 23

 March 23 – Events:

  • 1174 – Jocelin, abbot of Melrose, is elected bishop of Glasgow.
  • 1568 – Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. Again Catherine de’ Medici and Charles IX of France make substantial concessions to the Huguenots.
  • 1708 – James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth.
  • 1775 – American Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry delivers his famous speech -”give me liberty or give me death” at St. John’s Church in Richmond, Virginia.
  • 1801 – Tsar Paul I of Russia is struck with a sword, then strangled, and finally trampled to death in his bedroom at St. Michael’s Castle.
  • 1806 – After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Lewis and Clark and their “Corps of Discovery” begin their arduous journey home.
  • 1821 – Battle and fall of city of Kalamata, Greek War of Independence.
  • 1848 – The ship John Wickliffe arrives at Port Chalmers carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand. Otago province is founded.
  • 1857 – Elisha Otis’s first elevator is installed at 488 Broadway New York City.
  • 1868 – The University of California is founded in Oakland, California when the Organic Act is signed into law.
  • 1889 – Land run: President Benjamin Harrison opens Oklahoma to white settlement starting on April 22.
  • 1889 – The free Woolwich Ferry officially opens in east London.
  • 1889 – The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was established by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian India.
  • 1896 – The Raines Law is passed by the New York State Legislature, restricting Sunday sale of alcohol to hotels
  • 1903 – The Wright Brothers apply for a patent on their invention of one of the first successful airplanes.
  • 1908 – American diplomat Durham Stevens is attacked by Korean assassins Jeon Myeong-un and Jang In-hwan, leading to his death in hospital two days later
  • 1909 – Theodore Roosevelt leaves New York for a post-presidency safari in Africa. The trip is sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society.
  • 1919 – In Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist political movement.
  • 1931 – Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev embrace the gallows during the Indian struggle for independence. Their request to be shot by a firing squad is refused.
  • 1933 – The Reichstag passes the Enabling act of 1933, making Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany.
  • 1935 – Signing of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
  • 1940 – The Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Pakistan or the then Qarardad-e-Lahore) is put forward at the Annual General Convention of the All India Muslim League.
  • 1942 – World War II: In the Indian Ocean, Japanese forces capture the Andaman Islands.
  • 1956 – Pakistan becomes the first Islamic republic in the world. (Republic Day in Pakistan)
  • 1962 – NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, was launched as a showcase for Dwight D. Eisenhower’s Atoms for Peace initiative.
  • 1965 – NASA launches Gemini 3, the United States’ first two-man space flight (crew: Gus Grissom and John Young).
  • 1978 – The first UNIFIL troops arrived in Lebanon for peacekeeping mission along the Blue Line.
  • 1980 – Archbishop Óscar Romero of El Salvador gives his famous speech appealing to men of the El Salvadoran armed forces to stop killing the Salvadorans.
  • 1982 – Guatemala’s government, headed by Fernando Romeo Lucas García is overthrown in a military coup by right-wing General Efraín Ríos Montt.
  • 1983 – Strategic Defense Initiative: President Ronald Reagan makes his initial proposal to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles.
  • 1989 – Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announce cold fusion at the University of Utah.
  • 1994 – At an election rally in Tijuana, Mexican presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio is assassinated by Mario Aburto Martínez.
  • 1994 – Aeroflot Flight 593 crashes in Siberia when the pilot’s fifteen-year old son accidentally disengages the autopilot, killing 75.
  • 1994 – A United States Air Force (USAF) F-16 aircraft collides with a USAF C-130 at Pope Air Force Base and then crashes, killing a group of 24 United States Army soldiers on the ground later to become known as the Green Ramp Disaster.
  • 1996 – Taiwan holds its first direct elections and chooses Lee Teng-hui as President.
  • 1999 – Gunmen assassinate Paraguay’s Vice President Luis María Argaña.
  • 2001 – The Russian Mir space station is disposed of, breaking up in the atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji.
  • 2003 – In Nasiriyah, Iraq, 11 soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company as well as 18 U.S. Marines are killed during the first major conflict of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
  • 2003 – The Australian cricket team defeats India in the cricket World cup to win their second successive Cricket World Cup.
  • 2005 – The United States 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, in a 2-1 decision, refuses to order the reinsertion of Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube.
  • 2005 – A major explosion at the Texas City Refinery kills 15 workers.
  • 2006 – Federal Reserve discontinues publishing M3 money supply.
  • 2007 – Iranian Navy seize Royal Navy personnel in Iraqi waters.

March 23 – Birthdays:

