On This Day in HIstory April 1

April 1 – Events:

  • 527 – Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne.
  • 1318 – Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English.
  • 1340 – Niels Ebbesen kills Gerhard III of Holstein in his bedroom, ending the 1332-1340 interregnum in Denmark.
  • 1572 – In the Eighty Years’ War, the Watergeuzen capture Brielle from the Spaniards, gaining the first foothold on land for what would become the Dutch Republic.
  • 1789 – In New York City, the United States House of Representatives holds its first quorum and elects Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania as its first House Speaker.
  • 1826 – Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine.
  • 1854 – Hard Times begins serialisation in Charles Dickens magazine, Household Words.
  • 1857 – Herman Melville publishes The Confidence-Man.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Battle of Five Forks – In Siege of Petersburg, Confederate General Robert E. Lee begins his final offensive.
  • 1867 – Singapore becomes a British crown colony.
  • 1873 – The British steamer SS Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, killing 547.
  • 1891 – The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago, Illinois.
  • 1912 – The Greek athlete Konstantinos Tsiklitiras breaks the world record in standing long jump jumping 3.47 meters.
  • 1918 – The Royal Flying Corps is replaced by the Royal Air Force.
  • 1924 – Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years in jail for his participation in the “Beer Hall Putsch.” However, he spends only nine months in jail, during which he writes the book Mein Kampf.
  • 1924 – First revenue flight for Belgium’s Sabena Airlines
  • 1924 – The Royal Canadian Air Force is formed.
  • 1933 – The recently elected Nazis under Julius Streicher organize a one-day boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses in Germany, ushering in the series of anti-Semitic acts that will be known as the Holocaust.
  • 1936 – Orissa Formation of the Indian state orissa(1936), formerly known as UTKAL.
  • 1937 – Aden becomes a British crown colony.
  • 1939 – Generalísimo Francisco Franco of the Spanish State announced the end of the Spanish Civil War, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered.
  • 1941 – The Blockade Runner Badge for German navy is instituted.
  • 1945 – World War II: Operation Iceberg – United States troops land on Okinawa in the last campaign of the war.
  • 1946 – Aleutian Island earthquake: A 7.8 magnitude earthquake near the Aleutian Islands creates a tsunami that strikes the Hawaiian Islands killing 159 (mostly in Hilo, Hawaii).
  • 1946 – Formation of the Malayan Union.
  • 1948 – Cold War: Berlin Airlift – Military forces, under direction of the Soviet-controlled government in East Germany, set-up a land blockade of West Berlin.
  • 1948 – Faroe Islands receive autonomy from Denmark.
  • 1949 – Chinese Civil War: Communist Party of China hold unsuccessful peace talks with the Kuomintang in Beijing, after three years of fighting.
  • 1949 – The twenty-six counties of the Irish Free State become the Republic of Ireland.
  • 1954 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes the creation of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado.
  • 1955 – The EOKA rebellion starts in Cyprus, aiming at the island’s independence from the United Kingdom.
  • 1963 – The Soap Opera General Hospital debuted
  • 1967 – The United States Department of Transportation begins operation.
  • 1969 – The Hawker Siddeley Harrier enters service with the RAF.
  • 1970 – President Richard Nixon signs the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, requiring surgeon general’s warnings on tobacco products and banning cigarette advertisements on television and radio in the United States starting on January 1, 1971.
  • 1973 – Project Tiger, a tiger conservation project, is launched in the Corbett National Park, India.
  • 1974 – In the United Kingdom, the Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties come into being.
  • 1976 – Apple Computer is formed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.
  • 1976 – Conrail takes over operations from six bankrupt railroads in the northeastern U.S..
  • 1978 – Philippine College of Commerce, through a presidential decree, was converted to Polytechnic University of the Philippines.
  • 1979 – Iran’s government becomes an Islamic Republic by a 98% vote, overthrowing the Shah officially.
  • 1980 – New York City’s Transit Worker Union 100 goes on strike, lasting 11 days.
  • 1981 – Daylight saving time is introduced in the USSR.
  • 1989 – A new local government tax, the Community Charge (commonly known as the ‘poll tax’), was introduced in Scotland.
  • 1996 – The Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia was created.
  • 1999 – Nunavut is established as a Canadian territory carved from the eastern part of the Northwest Territories.
  • 2001 – An EP-3E United States Navy plane collides with a Chinese People’s Liberation Army fighter jet. The Navy crew makes an emergency landing in Hainan, People’s Republic of China and is detained.
  • 2001 – Former president of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Miloševic surrenders to police special forces, to be tried on charges of war crimes.
  • 2001 – Same-sex marriage comes into force in the Netherlands, which is the first country to allow it.
  • 2002 – The Netherlands legalizes euthanasia, becoming the first nation in the world to do so.

April 1 – Birthdays:

  • 1220 – Emperor Go-Saga of Japan (d. 1272)
  • 1543 – François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières, Constable of France (d. 1626)
  • 1578 – William Harvey, English physician (d. 1657)
  • 1610 – Charles de Saint-Évremond, French soldier (d. 1703)
  • 1640 – Georg Mohr, Danish mathematician (d. 1697)
  • 1647 – John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, English poet (d. 1680)
  • 1697 – Antoine François Prévost, French author and novelist (d. 1763)
  • 1753 – Joseph de Maistre, French diplomat and writer (d. 1821)
  • 1765 – Luigi Schiavonetti, Italian engraver (d. 1810)
  • 1776 – Sophie Germain, French mathematician (d. 1831)
  • 1809 – Nikolai Gogol, Russian writer (d. 1852)
  • 1815 – Otto von Bismarck, 1st Chancellor of Germany (d. 1898)
  • 1815 – Edward Clark, Governor of Texas (d. 1880)
  • 1834 – Big Jim Fisk, American entrepreneur (d. 1872)
  • 1854 – Bill Traylor, American artist (d. 1949)
  • 1856 – Acacio Gabriel Viegas, Indian physician (d. 1933)
  • 1865 – Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, Austrian-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1929)
  • 1866 – Ferruccio Busoni, Italian pianist and composer (d. 1924)
  • 1868 – Edmond Rostand, French dramatist (d. 1918)
  • 1873 – Sergei Rachmaninoff, Russian composer, pianist, and conductor (d. 1943)
  • 1875 – Edgar Wallace, English writer (d. 1932)
  • 1880 – Agha Petros, Assyrian general (d. 1932)
  • 1882 – Paul Anspach, Belgian Olympic champion fencer (d. 1991)
  • 1883 – Lon Chaney, Sr., American actor (d. 1930)
  • 1885 – Wallace Beery, American actor (d. 1949)
  • 1893 – Cicely Courtneidge, English actress and comedian (d. 1980)
  • 1895 – Alberta Hunter, American singer (d. 1984)
  • 1897 – Nita Naldi, American actress (d. 1961)
  • 1898 – William James Sidis, American genius (d. 1944)
  • 1899 – Gustavs Celmins, Latvian politician (d. 1968)
  • 1900 – Robert McDowell, Mayor of Maryborough, Queensland (d. 1988)
  • 1901 – Whittaker Chambers, American writer, editor, and defector (d. 1961)
  • 1902 – Maria Polydouri, Greek poet (d. 1930)
  • 1906 – Aleksandr Yakovlev, Russian engineer and airplane designer (d. 1989)
  • 1908 – Abraham Maslow, American psychologist (d. 1970)
  • 1909 – Eddy Duchin, American popular pianist & bandleader (d. 1951)
  • 1914 – Lor Tok, Thai comedian and actor (d. 2002)
  • 1915 – Otto Wilhelm Fischer, Austrian actor (d. 2004)
  • 1917 – Melville Shavelson, American film director, producer and screenwriter (d. 2007)
  • 1919 – Joseph Murray, American surgeon, Nobel laureate
  • 1920 – Toshiro Mifune, Japanese actor (d. 1997)
  • 1921 – Ken Reardon, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1922 – William Manchester, American historian (d. 2004)
  • 1924 – Brendan Byrne, Governor of New Jersey
  • 1924 – Miodrag Petrovic, Serbian actor (d. 2003)
  • 1926 – Charles Bressler, American tenor
  • 1926 – Anne McCaffrey, American author
  • 1928 – George Grizzard, American actor (d. 2007)
  • 1929 – Milan Kundera, Czech-born writer
  • 1929 – Payut Ngaokrachang, Thai animator
  • 1929 – Jane Powell, American dancer, actress, and singer
  • 1929 – Bo Schembechler, American football coach (d. 2006)
  • 1930 – Grace Lee Whitney, American actress
  • 1931 – Rolf Hochhuth, German writer
  • 1931 – Ita Ever, Estonian actress
  • 1932 – Gordon Jump, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1932 – Debbie Reynolds, American actress
  • 1933 – Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, French physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1933 – Dan Flavin, American artist (d. 1996)
  • 1934 – Don Hastings, American actor
  • 1934 – Rod Kanehl, American baseball player (d. 2004)
  • 1934 – Vladimir Posner, Russian journalist
  • 1935 – Larry McDonald, American politician (d. 1983)
  • 1936 – Jean-Pascal Delamuraz, Swiss politician, president of the Confederation in 1989 and 1996 (d. 1998)
  • 1938 – Ali MacGraw, American actress
  • 1938 – John Quade, American actor
  • 1939 – Phil Niekro, American baseball player
  • 1939 – Rudolph Isley, American singer
  • 1940 – Wangari Maathai, Kenyan environmentalist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1942 – Samuel R. Delany, American author
  • 1942 – Annie Nightingale, British disc jockey
  • 1944 – Rusty Staub, American baseball player
  • 1945 – John Barbata, American drummer
  • 1946 – Ronnie Lane, English musician (d. 1997)
  • 1946 – Arrigo Sacchi, Italian football coach
  • 1947 – Alain Connes, French mathematician
  • 1947 – M, English singer
  • 1947 – Norm Van Lier, American basketball player
  • 1948 – Jimmy Cliff, Jamaican musician
  • 1949 – Gérard Mestrallet, French businessman
  • 1949 – Sammy Nelson, Northern Irish footballer
  • 1949 – Gil Scott-Heron, American musician and composer
  • 1950 – Samuel Alito, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
  • 1952 – Annette O’Toole, American actress
  • 1952 – Bernard Stiegler, French philosopher
  • 1953 – Barry Sonnenfeld, producer and director
  • 1954 – Jeff Porcaro, American drummer (d. 1992)
  • 1955 – Gregg Jarrett, American television anchor
  • 1955 – Humayun Akhtar Khan, Pakistani statesman
  • 1957 – David Gower, English cricketer
  • 1958 – D. Boon, American musician d. 1985)
  • 1960 – Michael Praed, British actor
  • 1962 – Dave Ulliott, English poker player
  • 1964 – Erik Breukink, Dutch cyclist and manager
  • 1964 – Scott Stevens, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1965 – Mark Jackson, American basketball player
  • 1965 – Robert Steadman, English composer
  • 1966 – Chris Evans, English disc jockey
  • 1967 – Phil Demmel, American musician
  • 1970 – Sung Hi Lee, Korean-born model
  • 1971 – Method Man, American rapper
  • 1971 – Shinji Nakano, Japanese race car driver
  • 1972 – Allen and Albert Hughes, American film directors
  • 1972 – Darren McCarty, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1972 – Jesse Tobias, American musician
  • 1973 – Christian Finnegan, American comedian
  • 1973 – Stephen Fleming, New Zealand cricketer
  • 1973 – Joe Francis, American adult video producer
  • 1974 – Richard Christy, American drummer
  • 1974 – Hugo Benjamín Ibarra, Argentine footballer
  • 1974 – Sandra Völker, German swimmer
  • 1975 – George Bastl, Swiss tennis player
  • 1975 – John Butler, Australian singer and musician
  • 1977 – Haimar Zubeldia, Spanish cyclist
  • 1978 – Jean-Pierre Dumont, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1978 – Miroslava Vavrinec, Swiss tennis player
  • 1979 – Ivano Balic, Croatian handballer
  • 1980 – Randy Orton, American professional wrestler
  • 1980 – Bijou Phillips, American actress
  • 1980 – Yuko Takeuchi, Japanese actress
  • 1981 – Antonis Fotsis, Greek basketball player
  • 1981 – Hannah Spearritt, British singer
  • 1981 – Pieter Weening, Dutch cyclist
  • 1981 – Aimee Chan, Miss Hong Kong 2006
  • 1982 – Sam Huntington, American actor
  • 1982 – Gemma Hunt, British children’s television presenter
  • 1982 – Taran Killam, American comedian and actor
  • 1983 – Ólafur Ingi Skúlason, Icelandic footballer
  • 1983 – Sean Taylor, American football player (d. 2007)
  • 1984 – Gilberto Macena, Brazilian footballer
  • 1984 – Olga Rei, Russian television personality
  • 1985 – Josh Zuckerman, American actor
  • 1985 – Shay Doron, Israeli basketball player
  • 1986 – Ireen Wüst, Dutch speed skater
  • 1987 – Ding Junhui, Chinese snooker player
  • 1987 – Li Ting, Chinese diver
  • 1988 – Courtney McCool, American gymnast
  • 1989 – Vietoris Krisztián, German racecar driver

April 1 – Deaths:

  • 1085 – Emperor Shenzong of China (b. 1048)
  • 1132 – St-Hugues, Bishop of Grenoble (b. 1053)
  • 1204 – Eleanor of Aquitaine, mother of Richard I of England and John of England
  • 1205 – King Amalric II of Jerusalem (b. 1145)
  • 1528 – Francisco de Peñalosa, Spanish composer
  • 1580 – Alonso Mudarra, Spanish composer
  • 1621 – Cristofano Allori, Italian painter (b. 1577)
  • 1637 – Niwa Nagashige, Japanese warlord (b. 1571)
  • 1682 – Franz Egon of Fürstenberg, Bishop of Strassburg (b. 1625)
  • 1787 – Floyer Sydenham, English classical scholar (b. 1710)
  • 1791 – Richard Butler American soldier (b. 1743)
  • 1839 – Benjamin Pierce, Governor of New Hampshire (b. 1757)
  • 1865 – Giuditta Pasta, Italian soprano (b. 1797)
  • 1872 – Frederick Maurice, English theologian (b. 1805)
  • 1872 – William Frederick Horry, executed by William Marwood (b. 1843)
  • 1878 – John Corry Wilson Daly, Canadian politician (b. 1796)
  • 1890 – David Wilber, American politician (b. 1820)
  • 1914 – Rube Waddell, American baseball player (b. 1876)
  • 1917 – Scott Joplin, American musician and composer (b. 1868)
  • 1922 – Emperor Karl I of Austria (b. 1887)
  • 1930 – Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner (b. 1837)
  • 1946 – Noah Beery, American actor (b. 1882)
  • 1947 – King George II of Greece (b. 1890)
  • 1950 – Charles R. Drew, American physician (b. 1904)
  • 1965 – Helena Rubinstein, cosmetic manufacturer (b. 1870)
  • 1966 – Flann O’Brien, Irish humorist (b. 1911)
  • 1968 – Lev Davidovich Landau, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1908)
  • 1976 – Max Ernst, German artist (b. 1891)
  • 1979 – Bruno Coquatrix, French music impresario (b. 1910)
  • 1979 – Barbara Luddy, American actress (b. 1908)
  • 1981 – Eua Sunthornsanan, Thai composer and bandleader (b. 1910)
  • 1984 – Marvin Gaye, American singer (b. 1939)
  • 1986 – Erik Bruhn, Danish ballet dancer, choreographer (b. 1928)
  • 1988 – Jim Jordan, American actor (Fibber McGee) (b. 1896)
  • 1991 – Martha Graham, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1894)
  • 1993 – Alan Kulwicki, American race car driver (b. 1954)
  • 1994 – Robert Doisneau, French photographer (b. 1912)
  • 1996 – Florence Buchsbaum, theater director and musician (b. 1926)
  • 1996 – John McSherry, American baseball umpire (b. 1944)
  • 1997 – Norman Carr, British conservationist (b. 1912)
  • 1998 – Gene Evans, American actor (b. 1922)
  • 1998 – Rozz Williams, American musician (Christian Death) (b. 1963)
  • 1999 – Jesse Stone, American record producer (b. 1901)
  • 2000 – Alexander Mackenzie Stuart, Baron Mackenzie-Stuart, president of the European Court of Justice (b. 1924)
  • 2001 – Olivia Barclay, British astrologer (b. 1919)
  • 2001 – Jo-Jo Moore, American baseball player (b. 1908)
  • 2001 – Trinh Cong Son, Vietnamese composer (b. 1939)
  • 2002 – Simo Hayha, Finnish marksman (b. 1905)
  • 2003 – Leslie Cheung, Hong Kong actor and singer (b. 1956)
  • 2004 – Carrie Snodgress, American actress (b. 1946)
  • 2005 – Alexander Brott, Canadian violinist, conductor and composer (b. 1915)
  • 2005 – Harald Juhnke, German entertainer (b. 1929)
  • 2005 – Jack Keller, American songwriter (b. 1936)
  • 2005 – Ioannis Kyrastas, Greek footballer and manager (b. 1952)
  • 2005 – Robert Coldwell Wood, American university president and political appointee (b. 1923)
  • 2006 – In Tam, Cambodian politician (b. 1916)
  • 2007 – Herb Carneal, Major League Baseball radio broadcaster (b. 1923)

April 1 – Holidays:

  • April 1 is known as April Fool’s Day or All Fools’ Day in many countries.
  • Last day of the Assyrian New Year Celebration.
  • Roman Empire – Veneralia celebrated to honor Venus.
  • Brielle celebrates the victory of 1572 over the Spaniards.
  • In San Marino, two Captains Regent, elected by Parliament, take office for six months.
  • Užupis – Residents celebrate their independence on Užupis Day.
  • In the Roman Catholic Church calendar:
    • Saint Hugh of Grenoble
    • Saint Waleric

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On This Day in History March 31

March 31 – Events:

  • 307 – After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Maximian.
  • 1146 – Bernard of Clairvaux preaches his famous sermon in a field at Vézelay, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade. Louis VII is present, and joins the Crusade.
  • 1492 – Queen Isabella of Castille orders her 150,000 Jewish subjects to convert to Christianity or face expulsion.
  • 1717 – A sermon on “The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ” by Benjamin Hoadly, the Bishop of Bangor, provoked the Bangorian Controversy.
  • 1774 – American Revolutionary War: The Kingdom of Great Britain orders the port of Boston, Massachusetts closed in the Boston Port Act.
  • 1822 – The massacre of the population of the Greek island of Chios by soldiers of the Ottoman Empire following a rebellion attempt, depicted by the French artist Eugène Delacroix.
  • 1854 – Commodore Matthew Perry signs the Treaty of Kanagawa with the Japanese government, opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade.
  • 1866 – The Spanish Navy bombs the harbour of Valparaíso, Chile.
  • 1877 – The family with samurai antecedents who responded to the Saigo army in Oita Nakatsu rebels.
  • 1885 – The United Kingdom establishes a protectorate over Bechuanaland.
  • 1889 – The Eiffel Tower is inaugurated.
  • 1906 – The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (later National Collegiate Athletic Association) is established to set rules for amateur sports in the United States.
  • 1909 – Serbia accepts Austrian control over Bosnia-Herzegovina.
  • 1917 – The United States takes possession of the Danish West Indies after paying $25 million to Denmark, and renames the territory the U.S. Virgin Islands.
  • 1918 – Daylight saving time goes into effect in the United States for the first time.
  • 1930 – The Motion Pictures Production Code is instituted, imposing strict guidelines on the treatment of sex, crime, religion and violence in motion pictures for the next thirty eight years.
  • 1931 – An earthquake destroys Managua, Nicaragua, killing 2,000.
  • 1933 – The Civilian Conservation Corps is established with the mission to relieve rampant unemployment.
  • 1942 – In World War II, Japanese forces invade Christmas Island, then a British possession.
  • 1942 – Holocaust in Ivano-Frankivsk (then called Stanislawow), western Ukraine. German Gestapo organize the first deportation of 5.000 Jews from Stanislawow ghetto to Belzec death camp. It was one of the biggest transports to Belzec in the first phase of the camp.
  • 1944 – Japanese Navy Marshal Mineichi Koga dies in the performance of job in the Navy Second Incident.
  • 1946 – The first election is held in Greece after World War II.
  • 1949 – The Dominion of Newfoundland joins Confederation and becomes the 10th Province of Canada.
  • 1951 – The first commercial US made computer, UNIVAC I, was delivered to the United States Census Bureau.
  • 1957 – Elections to the Territorial Assembly of the French colony Upper Volta. After the elections PDU and MDV form a government.
  • 1959 – The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, crosses the border into India and is granted political asylum.
  • 1964 – The Dictatorship in Brazil, under the aegis of general Castello Branco, begins.
  • 1965 – Iberia Airlines Convair 440, crashed into the sea on approach to Tangier killing 47 of 51 occupants.
  • 1966 – The Soviet Union launches Luna 10 which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon.
  • 1968 – President Lyndon B. Johnson announces he will not run for re-election.
  • 1970 – Explorer 1 re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere (after 12 years in orbit).
  • 1970 – Eight terrorists from the Japanese Red Army hijacked Japan Airlines Flight 351 at Tokyo International Airport, wielding samurai swords and carrying a bomb.
  • 1979 – The last British soldier leaves the Maltese Islands. Malta declares its Freedom Day (Jum il-Helsien).
  • 1980 – The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific railroad operate final train after ordered to be liquidated due to bankruptcy and debt owed to creditors.
  • 1986 – A Mexicana Boeing 727 en route to Puerto Vallarta erupts in flames and crashes in the mountains northwest of Mexico City, killing 166.
  • 1986 – Six metropolitan county councils are abolished in England.
  • 1990 – 200,000 protestors took to the streets of London to show their displeasure at the newly introduced Poll Tax.
  • 1991 – The Establishment of Islamic Constitutional Movement – Hadas in Kuwait.
  • 1991 – Georgian independence referendum: nearly 99 per cent of the voters support the country’s independence from the Soviet Union.
  • 1992 – USS Missouri (BB-63), the last active US Navy Battleship, is decommissioned in Long Beach, California.
  • 1994 – The journal Nature reports the finding in Ethiopia of the first complete Australopithecus afarensis skull.
  • 1995 – In Corpus Christi, Texas, Latin superstar Selena Quintanilla Perez is shot and killed by Yolanda Saldivar, the president of her own fan club.
  • 1998 – Netscape releases the code base of its browser under an open-source license agreement; the project is given the code name Mozilla and would eventually be spun off into the non-profit Mozilla Foundation.