  • 1429 – Margaret of Anjou, wife of Henry VI of England (d. 1482)
  • 1638 – Frederik Ruysch, Dutch physician and anatomist (d. 1731)
  • 1645 – William Kidd, Pirate Legend From Scotland (d. 1701)
  • 1699 – John Bartram, American botanist (d. 1777)
  • 1723 – Agha Mohammad Khan Ghajar, King of Iran (d. 1771)
  • 1732 – Marie Adélaïde of France, daughter of Louis XV (d. 1800)
  • 1749 – Pierre Simon de Laplace, French mathematician and astronomer (d. 1827)
  • 1754 – Baron Jurij Vega, Slovenian mathematician, physicist, and artillery officer (d. 1802)
  • 1769 – William Smith, English geologist and cartographer (d. 1839)
  • 1769 – Augustin Daniel Belliard, French general (d. 1832)
  • 1823 – Schuyler Colfax, Vice President of the United States (d. 1885)
  • 1826 – Léon Minkus, German/Czech composer and violinist (d. 1917)
  • 1831 – Eduard Schlagintweit, German writer (d. 1866)
  • 1834 – Julius Reubke, German composer (d. 1858)
  • 1858 – Ludwig Quidde, German pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1941)
  • 1868 – Dietrich Eckart, early supporter of Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Party and member of Thule Society (d. 1923)
  • 1878 – Franz Schreker, Austrian composer (d. 1934)
  • 1880 – Heikki Ritavuori, Finnish politician (d. 1922)
  • 1881 – Roger Martin du Gard, French writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1958)
  • 1881 – Hermann Staudinger, German chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1965)
  • 1882 – Emmy Noether, German mathematician (d. 1935)
  • 1887 – Juan Gris, Spanish artist (d. 1927)
  • 1887 – Josef Capek, Czech writer (d. 1945)
  • 1887 – Prince Felix Yussupov, Russian assassin of Rasputin (d. 1967)
  • 1893 – Cedric Gibbons, American art director (d. 1960)
  • 1899 – Dora Gerson, German actress and singer (d. 1943)
  • 1900 – Erich Fromm, German-born psychoanalyst (d. 1980)
  • 1904 – H. Beam Piper, American science fiction author (d. 1964)
  • 1905 – Lale Andersen, German singer and cabaretist (d. 1972)
  • 1905 – Joan Crawford, American actress (d. 1977)
  • 1907 – Daniel Bovet, Swiss-born scientist, Nobel laureate (d. 1992)
  • 1910 – Akira Kurosawa, Japanese film director (d. 1998)
  • 1912 – Wernher von Braun, German-born physicist and engineer (d. 1977)
  • 1915 – Vasily Zaitsev, Soviet World War II hero (d. 1991)
  • 1919 – Carl Graffunder, mid-century modernist architect
  • 1920 – Neal Smith, former United States Congressman
  • 1921 – Donald Campbell, British car and motorboat racer (d. 1967)
  • 1922 – Marty Allen, American comedian and actor
  • 1922 – Ugo Tognazzi, Italian actor, director and screenwriter (d. 1990)
  • 1924 – Bette Nesmith Graham, American inventor (d. 1980)
  • 1925 – David Watkin, English cinematographer
  • 1929 – Sir Roger Bannister, English runner
  • 1931 – Yevgenij Grishin, Russian speed skater (d. 2005)
  • 1931 – Viktor Korchnoi, Russian chess player
  • 1932 – Don Marshall, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1933 – Philip Zimbardo, American psychologist, known for the Stanford prison experiment
  • 1934 – Ludvig Faddeev, Russian mathematician
  • 1934 – Fernand Gignac, Canadian singer and actor (d. 2006)
  • 1934 – Mark Rydell, American film and television director
  • 1937 – Craig Breedlove, American land speed record holder
  • 1937 – Robert Gallo, American physician
  • 1938 – Maynard Jackson, first black mayor of Atlanta (d. 2003)
  • 1939 – Pepe Lienhard, Swiss band leader and entertainer
  • 1941 – Jim Trelease, American educator and children’s literature author
  • 1942 – Walter Rodney, Guyanese historian and political figure (d. 1980)
  • 1943 – Lee May, former Major League Baseball player
  • 1943 – Nils-Aslak Valkeapää, Finnish writer (d. 2001)
  • 1944 – Michael Nyman, British minimalist composer
  • 1944 – Tony McPhee, English singer and guitarist (The Groundhogs)
  • 1945 – Franco Battiato, Italian singer, songwriter and filmmaker
  • 1948 – David Olney, American musician
  • 1949 – Ric Ocasek, American musician (The Cars)
  • 1950 – Anthony De Longis, American actor
  • 1950 – Corinne Clery, French actress
  • 1951 – Ron Jaworski, American football player and analyst
  • 1952 – Kim Stanley Robinson, American author
  • 1953 – Bo Diaz, Venezuelan baseball player (d. 1990)
  • 1953 – Chaka Khan, American singer
  • 1954 – Geno Auriemma, American basketball coach
  • 1955 – Moses Malone, American basketball player
  • 1955 – Petrea Burchard, American actress
  • 1956 – José Manuel Barroso, Portuguese politician, president of the European Commission
  • 1957 – Amanda Plummer, American actress
  • 1957 – Robbie James, Welsh footballer (d. 1998)
  • 1958 – El Duce, American singer and drummer (The Mentors) (d. 1997)
  • 1960 – Nicol Stephen, Deputy First Minister of Scotland
  • 1961 – Helmi Johannes, Indonesian television newscaster
  • 1962 – Steve Redgrave, British rower, 5 Olympic Gold Medals
  • 1964 – Hope Davis, American actress
  • 1964 – John Pinette, American comedian
  • 1965 – Richard Grieco, American actor and singer
  • 1965 – Marti Pellow, Scottish singer
  • 1965 – Gary Whitehead, American poet
  • 1967 – David Ford, Canadian kayaker
  • 1968 – Damon Albarn, English musician (Blur and Gorillaz)
  • 1968 – Mitch Cullin, American novelist
  • 1968 – Fernando Hierro, Spanish footballer
  • 1968 – Michael Atherton, English cricketer
  • 1971 – Yasmeen Ghauri, Canadian supermodel
  • 1971 – Karen McDougal, American model
  • 1971 – Gail Porter, British television presenter
  • 1971 – Alexander Selivanov, Russian ice hockey player
  • 1971 – Hiroyoshi Tenzan, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1972 – Joe Calzaghe, Welsh boxer
  • 1972 – Judith Godrèche, French actress and author
  • 1973 – Jerzy Dudek, Polish footballer
  • 1973 – Wim Eyckmans, Belgian racing driver
  • 1973 – Jason Kidd, American basketball player
  • 1975 – Alydar, American racehorse (d. 1990)
  • 1976 – Michelle Monaghan, American actress
  • 1976 – Joel Peralta, Dominican baseball player
  • 1976 – Keri Russell, American actress
  • 1976 – Ricardo Zonta, Brazilian racing car driver
  • 1977 – Jean Carlos Gamarra, Peruvian taekwondo practitioner
  • 1978 – Walter Samuel, Argentine footballer
  • 1978 – Nicholle Tom, American actress
  • 1979 – Mark Buehrle, American baseball player
  • 1979 – Emraan Hashmi, Indian actor
  • 1979 – Misty Hyman, American swimmer
  • 1979 – Donncha O’Callaghan, Irish International rugby player
  • 1980 – Russell Howard, British Comedian
  • 1981 – Luciana Carro, Canadian actress
  • 1981 – Erin Crocker, American NASCAR driver
  • 1981 – Tony Peña, Jr., Dominican baseball player
  • 1983 – Jerome Thomas, English footballer
  • 1985 – Maurice Jones-Drew, American football player
  • 1986 – Steven Strait, American Actor
  • 1990 – Princess Eugenie of York
  • 1999 – Prince Beltran of Bulgaria

March 23 – Deaths:

  • 1103 – Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1058)
  • 1361 – Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster (b. c.1310)
  • 1369 – King Pedro of Castile (b. 1334)
  • 1548 – Itagaki Nobukata, retainer of Takeda Shingen
  • 1555 – Pope Julius III (b. 1487)
  • 1559 – Emperor Gelawdewos of Ethiopia (killed in battle) (b. 1521/1522)
  • 1596 – Henry Unton, English diplomat
  • 1606 – Justus Lipsius, Flemish humanist (b. 1547)
  • 1618 – James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn, Scottish politician
  • 1653 – Johan van Galen, Dutch naval officer (b. 1604)
  • 1680 – Nicolas Fouquet, French statesman (b. 1615)
  • 1742 – Jean-Baptiste Dubos, French writer (b. 1670)
  • 1747 – Claude Alexandre de Bonneval, French soldier (b. 1675)
  • 1748 – Johann Gottfried Walther, German music theorist, organist, and composer (b. 1684)
  • 1754 – Johann Jakob Wettstein, Swiss theologian (b. 1693)
  • 1783 – Charles Caroll, American lawyer and delegate to the Continental Congress (b. 1723)
  • 1801 – Tsar Paul of Russia (b. 1754)
  • 1842 – Stendhal, French writer (b. 1783)
  • 1914 – Rafqa Pietra Choboq Ar-Rayès (Saint Rebecca) Lebanese saint (b. 1832)
  • 1927 – Paul César Helleu, French artist (b. 1859)
  • 1931 – Bhagat Singh, Rajguru Sukhdev Indian freedom fighters
  • 1935 – Florence Moore, American actress (b. 1886)
  • 1947 – Archduchess Luise of Austria, Princess of Tuscany (b. 1870)
  • 1955 – Artur da Silva Bernardes, President of Brazil (b. 1875)
  • 1960 – Franklin Pierce Adams, American newspaper columnist (b. 1881)
  • 1964 – Peter Lorre, Hungarian-born actor (b. 1904)
  • 1965 – Mae Murray, American actress (b. 1889)
  • 1968 – Edwin O’Connor, American novelist and Pulitzer Prize for Fiction winner (b. 1918)
  • 1970 – Del Lord, Canadian director (b. 1894)
  • 1972 – Cristóbal Balenciaga, Spanish fashion designer (b. 1895)
  • 1979 – Ted Anderson, English footballer (b. 1911)
  • 1982 – Barney Clark, first artificial heart recipient (b. 1921)
  • 1985 – Richard Beeching, chairman of British Railways (b. 1913)
  • 1985 – Peter Charanis, Greek-American scholar and professor (b. 1908)
  • 1990 – John Dexter, English stage and film director
  • 1991 – Parkash Singh, Indian soldier, recipient of the Victoria Cross (b. 1913)
  • 1992 – Friedrich Hayek, Austrian economist, Nobel laureate (b. 1899)
  • 1994 – Luis Donaldo Colosio, Mexican politician (b. 1950)
  • 1994 – Giulietta Masina, Italian actress (b. 1921)
  • 1994 – Donald_Swann, British composer, musician and entertainer (b. 1923)
  • 1995 – Alan Barton, English musician (Black Lace, Smokie) (b. 1953)
  • 1995 – Davie Cooper, Scottish footballer (b. 1956)
  • 1998 – Gerald Stano, American serial killer (b. 1951)
  • 1999 – Luis María Argaña, Paraguayan politician
  • 2001 – Rowland Evans, American journalist (b. 1921)
  • 2002 – Eileen Farrell, American soprano (b. 1920)
  • 2002 – Ben Hollioake, English cricketer (b. 1977)
  • 2003 – Fritz Spiegl, Austrian-born journalist (b. 1926)
  • 2004 – Rupert Hamer, Australian politician (b. 1916)
  • 2006 – David B. Bleak, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1932)
  • 2006 – Desmond Doss, American soldier and first conscientious objector Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1919)
  • 2006 – Cindy Walker, American singer, songwriter and dancer (b. 1918)
  • 2007 – Paul J. Cohen, American mathematician, Fields Medal winner (b. 1934)
  • 2007 – Eric Medlen, American NHRA drag racer (b. 1973)

March 23 – Holidays:

  • Roman Empire – The fifth and final day of Quinquatria, held in honor of Minerva.
  • Roman Empire – Tubilustrium was held in honor of Mars.
  • Ancient Latvia – Lieldienas held in honor of Mara and other pagan goddesses.
  • Pakistan – National Day (Republic Day).
  • Hungary, Poland – Day of Hungarian-Polish Friendship.

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On This Day in History March 22

March 22 – Events:

  • 238 – Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperors.
  • 1621 – The Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony sign a peace treaty with Massasoit of the Wampanoags.
  • 1622 – Jamestown massacre: Algonquian Indians kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Virginia, a third of the colony’s population.
  • 1630 – Massachusetts Bay Colony outlaws the possession of cards, dice, and gaming tables.
  • 1638 – Anne Hutchinson is expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony for religious dissent.
  • 1765 – The Parliament of Great Britain passes the Stamp Act, which introduced a tax to be levied directly on its American colonies.
  • 1784 – The Emerald Buddha is moved with great ceremony to its current place in Wat Phra Kaew, Thailand.
  • 1809 – Charles XIII succeeds Gustav IV Adolf to the Swedish throne.
  • 1829 – The three protecting powers (Britain, France and Russia) establish the borders of Greece.
  • 1849 – The Austrians defeat the Piedmontese at the Battle of Novara.
  • 1871 – In North Carolina, William Woods Holden becomes the first governor of a U.S. state to be removed from office by impeachment.
  • 1873 – A law is approved by the Spanish National Assembly in Puerto Rico to abolish slavery.
  • 1888 – The Football League is formed.
  • 1894 – The first playoff game for the Stanley Cup starts.
  • 1895 – First display (a private screening) of motion pictures by Auguste and Louis Lumière.
  • 1923 – The first radio broadcast of ice hockey is made by Foster Hewitt.
  • 1933 – President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs into law a bill legalizing the sale of beer and wine.
  • 1939 – World War II: Germany takes Memel from Lithuania.
  • 1941 – Washington’s Grand Coulee Dam begins to generate electricity.
  • 1942 – World War II: In the Mediterranean Sea, Britain’s Royal Navy confronts Italy’s Regia Marina in the Second Battle of Sirte.
  • 1943 – World War II: the entire population of Khatyn in Belarus is burnt alive by German occupation forces.
  • 1945 – The Arab League is founded when a charter is adopted in Cairo, Egypt.
  • 1954 – Closed since 1939, the London bullion market reopens.
  • 1960 – Arthur Leonard Schawlow & Charles Hard Townes receive the first patent for a laser.
  • 1975 – A fire at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant in Decatur, Alabama causes dangerous lowering of cooling water levels.
  • 1978 – Karl Wallenda of the The Flying Wallendas dies after falling off a tight-rope between two hotels in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
  • 1979 – Margaret Thatcher puts down an early day motion censuring the government, which leads to the defeat of the Labour government of James Callaghan.
  • 1989 – Clint Malarchuk of the Buffalo Sabres suffers a near-fatal injury when another player accidentally slits his throat in one of the most gruesome sports injuries of all time.
  • 1993 – The Intel Corporation ships the first Pentium chips (80586), featuring a 60 MHz clock speed, 100+ MIPS, and a 64 bit data path.
  • 1995 – Cosmonaut Valeriy Polyakov returns after setting a record for 438 days in space.
  • 1997 – Tara Lipinski, age 14 years and 10 months, becomes the youngest champion of the women’s world figure skating competition.
  • 1997 – The Comet Hale-Bopp has its closest approach to earth.
  • 2006 – ETA, armed Basque separatist group, declares permanent ceasefire.
  • 2006 – BC Ferries’ M/V Queen of the North runs aground on Gil Island British Columbia and sinks; 101 on board, 2 presumed deaths.
  • 2006 – Three Christian Peacemaker Teams Hostages are freed by British forces in Baghdad after 118 days captivity and the death of their colleague, American Tom Fox.

March 22 – Birthdays:

  • 841 – Bernard Plantapilosa, Count of Auvergne (d. 885)
  • 1212 – Emperor Go-Horikawa of Japan (d. 1235)
  • 1366 – Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, English politician (d. 1399)
  • 1459 – Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1519)
  • 1503 – Antonio Francesco Grazzini, Italian writer (d. 1583)
  • 1599 – Anthony van Dyck, Flemish painter (d. 1641)
  • 1609 – King John II Casimir of Poland (d. 1672)
  • 1663 – August Hermann Francke, German Protestant minister (d. 1727)
  • 1712 – Edward Moore, English writer (d. 1757)
  • 1720 – Nicolas-Henri Jardin, French architect (d. 1799)
  • 1723 – Charles Carroll, American statesman (d. 1783)
  • 1759 – Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, Queen of Sweden and Norway (d. 1818)
  • 1797 – King Wilhelm I of Germany (d. 1888)
  • 1812 – Stephen Pearl Andrews, American abolitionist (d. 1886)
  • 1817 – Bahá’u’lláh, Persian prophet of the Bahá’í Faith (d. 1892)
  • 1817 – Braxton Bragg, American Confederate general (d. 1876)
  • 1818 – John Ainsworth Horrocks, English-born explorer of South Australia (d. 1846)
  • 1857 – Paul Doumer, French President (d. 1932)
  • 1860 – Alfred Ploetz, German physician (d. 1940)
  • 1866 – Jack Boyle, American baseball player (d. 1913)
  • 1868 – Robert Millikan, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1953)
  • 1869 – Emilio Aguinaldo, 1st President of the Philippines Republic (d. 1964)
  • 1878 – Michel Théato, Luxembourgian athlete (d. 1919)
  • 1880 – Ernie Quigley, Canadian-American sports official (d. 1960)
  • 1887 – Chico Marx, American comedian and actor (d. 1961)
  • 1896 – He Long, Chinese marshal (d. 1969)
  • 1901 – Greta Kempton, American artist (d. 1991)
  • 1907 – James Gavin, American general and ambassador (d. 1990)
  • 1907 – Lúcia Santos, Portuguese nun (d. 2005)
  • 1908 – Jack Crawford, Australian tennis player (d. 1991)
  • 1908 – Louis L’Amour, American author (d. 1988)
  • 1909 – Gabrielle Roy, Canadian author (d. 1983)
  • 1910 – Nicholas Monsarrat, British novelist (d. 1979)
  • 1912 – Wilfrid Brambell, Irish actor (d. 1985)
  • 1912 – Karl Malden, American actor (d. 2009)
  • 1913 – Tom McCall, Governor of Oregon (d. 1983)
  • 1913 – Lew Wasserman, American film studio executive (d. 2002)
  • 1915 – Georgiy Zhzhonov, Russian actor and writer (d. 2005)
  • 1917 – Virginia Grey, American actress (d. 2004)
  • 1918 – Cheddi Jagan, President of Guyana (d. 1997)
  • 1920 – Werner Klemperer, German-born actor (d. 2000)
  • 1920 – Ross Martin, Polish-American actor (d. 1981)
  • 1921 – Nino Manfredi, Italian actor (d. 2004)
  • 1923 – Marcel Marceau, world renown French Mime (d. 2007)
  • 1924 – Allen Neuharth, American businessman
  • 1924 – Bill Wendell, American television announcer (d. 1999)
  • 1928 – Carrie Donovan, American fashion editor (d. 2001)
  • 1928 – Ed Macauley, American basketball player
  • 1930 – Derek Bok, American lawyer and educator
  • 1930 – Pat Robertson, American televangelist
  • 1930 – Stephen Sondheim, American composer and lyricist
  • 1931 – Burton Richter, American physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1931 – William Shatner, Canadian actor
  • 1933 – Abolhassan Banisadr, former President of Iran
  • 1933 – May Britt, Swedish actress
  • 1934 – Orrin Hatch, American politician
  • 1934 – Larry Martyn, English comedy actor (d. 1994)
  • 1935 – M. Emmet Walsh, American actor
  • 1936 – Ron Carey, American labor leader
  • 1936 – Roger Whittaker, British singer
  • 1937 – Armin Hary, German athlete
  • 1940 – Dave Keon, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1940 – Haing S. Ngor, Cambodian/American actor (d. 1996)
  • 1941 – Jeremy Clyde, British actor and musician (Chad and Jeremy)
  • 1941 – Billy Collins, American poet
  • 1941 – Bruno Ganz, Swiss actor
  • 1942 – Bernd Herzsprung, German actor
  • 1942 – Dick Pound, Canadian chairman of the World Anti-Doping Agency
  • 1943 – George Benson, American musician
  • 1943 – Keith Relf, English musician (The Yardbirds) (d. 1976)
  • 1946 – Rudy Rucker, American author
  • 1948 – Wolf Blitzer, American television journalist
  • 1948 – Andrew Lloyd Webber, English theatre composer
  • 1949 – Fanny Ardant, French actress
  • 1950 – Jocky Wilson, Scottish darts player
  • 1952 – Bob Costas, American sports commentator
  • 1955 – Pete Sessions, American politician
  • 1955 – Lena Olin, Swedish actress
  • 1955 – Valdis Zatlers, 7th President of Latvia
  • 1956 – Generosa Ammon, widow of Ted Ammon (d. 2003)
  • 1957 – Stephanie Mills, American actress and singer
  • 1958 – Laurie David, American political activist
  • 1958 – Pete Wylie, British singer/songwriter
  • 1959 – Carlton Cuse, Mexican-born American TV writer and executive
  • 1959 – Matthew Modine, American actor
  • 1965 – John Kordic, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1992)
  • 1965 – Emma Wray, English actress
  • 1966 – Artis Pabriks, Latvian politician
  • 1966 – Song Kwang Sik, Korean singer
  • 1967 – Mario Cipollini, Italian cyclist
  • 1968 – Euronymous, Norwegian black metal musician (d. 1993)
  • 1970 – Andreas Johnson, Swedish singer
  • 1970 – Leontien van Moorsel, Dutch cyclist
  • 1972 – Shawn Bradley, American basketball player
  • 1972 – Cory Lidle, American baseball player (d. 2006)
  • 1972 – Elvis Stojko, Canadian figure skater
  • 1973 – Joe Nedney, American football player
  • 1974 – Marcus Camby, American basketball player
  • 1974 – Philippe Clement, Belgian footballer
  • 1974 – Kidada Jones, American actress
  • 1975 – Jirí Novák, Czech tennis player
  • 1976 – Teun de Nooijer, Dutch field hockey player
  • 1976 – Reese Witherspoon, American actress
  • 1977 – Joey Porter, American football player
  • 1978 – Tom Poti, professional hockey player
  • 1979 – Aaron North, American musician
  • 1979 – Juan Uribe, Dominican baseball player
  • 1980 – Shannon Bex, American singer (Danity Kane)
  • 1980 – Pamela O’Connor, Scottish ice dancer
  • 1981 – Victoria Lanz, Venezuelan porn star
  • 1981 – MIMS, American rapper
  • 1982 – Pete Bennett, British musician and winner of Big Brother 2006
  • 1988 – Tania Raymonde, American actress