March 31 – Birthdays:

  • 250 – Constantius Chlorus, Roman Emperor (d. 306)
  • 1360 – Philippa of Lancaster, queen of Portugal (d. 1415)
  • 1425 – Bianca Maria Visconti, Duchess of Milan (d. 1468)
  • 1499 – Pope Pius IV (d. 1565)
  • 1504 – Guru Angad Dev, second Sikh guru (d. 1552)
  • 1519 – King Henry II of France (d. 1559)
  • 1536 – Ashikaga Yoshiteru, Japanese shogun (d. 1565)
  • 1576 – Louise Juliana of Nassau, Regent of Bohemia (died 1644)
  • 1596 – René Descartes, French mathematician (d. 1650)
  • 1621 – Andrew Marvell, English poet (d. 1678)
  • 1651 – Karl II, Elector Palatine (d. 1685)
  • 1675 – Pope Benedict XIV (d. 1758)
  • 1718 – Marianne Victoria of Borbón, queen regent of Portugal (d. 1781)
  • 1723 – King Frederick V of Denmark (d. 1766)
  • 1730 – Étienne Bézout, French mathematician (d. 1783)
  • 1732 – Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer (d. 1809)
  • 1777 – Charles Cagniard de la Tour, French physicist (d. 1859)
  • 1778 – Coenraad Jacob Temminck, Dutch zoologist (d. 1858)
  • 1794 – Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan, American politician (d. 1852)
  • 1809 – Edward FitzGerald, English poet (d. 1883)
  • 1811 – Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, German chemist and inventor (d. 1899)
  • 1819 – Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1901)
  • 1847 – Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev, Russian mathematician (d. 1878)
  • 1855 – Alfred E. Hunt, founder of Alcoa (d. 1899)
  • 1871 – Arthur Griffith, President of Ireland (d. 1922)
  • 1872 – Alexandra Kollontai, Russian ambassador to Norway (d.1952)
  • 1872 – Serge Diaghilev, Russian ballet impresario (Ballets Russes) (d. 1929)
  • 1876 – Borisav “Bora” Stankovic, Serbian writer (d. 1927)
  • 1878 – Jack Johnson, American boxer (d. 1946)
  • 1884 – Adriaan van Maanen, Dutch-American astronomer (d. 1946)
  • 1885 – Pascin, Bulgarian painter (d. 1930)
  • 1890 – William Lawrence Bragg, English physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1971)
  • 1891 – Victor Varconi, Hungarian film actor (d. 1976)
  • 1893 – Clemens Krauss, Austrian conductor (d. 1954)
  • 1906 – Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Japanese physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1979)
  • 1907 – Eddie Quillan, American actor (d. 1990)
  • 1908 – Red Norvo, American jazz vibraphonist (d. 1999)
  • 1911 – Elisabeth Grümmer, Alsatian soprano (d. 1986)
  • 1914 – Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat and writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1998)
  • 1915 – Albert Hourani, English historian (d. 1993)
  • 1915 – Shoichi Yokoi, Japanese military man (d. 1997)
  • 1916 – Lucille Bliss, American voice actress
  • 1916 – John H. Wood, Jr., American federal judge (d. 1979)
  • 1919 – Frank Akins, American football player (d. 1993)
  • 1922 – Richard Kiley, American actor and singer (d. 1999)
  • 1924 – Leo Buscaglia, American author (d. 1998)
  • 1924 – Charles Guggenheim, American film director/producer (d. 2002)
  • 1925 – Jean Coutu, French Canadian actor (d. 1999)
  • 1926 – John Fowles, English author (d. 2005)
  • 1927 – César Chávez, American labor activist (d. 1993)
  • 1927 – William Daniels, American actor
  • 1928 – Lefty Frizzell, American singer and songwriter (d. 1975)
  • 1928 – Gordie Howe, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1929 – Liz Claiborne, Belgian-born American fashion designer (d. 2007)
  • 1929 – Bertram Fields, American lawyer
  • 1931 – Miller Barber, American golfer
  • 1932 – Nagisa Oshima, Japanese film director
  • 1933 – Nichita Stanescu, Romanian poet (d. 1983)
  • 1934 – Richard Chamberlain, American actor
  • 1934 – Shirley Jones, American singer and actress
  • 1934 – Carlo Rubbia, Italian physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1934 – John D. Loudermilk, American singer and songwriter
  • 1935 – Herb Alpert, American trumpeter and band leader
  • 1935 – Judith Rossner, American author
  • 1936 – Bob Pulford, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1936 – Marge Piercy, American writer
  • 1936 – Dokumamushi Sandayu, Japanese actor
  • 1938 – Sheila Dikshit, Chief Minister of Delhi
  • 1938 – David Steel, Scottish politician
  • 1938 – Michiko Nomura, Japanese voice actor
  • 1938 – Bill Hicke, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2005)
  • 1939 – Zviad Gamsakhurdia, first President of Georgia (d. 1993)
  • 1939 – Volker Schlöndorff, German film director
  • 1940 – Barney Frank, U.S. Representative from Massachusetts
  • 1940 – Patrick Leahy, U.S. Senator from Vermont
  • 1942 – Michael Savage, American talk radio host and commentator
  • 1942 – Ulla Hoffmann, Swedish politician
  • 1943 – Christopher Walken, American actor
  • 1944 – Pascal Danel, French singer and songwriter
  • 1944 – Mick Ralphs, English guitarist (Mott the Hoople, Bad Company)
  • 1945 – Valerie Curtin, American actress, writer, and producer
  • 1945 – Gabe Kaplan, American actor and comedian
  • 1946 – Gonzalo Márquez, Venezuelan baseball player (d. 1984)
  • 1947 – Cesar Gaviria Trujillo, President of Colombia
  • 1948 – Al Gore, Vice President of the United States and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1948 – Rhea Perlman, American actress
  • 1950 – Ed Marinaro, American football player and actor
  • 1950 – András Adorján, Hungarian chess player
  • 1955 – Angus Young, Scottish-born Australian guitarist (AC/DC)
  • 1955 – Robert Vance, New Zealand cricketer
  • 1957 – Marc McClure, American actor
  • 1957 – Alan Duncan, British politician
  • 1959 – Ali McMordie, Irish bassist (Stiff Little Fingers)
  • 1963 – Paul Mercurio, Australian actor/dancer
  • 1964 – Paul Wong Koon-Chung, Hong Kong musician (Beyond)
  • 1965 – Tom Barrasso, American ice hockey player
  • 1965 – Steven T. Seagle, American comic-book writer
  • 1966 – Roger Black, English athlete
  • 1968 – Naoya Ogawa, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1969 – Samantha Brown, American television host
  • 1969 – Steve Smith, American basketball player
  • 1969 – Nyamko Sabuni, Swedish politician
  • 1971 – Pavel Bure, Russian ice hockey player
  • 1971 – Ewan McGregor, Scottish actor
  • 1972 – Hristos Polihroniou, Greek hammer thrower
  • 1972 – Alejandro Amenábar, Spanish film director
  • 1973 – Bold Forbes, Puerto Rican/American thoroughbred racehorse (d. 2000)
  • 1974 – Stefan Olsdal, Swedish bassist (Placebo)
  • 1974 – Benjamin Eicher, Swiss film director
  • 1976 – Josh Saviano, American actor
  • 1976 – Ashton Moore, American porn actress
  • 1977 – Toshiya, Japanese musician (Dir en grey)
  • 1977 – Garth Tander, Australian racing driver
  • 1978 – Stephen Clemence, English footballer
  • 1978 – Jérôme Rothen, French footballer
  • 1978 – Tony Yayo, American rapper
  • 1979 – Josh Kinney, American baseball player
  • 1980 – Chien-Ming Wang, Taiwanese baseball player
  • 1980 – Maaya Sakamoto, Japanese voice actor
  • 1980 – Michael Ryder, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1981 – Maarten van der Weijden, Dutch swimmer
  • 1982 – Lennon Murphy, American rock singer/songwriter
  • 1982 – Philippe Mexès, French footballer
  • 1983 – Paddy McCarthy, Irish footballer
  • 1983 – Vlasios Maras, Greek gymnast
  • 1984 – James Jones, American football player
  • 1987 – Georg Listing, Bassist of Tokio Hotel