March 22 – Deaths:

  • 1322 – Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, English politician (b. 1278)
  • 1418 – Dietrich of Nieheim, German historian
  • 1421 – Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV of England (killed in battle) (b. 1388)
  • 1544 – Johannes Magnus, last Catholic Archbishop of Sweden (b. 1488)
  • 1602 – Agostino Carracci, Italian artist (b. 1557)
  • 1685 – Emperor Go-Sai of Japan (b. 1638)
  • 1687 – Jean Baptiste Lully, Italian-born French composer (b. 1632)
  • 1758 – Jonathan Edwards, American minister (b. 1703)
  • 1758 – Richard Leveridge, English bass and composer (b. 1670)
  • 1772 – John Canton, English physicist (b. 1718)
  • 1820 – Stephen Decatur, American naval officer (b. 1779)
  • 1832 – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer (b. 1749)
  • 1840 – Étienne Bobillier, French mathematician (b. 1798)
  • 1896 – Thomas Hughes, English novelist (b. 1822)
  • 1913 – Sung Chiao-jen, Chinese Nationalist (b. 1882)
  • 1924 – William Macewen, Scottish surgeon (b. 1848)
  • 1934 – Theophilos Hatzimihail, Greek painter (b. 1870)
  • 1945 – John Hessin Clarke, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (b. 1857)
  • 1951 – Willem Mengelberg, Dutch conductor (b. 1871)
  • 1952 – Uncle Dave Macon, American musician (b. 1870)
  • 1958 – Mike Todd, American film producer (b. 1909)
  • 1960 – José Antonio Aguirre, Basque politician (b. 1904)
  • 1974 – Peter Revson, American racecar driver (b.1939)
  • 1977 – A.K. Gopalan, Indian communist leader (b. 1904)
  • 1978 – Karl Wallenda, German acrobat (b. 1905)
  • 1981 – James “Jumbo” Elliott, American track coach (b. 1915)
  • 1986 – Mark Dinning, American singer (b. 1933)
  • 1986 – Charles Starrett, American actor (b. 1903)
  • 1990 – Gerald Bull, Canadian engineer (b. 1928)
  • 1991 – Léon Balcer, French Canadian politician (b. 1917)
  • 1991 – Dave Guard, American folk singer (The Kingston Trio) (b. 1934)
  • 1991 – Gloria Holden, American film actress (b. 1908)
  • 1994 – Dan Hartman, American musician, songwriter, and record producer (b. 1950)
  • 1994 – Walter Lantz, American cartoonist (b. 1900)
  • 1996 – Don Murray, American musician (The Turtles) (b. 1945)
  • 1999 – David Strickland, American actor (b. 1969)
  • 2001 – William Hanna, American animator and studio founder (b. 1910)
  • 2003 – Terry Lloyd, English reporter (b. 1952)
  • 2004 – Ahmed Yassin, Palestinian co-founder of Hamas (b. ca. 1937)
  • 2005 – Kenzo Tange, Japanese architect (b. 1913)
  • 2006 – Pierre Clostermann, French World War II pilot (b. 1921)
  • 2006 – Kurt von Trojan, Australian science fiction author (b. 1937)
  • 2007 – Uppaluri Gopala Krishnamurti, Indian philosopher (b. 1918)

March 22 – Holidays:

  • The fourth day of Quinquatria in ancient Rome, held in honor of Minerva.
  • World Water Day.
  • Liturgical feasts:
  • Easter Sunday – 1818, 2285. In the Gregorian Calendar 22 March is the earliest date on which Easter Sunday can fall (25 April is the latest).

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On This Day in History March 21

March 21 – Events:

  • 630 – Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem.
  • 717 – Battle of Vincy between Charles Martel and Ragenfrid.
  • 1188 – Accession to the throne of Japan by emperor Antoku.
  • 1413 – Henry V becomes King of England.
  • 1556 – In Oxford, Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer is burned at the stake.
  • 1788 – A fire destroys 856 buildings in New Orleans and leaves most of the town in ruins.
  • 1800 – With the church leadership driven out of Rome during an armed conflict, Pius VII is crowned Pope in Venice with a temporary papal tiara made of papier-mâché.
  • 1801 – The Battle of Alexandria is fought between British and French forces near the ruins of Nicopolis in Egypt.
  • 1804 – Code Napoléon is adopted as French civil law.
  • 1821 – First revolutionary act in Monastery of Agia Lavra, Kalavryta, Greek War of Independence.
  • 1844 – The Bahá’í calendar begins. This is the first day of the first year of the Bahá’í calendar. It is annually celebrated by members of the Bahá’í Faith as the Bahá’í New Year or Náw-Rúz.
  • 1844 – The original date predicted by William Miller for the return of Christ.
  • 1849 – The Norwegian city of Hamar is reestablished by royal decree.
  • 1857 – An earthquake in Tokyo, Japan kills over 100,000.
  • 1859 – Zoological Society of Philadelphia, 1st in US, incorporated
  • 1871 – Otto von Bismarck is appointed Chancellor of the German Empire.
  • 1871 – Journalist Henry Morton Stanley begins his trek to find the missionary and explorer David Livingstone.
  • 1913 – Over 360 are killed and 20,000 homes destroyed in the Great Dayton Flood in Dayton, Ohio.
  • 1918 – World War I: Second Battle of the Somme begins.
  • 1919 – The Chinese High School is established in Singapore by Tan Kah Kee.
  • 1928 – Charles Lindbergh is presented the Medal of Honor for his first trans-Atlantic flight.
  • 1933 – Construction of Dachau, the first Nazi Germany concentration camp, is completed.
  • 1935 – Shah Reza Pahlavi formally asks the international community to call Persia by its native name, Iran, which means ‘Land of the Aryans.’
  • 1940 – Paul Reynaud becomes Prime Minister of France.
  • 1943 – Massacre of the town of Kalavryta, Greece by German Nazi troops.
  • 1945 – World War II: British troops liberate Mandalay, Burma.
  • 1952 – Alan Freed presents the Moondog Coronation Ball, the first rock and roll concert, in Cleveland, Ohio.
  • 1960 – Apartheid: Massacre in Sharpeville, South Africa: Police open fire on a group of unarmed black South African demonstrators, killing 69 and wounding 180.
  • 1963 – Alcatraz, a federal penitentiary on an island in San Francisco Bay, closes.
  • 1964 – In Copenhagen, Denmark, Gigliola Cinquetti wins the ninth Eurovision Song Contest for Italy singing “Non ho l’età” (“I’m not old enough”).
  • 1965 – Ranger program: NASA launches Ranger 9 which is the last in a series of unmanned lunar space probes.
  • 1965 – Martin Luther King, Jr. leads 3,200 people on the start of the third and finally successful civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.
  • 1968 – Battle of Karameh in Jordan between Israeli Defense Forces and Fatah.
  • 1970 – The first Earth Day proclamation is issued by San Francisco Mayor Joseph Alioto.
  • 1970 – Vinko Bogataj crashes during a ski-jumping championship in Germany; his image becomes that of the “agony of defeat guy” in the opening credits of ABC’s Wide World of Sports.
  • 1970 – In Amsterdam, Netherlands, Dana wins the fifteenth Eurovision Song Contest for Ireland singing “All Kinds of Everything.”
  • 1980 – US President Jimmy Carter announces a United States boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow to protest the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan.
  • 1980 – On the season finale of the soap opera Dallas, the infamous character J.R. Ewing is shot by an unseen assailant, leading to the catchphrase “Who Shot JR?”
  • 1985 – Canadian paraplegic athlete and humanitarian Rick Hansen begins his circumnavigation of the globe in a wheelchair in the name of spinal cord injury medical research.
  • 1989 – Sports Illustrated reports allegations tying baseball player Pete Rose to baseball gambling.
  • 1990 – Namibia becomes independent after 75 years of South African rule.
  • 1999 – Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones become the first to circumnavigate the Earth in a hot air balloon.
  • 2002 – In Pakistan, Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh along with three other suspects are charged with murder for their part in the kidnapping and killing of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.
  • 2004 – In Malaysia, the 11th Federal and State elections are held, returning the ruling coalition Barisan Nasional to power with an increased majority.
  • 2005 – Red Lake High School massacre: Jeff Weise shoots and kills seven people at Red Lake High School in Red Lake, Minnesota before committing suicide. Weise had killed his grandfather and his grandfather’s girlfriend prior to the massacre.

March 21 – Birthdays:

  • 1521 – Maurice, Elector of Saxony (d. 1553)
  • 1527 – Hermann Finck, German composer (d. 1558)
  • 1685 – Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer (d. 1750)
  • 1713 – Francis Lewis, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1803)
  • 1763 – Jean Paul, German writer (d. 1825)
  • 1768 – Joseph Fourier, French mathematician (d. 1830)
  • 1801 – Maria Theresa of Tuscany, Queen of Sardinia (d. 1855)
  • 1806 – Benito Juárez, Mexican statesman and national hero (d. 1872)
  • 1811 – Nathaniel Woodard, English educationalist (d. 1891)
  • 1839 – Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky, Russian composer (d. 1881)
  • 1854 – Alick Bannerman, Australian cricketer (d. 1924)
  • 1863 – George Owen Squier, American inventor and Major General in U.S. Signal Corp (d.1934)
  • 1869 – Florenz Ziegfeld, theater producer (d. 1932)
  • 1876 – John Tewksbury, American athlete (d. 1968)
  • 1880 – Gilbert M. ‘Broncho Billy’ Anderson, American actor (d. 1971)
  • 1885 – Pierre Renoir, French stage and film actor and director (d. 1952)
  • 1895 – Zlatko Balokovic, Croatian violinist (d. 1955)
  • 1901 – Karl Arnold, German politician (d. 1958)
  • 1902 – Son House, American musician (d. 1988)
  • 1904 – Forrest Mars, Sr., American candymaker (d. 1999)
  • 1904 – Nikolaos Skalkottas, Greek composer (d. 1949)
  • 1906 – Jim Thompson, American designer and businessman
  • 1910 – M S Khan, Bangladeshi intellectual (d. 1978)
  • 1913 – George Abecassis, English race car driver (d. 1991)
  • 1913 – Heinz “Pritzl” Bär, German fighter pilot (d. 1957)
  • 1914 – Paul Tortelier, French cellist (d. 1990)
  • 1920 – Georg Ots, Estonian singer (d. 1975)
  • 1920 – Manolis Chiotis, Greek bouzouki virtuoso and song writer (d. 1970)
  • 1921 – Arthur Grumiaux, Belgian violinist (d. 1986)
  • 1922 – Russ Meyer, American film director and producer (d. 2004)
  • 1923 – Shri Mataji Nirmala Srivastava, Indian founder of Sahaja Yoga
  • 1923 – Philip Abbott, American actor (d. 1998)
  • 1925 – Hugo Koblet, Swiss cyclist (d. 1964)
  • 1925 – Peter Brook, British film director and producer
  • 1927 – Hans-Dietrich Genscher, German politician
  • 1929 – Maurice Catarcio, wrestler
  • 1932 – Walter Gilbert, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1932 – Joseph Silverstein, American violinist and conductor
  • 1930 – James Coco, American actor (d. 1987)
  • 1933 – Michael Heseltine, English politician
  • 1934 – Al Freeman, Jr., American actor
  • 1935 – Brian Clough, English footballer and football manager (d. 2004)
  • 1936 – Ed Broadbent, Canadian politician
  • 1936 – Mike Westbrook, British jazz composer, bandleader and pianist
  • 1940 – Solomon Burke, American singer
  • 1942 – Françoise Dorléac, French actress (d. 1967)
  • 1943 – Vivian Stanshall, English musician, artist, actor, writer, Bonzo Dog Doo Dah Band (d. 1995)
  • 1943 – István Gyulai, Hungarian General Secretary of the IAAF (d. 2006)
  • 1943 – Hartmut Haenchen, German conductor
  • 1944 – Marie-Christine Barrault, French actress
  • 1945 – Rose Stone, American musician (Sly & the Family Stone)
  • 1946 – Timothy Dalton, British actor
  • 1949 – Slavoj Žižek, Slovenian sociologist, philosopher and cultural critic
  • 1949 – Eddie Money, American musician
  • 1950 – Roger Hodgson, English musician, former member of Supertramp
  • 1951 – Russell Thompkins Jr, American singer (The Stylistics)
  • 1956 – Guy Chadwick, English guitarist, vocalist and songwriter (The House of Love)
  • 1956 – Ingrid Kristiansen, Norwegian runner
  • 1958 – Sabrina Le Beauf, American actress
  • 1958 – Gary Oldman, English actor
  • 1959 – Nobuo Uematsu, Japanese composer
  • 1960 – Ayrton Senna, Brazilian race car driver and three-time F1 World Champion (d. 1994)
  • 1960 – Robert Sweet, American drummer
  • 1961 – Shawn Lane, American guitar virtuoso
  • 1961 – Lothar Matthäus, German footballer
  • 1962 – Matthew Broderick, American actor
  • 1962 – Rosie O’Donnell, American comedian, actress, talk show host, and publisher
  • 1962 – Mark Waid, American comic book writer
  • 1963 – Shawon Dunston, baseball player
  • 1963 – Ronald Koeman, Dutch footballer and football manager
  • 1964 – Ahmed Radhi, Iraqi international football star
  • 1964 – Jesper Skibby, Danish professional cyclist
  • 1965 – Xavier Bertrand, French politician
  • 1967 – Jonas “Joker” Berggren, Swedish musician (Ace of Base)
  • 1967 – Adrian Chiles, British television and radio presenter
  • 1967 – Maxim Reality, British MC (The Prodigy)
  • 1968 – DJ Premier (Preemo), hip hop producer
  • 1969 – Ali Daei, Iranian footballer, Highest International Goal Scorer
  • 1972 – Chris Candido, professional wrestler (d. 2005)
  • 1973 – Ananda Lewis, American model and television personality
  • 1973 – Stuart Nethercott, English footballer
  • 1973 – Jerry Supiran, American actor
  • 1974 – Jose Clayton, Tunisian footballer
  • 1975 – Fabricio Oberto, Argentine basketball player
  • 1975 – Justin Pierce, British actor (d. 2000)
  • 1975 – Mark Williams, Welsh snooker player
  • 1977 – Brian Shaw, American Entertainer/Recording Artist
  • 1978 – Kevin Federline, American dancer/hip hop artist
  • 1978 – Charmaine Dragun, Australian news anchor channel 10 (d.2007)
  • 1978 – Cristian Guzmán, baseball player
  • 1978 – Rani Mukherjee, Indian actress
  • 1980 – Marit Bjørgen, Norwegian cross-country skier
  • 1980 – Ronaldinho Gaucho, Brazilian international footballer
  • 1980 – Deryck Whibley, Canadian guitarist and singer (Sum41)
  • 1982 – Aaron Hill, American baseball player
  • 1982 – Colin Turkington, British racing driver
  • 1985 – Adrian Peterson, Professional Football Player
  • 1988 – Lee Cattermole, English footballer
  • 2004 – Count Claus-Casimir of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg

March 21 – Deaths:

  • 1076 – Robert I, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1011)
  • 1181 – Taira Kiyomori, Japanese Feudal general (b. 1118)
  • 1306 – Robert II, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1248)
  • 1487 – Nicholas of Flue, Swiss hermit and saint (b. 1417)
  • 1556 – Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury (burned at the stake) (b. 1489)
  • 1617 – Pocahontas, Native American, daughter of Powhatan (b. c. 1595)
  • 1656 – James Ussher, Irish Anglican archbishop (b. 1581)
  • 1676 – Henri Sauval, French historian (b. 1623)
  • 1729 – John Law, Scottish economist (b. 1671)
  • 1734 – Robert Wodrow, Scottish historian (b. 1679)
  • 1751 – Johann Heinrich Zedler, German publisher (b. 1706)
  • 1762 – Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, French astronomer (b. 1713)
  • 1772 – Jacques-Nicolas Bellin, French cartographer (b. 1703)
  • 1795 – Giovanni Arduino, Italian geologist (b. 1714)
  • 1801 – Andrea Luchesi, Italian composer (b. 1741)
  • 1804 – Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Condé, duc d’Enghien (executed) (b. 1772)
  • 1843 – Robert Southey, English poet (b. 1774)
  • 1843 – Guadalupe Victoria, first President of Mexico (b. 1786)
  • 1850 – Miguel Pedrorena, American settler
  • 1881 – Samuel Courtauld, American-born textile magnate (b. 1793)
  • 1884 – Ezra Abbot, American bible scholar (b. 1819)
  • 1910 – Nadar, French photographer (b. 1820)
  • 1915 – Frederick Winslow Taylor, American inventor (b. 1856)
  • 1934 – Franz Schreker, Austrian composer (b. 1878)
  • 1936 – Alexander Glazunov, Russian composer (b. 1865)
  • 1951 – Willem Mengelberg, Dutch conductor (b. 1871)
  • 1958 – Cyril M. Kornbluth, American writer (b. 1923)
  • 1970 – Manolis Chiotis, Greek songwriter and musician (b. 1920)
  • 1975 – Joe Medwick, baseball player (b. 1911)
  • 1980 – Peter Stoner, American mathematician, astronomer and Christian apologist (b. 1888)
  • 1984 – Shauna Grant, American actress (suicide) (b. 1963)
  • 1985 – Sir Michael Redgrave, English actor (b. 1908)
  • 1987 – Dean Paul Martin, American musician (b. 1951)
  • 1987 – Robert Preston, American actor (b. 1918)
  • 1991 – Leo Fender, American guitar manufacturer (b. 1909)
  • 1992 – John Ireland, Canadian film actor and director (b. 1914)
  • 1992 – Natalie Sleeth, American composer (b. 1930)
  • 1994 – Macdonald Carey, American actor (b. 1913)
  • 1994 – Dack Rambo, American actor (b. 1941)
  • 1994 – Lili Damita, French actress (b. 1904)
  • 1997 – W. V. Awdry, English children’s writer (b. 1911)
  • 1998 – Galina Ulanova, Russian prima ballerina assoluta (b. 1910)
  • 1999 – Ernie Wise, British comedian (b. 1925)
  • 2001 – Chung Ju-young, Korean industrialist (b. 1915)
  • 2001 – Norma MacMillan, Canadian voice actress (b. 1921)
  • 2001 – Anthony Steel, English actor (b. 1920)
  • 2002 – Herman Talmadge, American politician (b. 1913)
  • 2003 – Umar Wirahadikusumah, Fourth Vice President of Indonesia (b. 1924)
  • 2004 – Ludmilla Tchérina, French ballet dancer and actress (b. 1924)
  • 2005 – Barney Martin, American actor (b. 1923)
  • 2005 – Bobby Short, American singer (b. 1924)
  • 2007 – Sven O. Høiby, the father of Crown Princess Mette-Marit of Norway (b. 1936)

March 21 – Holidays:

  • Astrology: First day of star sign Aries. (International Astrology Day)
  • Traditional date of vernal equinox, the real equinox varies between years.
  • Persian (Iranian) New Year’s Day (Nowruz): (also celebrated in many other countries of Asia) Iranian calendar
  • Traditional date of vernal equinox, used for reckoning Easter. The real equinox varies between years.
  • Japan: Vernal Equinox Day (public holiday)
  • China: Chunfen
  • Namibia: Independence Day
  • Australia: Harmony Day
  • Poland: Truant’s Day
  • South Africa: Human Rights Day
  • Benito Juárez Day, a Fiesta Patria in Mexico
  • The third day of Quinquatria in ancient Rome, held in honor of Minerva
  • Ostara – Neopagan festival of Ostara.
  • World Poetry Day – UNESCO
  • International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination – United Nations
  • World Down Syndrome Day
  • Mother’s Day in Jordan, Lebanon,and Syria
  • St. Nicholas of Flue

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On This Day in History March 20

March 20 – Events:

  • 1602 – The Dutch East India Company is established.
  • 1616 – Sir Walter Raleigh is freed from the Tower of London after 13 years imprisonment.
  • 1739 – Nadir Shah occupies Delhi in India and sacks the city, stealing the jewels of the Peacock Throne.
  • 1760 – The “Great Fire” of Boston destroys 349 buildings.
  • 1815 – Napoleon enters Paris after escaping from Elba with a regular army of 140,000 and a volunteer force of around 200,000, beginning his “Hundred Days” rule.
  • 1848 – Revolutions of 1848 in the German states: King Ludwig I of Bavaria abdicates.
  • 1852 – Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published.
  • 1856 – Costa Rican troops rout Walker’s soldiers.
  • 1861 – An earthquake completely destroys Mendoza, a city in western Argentina.
  • 1883 – Signature of Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
  • 1899 – At Sing Sing prison, Martha M. Place is sentenced to become the first woman executed in an electric chair.
  • 1913 – Sung Chiao-jen, a founder of the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang), is wounded in an assassination attempt and dies 2 days later.
  • 1914 – In New Haven, Connecticut, the first international figure skating championship takes place.
  • 1916 – Albert Einstein publishes his general theory of relativity.
  • 1922 – The USS Langley is commissioned as the first United States Navy aircraft carrier.
  • 1933 – Giuseppe Zangara is executed in Florida’s electric chair for fatally shooting Anton Cermak in an assassination attempt against Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
  • 1934 – 1934 Great Hakodate fire, 4,170 square kilometers has lost, caused fire. Japanese  authority estimated 2,165 killed, injured 9,485, 145,500 homeless. The great urban fire has worst disaster, except air bomb, earthquake fire in Japanese history.
  • 1942 – In Zgierz, Poland, 100 Poles are taken from a labor camp and shot by the Germans.
  • 1942 – Holocaust: in Rohatyn, western Ukraine, German SS murder 3,000 Jews, including 600 children, annihilating 70% of Rohatyn’s Jewish ghetto.
  • 1942 – World War II: General Douglas MacArthur, at Terowie, South Australia, makes his famous speech regarding the fall of the Philippines, in which he says: “I came out of Bataan and I shall return.”
  • 1948 – With a Musicians Union ban lifted, the first telecasts of classical music in the United States, under Eugene Ormandy and Arturo Toscanini, are given on CBS and NBC.
  • 1951 – Fujiyoshida, a city located in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan, in the center of the Japanese main island of Honshu is founded.
  • 1952 – The United States Senate ratifies a peace treaty with Japan.
  • 1956 – Tunisia gains independence from France.
  • 1964 – The precursor of the European Space Agency, ESRO (European Space Research Organization) is established per an agreement signed on June 14, 1962.
  • 1969 – John Lennon & Yoko Ono marry in Gibraltar.
  • 1974 – A failed kidnap attempt is made on Her Royal Highness Princess Anne and her husband Captain Mark Phillips in The Mall, outside Buckingham Palace, London.
  • 1980 – The Radio Caroline ship, Mi Amigo founders in a gale off the English coast.
  • 1985 – Libby Riddles becomes the first woman to win the 1,135-mile Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race.
  • 1986 – Jacques Chirac becomes Prime Minister of France.
  • 1987 – The Food and Drug Administration approves anti-AIDS drug AZT.
  • 1990 – Ferdinand Marcos’s widow, Imelda Marcos, goes on trial for bribery, embezzlement, and racketeering.
  • 1993 – A Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb explodes in Warrington, northwest England, killing two children.
  • 1995 – A sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway kills 12 and wounds 1,300 persons.
  • 1999 – Legoland California opens in Carlsbad, California.
  • 2000 – Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin, a former Black Panther once known as H. Rap Brown, is captured after a gun battle that leaves a Georgia sheriff’s deputy dead.
  • 2003 – 2003 invasion of Iraq: In the early hours of the morning, the United States and three other countries begin military operations in Iraq.
  • 2004 – Stephen Harper wins the leadership of the newly created Conservative Party of Canada, thus becoming the first leader in the party’s history.
  • 2005 – A magnitude 6.6 earthquake hits Fukuoka, Japan, its first major quake in over 100 years.
  • 2006 – Cyclone Larry makes landfall in eastern Australia, destroying most of the country’s banana crop.
  • 2006 – Over 150 Chadian soldiers are killed in eastern Chad by members of the rebel UFDC. The rebel movement sought to overthrow Chadian president Idriss Deby.

March 20 – Birthdays:

  • 43 BC – Ovid, Roman poet (d. 17)
  • 1469 – Princess Cecily of York (d. 1507)
  • 1477 – Jerome Emser, German theologian (d. 1527)
  • 1502 – Pierino Belli, Italian soldier and jurist (d. 1575)
  • 1725 – Abdul Hamid I, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1789)
  • 1735 – Torbern Bergman, Swedish chemist (d. 1784)
  • 1737 – Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, King of Thailand (d. 1809)
  • 1741 – Jean Antoine Houdon, French sculptor (d. 1828)
  • 1770 – Friedrich Hölderlin, German writer (d. 1843)
  • 1799 – Karl August Nicander, Swedish poet (d. 1839)
  • 1811 – Napoleon II of France, (d. 1832)
  • 1823 – Ned Buntline, American publisher (d. 1886)
  • 1828 – Henrik Ibsen, Norwegian writer (d. 1906)
  • 1831 – Solomon L. Spink, U.S. Congressman (d. 1881)
  • 1834 – Charles W. Eliot, President of Harvard University (d. 1926)
  • 1836 – Ferris Jacobs, Jr., American politician (d. 1886)
  • 1836 – Sir Edward Poynter, British painter (d. 1919)
  • 1840 – Illarion Pryanishnikov, Russian painter (d. 1894)
  • 1856 – Sir John Lavery, Irish artist (d. 1941)
  • 1856 – Frederick Winslow Taylor, American inventor (d. 1915)
  • 1870 – Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, German general (d. 1964)
  • 1874 – Börries von Münchhausen, German poet (d. 1945)
  • 1876 – Payne Whitney, American businessman (d. 1927)
  • 1879 – Maud Menten, Canadian biochemist (d. 1960)
  • 1882 – René Coty, French President (d.1962)
  • 1890 – Beniamino Gigli, Italian tenor (d. 1957)
  • 1890 – Lauritz Melchior, Danish tenor (d. 1973)
  • 1895 – Fredric Wertham, German-born psychologist (d. 1981)
  • 1897 – Ruby Muhammad, American matriarch of Black Islam
  • 1903 – Edgar Buchanan, American actor (d. 1979)
  • 1904 – B. F. Skinner, American psychologist (d. 1990)
  • 1906 – Abraham Beame, American politician (d. 2001)
  • 1906 – Ozzie Nelson, American bandleader and actor (d. 1975)
  • 1908 – Michael Redgrave, English actor (d. 1985)
  • 1911 – Alfonso García Robles, Nobel laureate (d. 1991)
  • 1914 – Wendell Corey, American actor (d. 1968)
  • 1915 – Rudolf Kirchschläger, President of Austria (d. 2000)
  • 1915 – Sviatoslav Richter, Soviet pianist (d. 1997)
  • 1916 – Pierre Messmer, French politician and Prime Minister (d. 2007)
  • 1917 – Vera Lynn, English actress and singer
  • 1918 – Jack Barry, American TV host (d. 1984)
  • 1918 – Marian McPartland, British jazz pianist
  • 1918 – Donald Featherstone, British writer and wargamer
  • 1920 – Pamela Harriman, British-American diplomat (d. 1997)
  • 1921 – Sister Rosetta Tharpe, American singer (d. 1973)
  • 1922 – Larry Elgart, American saxophonist and bandleader
  • 1922 – Ray Goulding, American comedian (d. 1990)
  • 1922 – Carl Reiner, American film director
  • 1923 – Shaukat Siddiqui, Pakistani Author, Journalist and Political Activist (d. 2006)
  • 1924 – Jozef Kroner, Slovak actor (d. 1998)
  • 1925 – John Ehrlichman, American political figure (d. 1999)
  • 1927 – John Joubert, South African-born British composer
  • 1928 – Fred Rogers, American TV host (d. 2003)
  • 1929 – Germán Robles, Spanish actor
  • 1931 – Hal Linden, American actor
  • 1933 – George Altman, American baseball player
  • 1933 – Alexander Gorodnitsky, Russian geologist and poet
  • 1934 – Willie Brown, American politician
  • 1935 – Ted Bessell, American actor (d. 1996)
  • 1936 – Lee “Scratch” Perry, Reggae artist
  • 1936 – Vaughn Meader, American comedian (d. 2004)
  • 1937 – Jerry Reed, American singer and actor
  • 1939 – Brian Mulroney, former Prime Minister of Canada
  • 1941 – Pat Corrales, American baseball player
  • 1943 – Gerard Malanga, American poet and photographer
  • 1943 – Naima Neidre, Estonian graphic artist
  • 1943 – Paul Junger Witt, American TV producer
  • 1945 – Henry Bartholomay, American fighter pilot
  • 1945 – Rick Berman, American TV and film producer
  • 1945 – Jay Ingram, Canadian television host and author
  • 1945 – Pat Riley, American basketball player and coach
  • 1947 – John Boswell, American historian (d. 1994)
  • 1948 – John de Lancie, American actor
  • 1948 – Bobby Orr, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1949 – Marcia Ball, American singer and pianist
  • 1950 – William Hurt, American actor
  • 1950 – Carl Palmer, English drummer (Emerson, Lake & Palmer)
  • 1951 – Jimmie Vaughan, American blues guitarist
  • 1952 – Geoff Brabham, Australian racing driver
  • 1954 – Mike Francesa, American sports talk show host
  • 1954 – Liana Kanelli, Greek journalist and politician
  • 1957 – Vanessa Bell Calloway, American actress
  • 1957 – David Foster, Australian world champion woodchopper
  • 1957 – Spike Lee, American film director
  • 1957 – Theresa Russell, American actress
  • 1958 – Phil Anderson, Australian cyclist
  • 1958 – Holly Hunter, American actress
  • 1959 – Dave Beasant, English football goalkeeper
  • 1959 – Steve McFadden, British actor
  • 1959 – Sting, American professional wrestler
  • 1961 – Jesper Olsen, Danish footballer
  • 1961 – Slim Jim Phantom, American musician (Stray Cats)
  • 1962 – Stephen Sommers, American film director
  • 1963 – Paul Annacone, American tennis player
  • 1963 – Yelena Romanova, Russian athlete (d. 2007)
  • 1963 – Manabu Suzuki, Japanese racing driver and broadcaster
  • 1964 – Natacha Atlas, Belgian singer
  • 1966 – Alka Yagnik, Indian singer
  • 1969 – Caroline Brunet, Quebec kayaker
  • 1969 – Mannie Fresh, American producer
  • 1971 – Manny Alexander, Dominican baseball player
  • 1971 – Touré, American writer
  • 1972 – Alexander Kapranos, Greek-British musician (Franz Ferdinand)
  • 1973 – Jung Woo-sung, South Korean actor
  • 1973 – Cedric Yarbrough, American actor
  • 1973 – Christopher Heinz, American businessman; son of Teresa Heinz
  • 1974 – Paula Garces, Colombian actress
  • 1974 – Andrzej Pilipiuk, Polish writer
  • 1976 – Chester Bennington, American musician (Linkin Park)
  • 1979 – Bianca Lawson, American actress
  • 1979 – Keven Mealamu, New Zealand rugby player
  • 1979 – Silvia Abascal, Spanish actress
  • 1980 – Jamal Crawford, American basketball player
  • 1980 – Ock Ju-Hyun, South Korean singer
  • 1982 – Terrence Duffin, Zimbabwean cricketer
  • 1982 – Tomasz Kuszczak, Polish footballer
  • 1982 – Nick Wheeler, American guitarist (The All-American Rejects)
  • 1982 – José Moreira, Portuguese footballer
  • 1984 – Christy Carlson Romano, American actress
  • 1984 – Rami Malek, Egyptian-born actor
  • 1984 – Justine Ezarik, American Internet personality
  • 1984 – Markus Niemelä, Finnish racing driver
  • 1984 – Fernando Torres, Spanish footballer
  • 1984 – Marcus Vick, American football player
  • 1984 – Winta, Norwegian musician
  • 1987 – Patrick Boyle, Scottish footballer
  • 1987 – Daniel Maa Boumsong, Cameroonian football player
  • 1987 – João Alves de Assis Silva, Brazilian footballer
  • 1987 – Rollo Weeks, English actor
  • 1987 – Sergei Kostitsyn, Belarusian hockey player
  • 1989 – Tamim Iqbal, Bangladeshi cricketer