March 31 – Deaths:

  • 1074 – Regency Yorimichi Fujiwara of Japan (b. 992)
  • 1204 – Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France and England (b. 1121)
  • 1340 – Ivan I of Russia, Prince of Moscow (b. 1288)
  • 1547 – Francis I of France (b. 1494)
  • 1567 – Philipp I of Hesse (b. 1504)
  • 1621 – Philip III of Spain (b. 1578)
  • 1631 – John Donne, English writer and prelate (b. 1572)
  • 1671 – Anne Hyde, wife of James II of England (b. 1637)
  • 1703 – Johann Christoph Bach, German composer (b. 1642)
  • 1723 – Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon, British-born American statesman (b. 1661)
  • 1727 – Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (b. 1643)
  • 1741 – Pieter Burmann the Elder, Dutch classical scholar (b. 1668)
  • 1783 – Nikita Ivanovich Panin, Russian statesman (b. 1718)
  • 1837 – John Constable, English painter (b. 1776)
  • 1850 – John C. Calhoun, 7th Vice President of the United States (b. 1782)
  • 1855 – Charlotte Brontë, English author (b. 1816)
  • 1877 – Antoine Augustin Cournot, French mathematician (b. 1801)
  • 1880 – Henryk Wieniawski, Polish composer (b. 1835)
  • 1885 – Franz Wilhelm Abt, German composer (b. 1819)
  • 1913 – John Pierpont Morgan, American financier (b. 1837)
  • 1917 – Emil Adolf von Behring, German physician, Nobel laureate (b. 1854)
  • 1915 – Wyndham Halswelle, Scottish athlete (b. 1882)
  • 1927 – Borisav “Bora” Stankovic, Serbian writer (b. 1875)
  • 1931 – Knute Rockne, American football coach (b. 1888)
  • 1945 – Hans Fischer, German chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 1881)
  • 1945 – Anne Frank, German-born diarist (b. 1929)
  • 1952 – Wallace H. White, Jr., American politician (b. 1877)
  • 1956 – Ralph DePalma, Italian-American race car driver (b. 1884)
  • 1968 – Grover Lowdermilk, American baseball player (b. 1885)
  • 1972 – Meena Kumari, Indian actress (b. 1932)
  • 1976 – Paul Strand, American photographer (b. 1890)
  • 1978 – Charles Best, Canadian medical scientist (b. 1899)
  • 1980 – Vladimír Holan, Czech poet (b. 1905)
  • 1980 – Jesse Owens, American athlete (b. 1913)
  • 1981 – Enid Bagnold, British playwright (b. 1889)
  • 1984 – Ronald Clark O’Bryan, American murderer (b. 1944)
  • 1985 – Jeanine Deckers, Belgian nun (b. 1933)
  • 1986 – O’Kelly Isley, Jr., American singer (The Isley Brothers) (b. 1937)
  • 1986 – Jerry Paris, American actor (b. 1925)
  • 1988 – William McMahon, 20th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1908)
  • 1993 – Brandon Lee, American actor (b. 1965)
  • 1993 – Mitchell Parish, American lyricist (b. 1900)
  • 1995 – Selena, American singer (b. 1971)
  • 1996 – Jeffrey Lee Pierce, American singer, songwriter and guitarist (The Gun Club) (b. 1958)
  • 1998 – Bella Abzug, American politician (b. 1920)
  • 1998 – Tim Flock, American race car driver (b. 1924)
  • 1999 – Yuri Knorozov, Russian linguist (b. 1922)
  • 2001 – Clifford Shull, American physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1915)
  • 2002 – Barry Took, British comedian (b. 1928)
  • 2003 – H.S.M. Coxeter, English-born geometer (b. 1907)
  • 2003 – Tommy Seebach, Danish singer (b. 1949)
  • 2003 – Anne Gwynne, American film actress (b. 1918)
  • 2005 – Stanley J. Korsmeyer, American oncologist (b. 1951)
  • 2005 – Frank Perdue, American poultry farmer (b. 1920)
  • 2005 – Terri Schiavo, American figure in right to die case (b. 1963)
  • 2006 – Jackie McLean, American jazz saxophonist (b. 1931 or 1932)
  • 2006 – Angela Devi, American adult model (b. 1975)
  • 2007 – Paul Watzlawick, Communications & Constructivism Theorist (b. 1921)

March 31 – Holidays:

  • New Jersey – Thomas Mundy Peterson Day
  • Freedom Day (Malta)
  • Abdas of Susa
  • Anesius and companions

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On This Day in History March 30

March 30 – Events:

  • 240 BC – 1st recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
  • 1282 – The people of Sicily rebel against the Angevin king Charles I, in what becomes known as the Sicilian Vespers.
  • 1296 – Edward I sacks Berwick-upon-Tweed, during armed conflict between Scotland and England.
  • 1492 – Ferdinand and Isabella sign the Alhambra decree aimed at expelling all Jews from Spain unless they convert to Roman Catholicism.
  • 1814 – Napoleonic Wars: Sixth Coalition forces march into Paris.
  • 1814 – Neapolitan War: Murat issues the Rimini Declaration which would later inspire Italian Unification.
  • 1822 – Florida Territory created in the United States.
  • 1842 – Anesthesia is used for the first time in an operation by Dr. Crawford Long.
  • 1844 – One of the most important battles of the Dominican War of Independence from Haiti takes place near the city of Santiago de los Caballeros.
  • 1855 – “Border Ruffians” from Missouri invade Kansas and force election of a pro-slavery  legislature.
  • 1856 – The Treaty of Paris (1856) is signed, ending the Crimean War.
  • 1858 – Hymen Lipman patents a pencil with an attached eraser.
  • 1863 – Danish prince Wilhelm Georg is chosen as King George of Greece.
  • 1867 – Alaska is purchased for $7.2 million, about 2 cent/acre ($4.19/km²), by United States Secretary of State William H. Seward. The news media call this Seward’s Folly.
  • 1870 – Texas is readmitted to the Union following Reconstruction.
  • 1885 – The Battle for Kushka triggers the Pandjeh Incident which nearly gives rise to war between the British Empire and Russian Empire.
  • 1909 – The Queensboro Bridge opens, linking Manhattan & Queens.
  • 1910 – Mississippi Legislature founded The University of Southern Mississippi.
  • 1912 – Sultan Abdelhafid signs the Treaty of Fez, making Morocco a French protectorate.
  • 1939 – The Heinkel He 100 fighter sets the world airspeed record of 463 mph.
  • 1939 – First flight of the Australian C.A.C. CA-16 Wirraway.
  • 1940 – Sino-Japanese War: Japan declares Nanking to be the capital of a new Chinese puppet government, nominally controlled by Wang Ching-wei.
  • 1945 – World War II: Soviet Union forces invade Austria and take Vienna, Polish and Soviet forces liberate Gdansk.
  • 1945 – World War II: a defecting German pilot delivers a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1 to Americans.
  • 1949 – Riot breaks out in Austurvöllur square in Reykjavík, when Iceland joined NATO.
  • 1951 – Remington Rand delivers the first UNIVAC I computer to the United States Census Bureau.
  • 1954 – Yonge Street subway line opens in Toronto. It is the first subway in Canada.
  • 1961 – The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is signed at New York.
  • 1965 – Vietnam War: A car bomb explodes in front of the U.S. Embassy in Saigon, killing 22 and wounding 183 others.
  • 1972 – Vietnam War: The Easter Offensive begins after North Vietnamese forces cross into the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) of South Vietnam.
  • 1979 – Airey Neave, a British politician, is killed by a car bomb as he exits the Palace of Westminster. The Irish National Liberation Army claims responsibility.
  • 1981 – President Ronald Reagan is shot in the chest outside a Washington, D.C., hotel by John Hinckley, Jr.
  • 1982 – Space Shuttle program: STS-3 Mission completed with the landing of Columbia at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.
  • 1997 – Five (channel) Begins broadcasting in the UK
  • 2006 – Marcos Pontes is the first Brazilian astronaut in space.
  • 2006 – UK Terrorism Act 2006 becomes law.

March 30 – Birthdays:

  • 1326 – Ivan II of Russia, Grand Duke of Muscovy (d. 1359)
  • 1432 – Mehmed II, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1481)
  • 1640 – John Trenchard, English politician (d. 1695)
  • 1739 – Maria Josepha of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire Empress (d. 1767)
  • 1746 – Francisco Goya, Spanish painter (d. 1828)
  • 1750 – John Stafford Smith, English composer (d. 1836)
  • 1820 – Anna Sewell, British author (d. 1878)
  • 1844 – Paul Verlaine, French poet (d. 1896)
  • 1853 – Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter (d. 1890)
  • 1857 – Leon Charles Thevenin, French telegraph engineer (d. 1926)
  • 1864 – Franz Oppenheimer, German sociologist (d. 1943)
  • 1879 – Coen de Koning, Dutch ice skater (d. 1954)
  • 1880 – Sean O’Casey, Irish dramatist (d. 1964)
  • 1892 – Fortunato Depero, Italian artist (d. 1960)
  • 1892 – Erhard Milch, German field marshal (d. 1972)
  • 1894 – Sergey Ilyushin, Russian aerospace engineer (d. 1977)
  • 1895 – Jean Giono, French author (d. 1970)
  • 1899 – Sharadindu Bandyopadhyay, well known Bengali writer (d. 1970)
  • 1902 – Brooke Astor, American philanthropist (d. 2007)
  • 1902 – Ted Heath, British musician and band leader (d. 1969)
  • 1903 – Countee Cullen, American poet (d. 1946)
  • 1903 – Joy Ridderhof, American missionary (d. 1984)
  • 1904 – Ripper Collins, baseball player (d. 1970)
  • 1905 – Albert Pierrepoint, English executioner (d. 1992)
  • 1907 – Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte, German Luftwaffe Officer (d. 1994)
  • 1910 – Józef Marcinkiewicz, mathematician (d. 1940)
  • 1913 – Marc Davis, American animator (d. 2000)
  • 1913 – Richard Helms, American CIA director (d. 2002)
  • 1913 – Frankie Laine, American singer (d. 2007)
  • 1913 – Censu Tabone, President of Malta
  • 1914 – Sonny Boy Williamson I, American musician (d. 1948)
  • 1919 – McGeorge Bundy, American National Security Advisor (d. 1996)
  • 1922 – Turhan Bey, Turkish actor
  • 1923 – Milton Acorn, Canadian poet (d. 1986)
  • 1926 – Ingvar Kamprad, Swedish entrepreneur
  • 1926 – Werner Torkanowsky, German conductor (d. 1992)
  • 1927 – Peter Marshall, American game show host
  • 1928 – Robert Badinter, French politician
  • 1928 – Tom Sharpe, English satirical author
  • 1929 – Richard Dysart, American actor
  • 1930 – John Astin, American actor
  • 1930 – Rolf Harris, Australian artist and entertainer
  • 1932 – Ted Morgan, Swiss-born writer
  • 1933 – Jean-Claude Brialy, French actor and director
  • 1935 – Karl Berger, German musicologist and musician
  • 1935 – Willie Galimore, American football player (d. 1964)
  • 1937 – Warren Beatty, American actor and director
  • 1940 – Jerry Lucas, American basketball player
  • 1941 – Graeme Edge, British musician (Moody Blues)
  • 1941 – Wasim Sajjad, President of Pakistan
  • 1943 – Ken Forssi, American musician (Love) (d. 1998)
  • 1945 – Eric Clapton, British guitarist/singer
  • 1947 – Ryszard Kotla, Polish travel writer and activist, tour guide, journalist, academic teacher, engineer
  • 1948 – Mervyn King, British economist
  • 1948 – Eddie Jordan Former owner of Jordan Grand Prix
  • 1949 – Naomi Sims, American fashion model and businesswoman
  • 1949 – Liza Frulla, Quebec politician
  • 1950 – Robbie Coltrane, Scottish actor and comedian
  • 1951 – Yves Séguin, Quebec politician
  • 1952 – Peter Knights, Australian footballer and coach
  • 1953 – Cydney Bernard, American film producer
  • 1955 – Randy VanWarmer, American singer and songwriter (d. 2004)
  • 1956 – Bill Butler, Scottish politician
  • 1957 – Paul Reiser, American actor
  • 1958 – Maurice LaMarche, Canadian voice actor
  • 1959 – Peter Ellis, convicted child abuser
  • 1959 – Sabine Meyer, German clarinetist
  • 1961 – Doug Wickenheiser, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1999)
  • 1962 – MC Hammer, American rap musician
  • 1963 – Eli-Eri Moura, Brazilian composer and conductor
  • 1964 – Tracy Chapman, American singer
  • 1964 – Vlado Bozinovski, Australian former footballer
  • 1964 – Dave Ellett, Canadian hockey player
  • 1964 – Ian Ziering, American actor
  • 1965 – Piers Morgan, British journalist
  • 1966 – Joey Castillo, American drummer (Queens of the Stone Age)
  • 1966 – Efstratios Grivas, Greek chess grandmaster and author
  • 1967 – Christopher Bowman, American figure skater (d. 2008)
  • 1967 – Hayashibara Megumi, Japanese voice actress and singer
  • 1968 – Donna D’Errico, American actress and model
  • 1968 – Celine Dion, Canadian singer
  • 1970 – Secretariat, American racehorse (d. 1989)
  • 1971 – Mark Consuelos, American actor
  • 1972 – Mili Avital, Israeli-American actress
  • 1973 – Jan Koller, Czech footballer
  • 1973 – Matthew Pritchard Welsh Stuntman
  • 1975 – Bahar Soomekh, American actress
  • 1976 – Mark McClelland, Northern Irish musician (Degrassi)
  • 1976 – Ty Conklin, American ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Obadele Thompson, Barbadian athlete
  • 1978 – Chris Paterson, Scottish rugby player
  • 1979 – Norah Jones, American singer and pianist
  • 1979 – Simon Webbe, English singer
  • 1980 – Ricardo Osorio, Mexican footballer
  • 1980 – Yalin, Turkish singer and songwriter
  • 1980 – Paul Wall, American rapper
  • 1982 – Jason Dohring, American actor
  • 1983 – Jérémie Aliadière, French footballer
  • 1983 – Zach Gowen, American professional wrestler
  • 1983 – Scott Moffatt, Canadian singer and songwriter
  • 1983 – Davis Romero, Panamanian baseball player
  • 1983 – Hebe Tian, Taiwanese singer (S.H.E)
  • 1984 – Mario Ancic, Croatian tennis player
  • 1984 – Anna Nalick, American singer and songwriter
  • 1986 – Beni Arashiro, Japanese singer
  • 1986 – Sergio Ramos, Spanish footballer