March 20 – Deaths:

  • 687 – St. Cuthbert, patron saint of Northumbria (born c. 634).
  • 1239 – Hermann von Salza, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (c. 1179)
  • 1413 – King Henry IV of England (b. 1367)
  • 1549 – Lord High Admiral Thomas Seymour, 4th. husband of Queen Catherine Parr (executed) (b. 1508)
  • 1568 – Duke Albert of Prussia (b. 1490)
  • 1586 – Richard Maitland, Scottish statesman and historian (b. 1496)
  • 1619 – Mathias, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1557)
  • 1673 – Augustyn Kordecki, Polish prior (b. 1603)
  • 1730 – Adrienne Lecouvreur, French actress (b. 1692)
  • 1732 – Johann Ernst Hanxleden, German philologist (b. 1681)
  • 1746 – Nicolas de Largillière, French painter (b. 1656)
  • 1780 – Sir Benjamin Truman – English brewer (b. 1699/1700)
  • 1793 – William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, Scottish judge and politician (b. 1705)
  • 1835 – Louis-Leopold Robert, French painter (b. 1794)
  • 1855 – Joseph Aspdin, English mason and inventor (b. 1788)
  • 1865 – Keisuke Yamanami, Japanese samurai (b. 1833)
  • 1874 – Hans Christian Lumbye, Danish composer (b. 1810)
  • 1878 – Julius Robert von Mayer, German physician and physicist (b. 1814)
  • 1890 – Alexander F. Mozhaiski, aviation pioneer (b. 1825)
  • 1897 – Apollon Maykov, Russian poet (b. 1821)
  • 1899 – Franz Ritter von Hauer, Austrian geologist (b. 1822)
  • 1916 – Ota Benga, Congolese pygmy (b. 1884)
  • 1918 – Lewis A. Grant, American Civil War General (b. 1828)
  • 1925 – George Nathaniel Curzon, British statesman (b. 1859)
  • 1929 – Ferdinand Foch, French commander of allied forces in World War I (b. 1851)
  • 1931 – Hermann Müller, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1876)
  • 1934 – Queen Emma of the Netherlands (b. 1858)
  • 1940 – Alfred Ploetz, German physician, biologist, and eugenicist (b. 1860)
  • 1947 – Sigurd Wallén,  Swedish actor and filmdirector (b. 1884)
  • 1964 – Brendan Behan, Irish playwright and author (b. 1923)
  • 1969 – Henri Longchambon, French politician (b. 1896)
  • 1970 – Manolis Chiotis, Greek bouzouki virtuoso and song writer (b. 1920)
  • 1972 – Marilyn Maxwell, American actress (b. 1921)
  • 1974 – Chet Huntley, American television journalist (b. 1911)
  • 1983 – Ivan Matveyevich Vinogradov, Russian mathematician (b. 1891)
  • 1990 – Lev Yashin, Soviet footballer (b. 1929)
  • 1991 – Conor Clapton, son of Eric Clapton (b. 1986)
  • 1992 – Georges Delerue, French film composer (b. 1925)
  • 1993 – Polykarp Kusch, German-born American physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1911)
  • 1994 – Lewis Grizzard, American humorist (b. 1946)
  • 1995 – Big John Studd, American professional wrestler (b. 1948)
  • 1997 – Tony Zale, American boxer (b. 1913)
  • 1998 – George Howard, American jazz saxophone musician
  • 2000 – Gene Eugene, Canadian actor and singer (b. 1961)
  • 2001 – Luis Alvarado, Puerto Rican baseball player (b. 1949)
  • 2003 – Sailor Art Thomas, American professional wrestler (b. 1924)
  • 2004 – Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (b. 1909)
  • 2004 – Pierre Sévigny, French Canadian military officer and politician (b. 1917)
  • 2005 – Armand Lohikoski, Finnish film director (b. 1912)
  • 2007 – Gilbert E. Patterson, presiding bishop of COGIC (born 1939)
  • 2007 – Taha Yassin Ramadan, Iraqi politician (b. 1938)
  • 2007 – Hawa Yakubu, Ghanaian politician (born 1948)

March 20 – Holidays:

  • Canberra Day
  • The second day of Quinquatria in ancient Rome, held in honor of Minerva.
  • The vernal equinox usually occurs on this day.
  • Though dependent on the exact day of the vernal equinox, New Year of Iranian Calendar: Norouz is sometimes celebrated on March 20 if the equinox falls on this day.
  • Though dependent on the exact day of the vernal equinox, International Astrology Day is sometimes celebrated on March 20 if the equinox falls on this day.
  • World Storytelling Day is a global celebration of the art of oral storytelling, celebrated every year on March 20.
  • Feast of St. Cuthbert, patron saint of Northumbria (d.687)
  • Abdon and Sennen at Soissons
  • Saint Herbert (d.687)
  • Saint Wulfram (d.704)
  • Saint Alexandra

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