March 30 – Deaths:

  • 1486 – Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury
  • 1526 – Konrad Mutian, German humanist (b. 1471)
  • 1540 – Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg, German statesman and Archbishop of Salzburg (b. 1469)
  • 1559 – Adam Ries, German mathematician (b. 1492)
  • 1587 – Ralph Sadler, English statesman (b. 1507)
  • 1662 – François le Métel de Boisrobert, French poet (b. 1592)
  • 1707 – Vauban, French architect (b. 1633)
  • 1764 – Pietro Locatelli, Italian composer (b. 1695)
  • 1783 – William Hunter, Scottish anatomist (b. 1718)
  • 1804 – Victor-François, 2nd duc de Broglie, Marshal of France (b. 1718)
  • 1840 – Beau Brummell, English celebrity and dandy (b. 1778)
  • 1842 – Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun, French painter (b. 1755)
  • 1879 – Thomas Couture, French painter and teacher (b. 1815)
  • 1886 – Joseph-Alfred Mousseau, French Canadian politician (b. 1838)
  • 1896 – Charilaos Trikoupis, seven times prime-minister of Greece (b. 1832)
  • 1912 – Karl May, German author (b. 1842)
  • 1925 – Rudolf Steiner, Austrian philosopher
  • 1936 – Conchita Supervía, Spanish opera singer (b. 1895)
  • 1943 – Jan Bytnar, Polish activist (b. 1921)
  • 1943 – Maciej Aleksy Dawidowski, Polish activist (b. 1920)
  • 1949 – Friedrich Bergius, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1884)
  • 1950 – Léon Blum, French prime minister (b. 1872)
  • 1959 – Daniil Andreev, Russian writer and mystic (b. 1906)
  • 1965 – Philip Showalter Hench, American physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1896)
  • 1966 – Maxfield Parrish, American artist (b. 1870)
  • 1966 – Newbold Morris, American politician (b. 1902)
  • 1967 – Jean Toomer, American writer (b. 1894)
  • 1968 – Bobby Driscoll, American actor (b. 1937)
  • 1970 – Heinrich Brüning, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1885)
  • 1972 – Gabriel Heatter, American radio commentator (b. 1890)
  • 1977 – Abdel Halim Hafez, Egyptian singer and actor (b. 1929)
  • 1981 – DeWitt Wallace, American publisher (b. 1889)
  • 1984 – Karl Rahner, German theologian (b. 1904)
  • 1985 – Harold Peary, American actor and singer (heart attack) (b. 1908)
  • 1986 – James Cagney, American actor (b. 1899)
  • 1988 – Edgar Faure, French politician (b. 1908)
  • 1992 – Manolis Andronikos, Greek archeologist, professor at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (b. 1919)
  • 1999 – Gary Morton, American film and television producer (b. 1924)
  • 2002 – Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, Queen Mother of the United Kingdom (b. 1900)
  • 2002 – Søren Nystrøm Rasted, Danish Musician, husband of Lene (b. 1969)
  • 2003 – Michael Jeter, American actor (b. 1952)
  • 2003 – Valentin Pavlov, Prime Minister of the Soviet Union (b. 1937)
  • 2004 – Alistair Cooke, English-born journalist (b. 1908)
  • 2004 – Hubert Gregg, British broadcaster (b. 1914)
  • 2004 – Michael King, New Zealand historian (b. 1945)
  • 2004 – Timi Yuro, American singer (b. 1940)
  • 2005 – Emil Dimitrov, Bulgarian singer (b. 1940)
  • 2005 – Robert Creeley, American poet (b. 1926)
  • 2005 – Milton Green, American athlete (b. 1913)
  • 2005 – Fred Korematsu, American civil rights activist (b. 1919)
  • 2005 – O. V. Vijayan, Indian author and cartoonist (b. 1930)
  • 2005 – Derrick Plourde, American drummer (b. 1971)
  • 2006 – Red Hickey, American football coach (b. 1917)

March 30 – Holidays:

  • Roman Empire – Festival devoted to Salus.
  • Land Day.
  • Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day – Public holiday in Trinidad and Tobago.
  • Saint John Climacus (d. 649)
  • Saint Quirinus (d. 117)
  • Tola of Clonard
  • Blessed Amadeus IX of Savoy

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On This Day in History March 29

March 29 – Events:

  • 1461 – Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton – Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King Edward IV of England.
  • 1549 – The city of Salvador da Bahia, first capital of Brazil, is founded.
  • 1632 – Treaty of Saint-Germain signed, returning Quebec to French control after the English had seized it in 1629.
  • 1638 – Swedish colonists establish the first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden.
  • 1792 – King Gustav III of Sweden dies after being shot in the back at a midnight masquerade at Stockholm’s Royal Opera just 13 days earlier. He is succeeded by Gustav IV Adolf.
  • 1799 – New York passes a law aimed at gradually abolishing slavery in the state.
  • 1806 – Construction authorized of the Great National Pike, better known as the Cumberland Road, becoming the first United States federal highway.
  • 1809 – King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden abdicates after a coup d’état. At the Diet of Porvoo, Finland’s four Estates pledge allegiance to Alexander I of Russia, commencing the secession of the Grand Duchy of Finland from Sweden.
  • 1831 – Great Bosnian uprising: Bosniak rebel against Turkey.
  • 1847 – Mexican-American War: United States forces led by General Winfield Scott take Veracruz after a siege.
  • 1849 – The United Kingdom annexes the Punjab.
  • 1857 – Sepoy Mangal Pandey of the 34th Regiment, Bengal Native Infantry revolts against the British rule in India and inspires a long-drawn War of Independence of 1857 also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Battle of Appomattox Court House begins.
  • 1867 – Queen Victoria gives Royal Assent to the British North America Act which establishes the Dominion of Canada on July 1.
  • 1871 – The Royal Albert Hall is opened by Queen Victoria.
  • 1879 – Anglo-Zulu War: Battle of Kambula: British forces defeat 20,000 Zulus.
  • 1882 – The Knights of Columbus are established.
  • 1886 – Dr John Pemberton brews the first batch of Coca-Cola in a backyard in Atlanta, Georgia.
  • 1930 – Heinrich Brüning is appointed German Reichskanzler.
  • 1936 – In Germany, Adolf Hitler receives 99% of the votes in a referendum to ratify Germany’s illegal reoccupation of the Rhineland, receiving 44.5 million votes out of 45.5 million registered voters.
  • 1941 – World War II: British Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy forces intercept those of the Italian Regia Marina off the Peloponnesus coast of Greece in the Battle of Cape Matapan.
  • 1942 – The Bombing of Lübeck in World War II was the first major success for the RAF Bomber Command against Germany and a German city.
  • 1945 – World War II: Last day of V-1 flying bomb attacks on England.
  • 1951 – Ethel and Julius Rosenberg are convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage.
  • 1961 – The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, allowing residents of Washington, DC to vote in presidential elections.
  • 1971 – My Lai massacre: Lt. William Calley is convicted of premeditated murder and sentenced to life in prison.
  • 1971 – A Los Angeles, California jury recommends the death penalty for Charles Manson and three female followers.
  • 1973 – Vietnam War: The last United States soldiers leave South Vietnam.
  • 1974 – NASA’s Mariner 10 becomes the first space probe to fly by Mercury. It was launched on November 3, 1973.
  • 1982 – The Canada Act 1982 (U.K.) receives the Royal Assent by Queen Elizabeth II, setting the stage for the Queen of Canada to proclaim the Constitution Act, 1982.
  • 1987 – Wrestlemania III sets a World Indoor Attendance Record at the Pontiac Silverdome with 93,173 fans.
  • 1993 – Catherine Callbeck becomes premier of Prince Edward Island and Canada’s first female to be elected in a general election as a premier.
  • 1999 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes at 10006.78 – above the 10,000 mark for the first time ever.
  • 2004 – Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia join NATO as full members.
  • 2004 – The Republic of Ireland becomes the first country in the world to ban smoking in all work places, including bars and restaurants.

March 29 – Birthdays:

  • 1553 – Vitsentzos Kornaros, Greek Renaissance poet
  • 1584 – Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, English general (d. 1648)
  • 1602 – John Lightfoot, English churchman (d. 1675)
  • 1668 – Thomas Coram, Founder of the Foundling Hospital (d. 1751)
  • 1713 – John Ponsonby, Irish politician (d. 1789)
  • 1746 – Carlo Buonaparte, father of Napoleon Bonaparte (d. 1785)
  • 1769 – Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, French marshal (d. 1851)
  • 1790 – John Tyler, 10th President of the United States (d. 1862)
  • 1799 – Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1869)
  • 1824 – Ludwig Büchner, German philosopher and physician (d. 1899)
  • 1826 – Wilhelm Liebknecht, German journalist and politician (d. 1900)
  • 1867 – Cy Young, American baseball player (d. 1955)
  • 1869 – Aleš Hrdlicka, Czech anthropologist living in the United States (d. 1943)
  • 1870 – Pavlos Melas, Greek officer who organized and participated in the Greek Struggle for Macedonia (d. 1904)
  • 1873 – Tullio Levi-Civita, Italian mathematician (d. 1941)
  • 1874 – Lou Hoover, First Lady of the United States (d. 1944)
  • 1889 – Warner Baxter, American actor (d. 1951)
  • 1891 – Yvan Goll, French-German writer (d. 1950)
  • 1891 – Alfred Neubauer, German racing team manager (Mercedes Benz) (d. 1980)
  • 1892 – József Cardinal Mindszenty, Hungarian Catholic cardinal (d. 1975)
  • 1895 – Ernst Jünger, German author (d. 1998)
  • 1899 – Lavrenty Beria, Soviet Communist leader (d. 1953)
  • 1900 – John McEwen, eighteenth Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1980)
  • 1900 – Bill Aston, British racing driver (d. 1974)
  • 1901 – Andrija Maurovic, Croatian illustrator (d. 1981)
  • 1902 – Marcel Aymé, French writer (d. 1967)
  • 1902 – William Walton, English composer (d. 1983)
  • 1905 – Philip Ahn, American actor (d. 1978)
  • 1906 – E. Power Biggs American concert organist (d. 1977)
  • 1907 – “Braguinha”, Brazilian songwriter (d. 2006)
  • 1908 – Arthur O’Connell, American actor (d. 1981)
  • 1908 – Dennis O’Keefe, American actor (d. 1968)
  • 1911 – Brigitte Horney, German actress (d. 1988)
  • 1912 – Hanna Reitsch, German test pilot (d. 1979)
  • 1913 – Tony Zale, American boxer (d. 1997)
  • 1913 – R. S. Thomas, Welsh poet (d. 2000)
  • 1914 – Phil Foster, American actor (d. 1985)
  • 1916 – Eugene McCarthy, American politician (d. 2005)
  • 1917 – Man o’ War, American thoroughbred racehorse (d. 1947)
  • 1918 – Pearl Bailey, American singer and actress (d. 1990)
  • 1918 – Sam Walton, American businessman (d. 1992)
  • 1919 – Eileen Heckart, American actress (d. 2001)
  • 1920 – John Belk, American head of Belk, Inc. (d. 2007)
  • 1927 – John McLaughlin, American political commentator
  • 1927 – John Robert Vane, English pharmacologist, Nobel laureate (d. 2004)
  • 1928 – Vincent Gigante, American mafioso (d. 2005)
  • 1929 – Lennart Meri, President of Estonia (d. 2006)
  • 1929 – Richard Lewontin, American biologist
  • 1931 – Aleksei Gubarev, Soviet cosmonaut
  • 1931 – Norman Tebbit, British politician
  • 1933 – Jacques Brault, French Canadian poet
  • 1934 – Paul Crouch, American televangelist
  • 1936 – Judith Guest, American author
  • 1936 – Mogens Camre, Danish politician
  • 1937 – Billy Carter, brother of Jimmy Carter (d. 1988)
  • 1939 – Terence Hill, Italian actor
  • 1940 – Ray Davis, American musician (P-Funk) (d. 2005)
  • 1940 – Astrud Gilberto, Brazilian singer
  • 1941 – Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr., American astrophysicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1941 – Eden Kane, British singer
  • 1943 – Eric Idle, English actor, writer, and composer
  • 1943 – Sir John Major, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
  • 1943 – Vangelis, Greek musician and composer
  • 1944 – Terry Jacks, Canadian musician, songwriter, and activist
  • 1944 – Denny McLain, American baseball player
  • 1945 – Walt Frazier, American basketball player
  • 1946 – Billy Thorpe, Australian singer (d. 2007)
  • 1947 – Bobby Kimball, American singer (Toto)
  • 1948 – Bud Cort, American actor
  • 1949 – Keith Simpson, British politician
  • 1949 – Michael Brecker, American jazz saxophonist (d. 2007)
  • 1949 – John Arthur Spenkelink, American murderer (d. 1979)
  • 1952 – Teófilo Stevenson, Cuban boxer
  • 1954 – Dianne Kay, American actress
  • 1954 – Karen Ann Quinlan, American right-to-die cause célèbre (d. 1985)
  • 1955 – Earl Campbell, American football player
  • 1955 – Brendan Gleeson, Irish actor
  • 1955 – Christopher Lawford, Irish actor
  • 1955 – Marina Sirtis, English actress
  • 1956 – Patty Donahue, American singer (The Waitresses) (d. 1996)
  • 1956 – Stephen Cole, English journalist
  • 1956 – Kurt Thomas, American gymnast
  • 1957 – Christopher Lambert, French actor
  • 1958 – Victor Salva, American film director
  • 1959 – Barry Blanchard, Canadian mountaineer
  • 1959 – Perry Farrell, American musician (Jane’s Addiction and Porno for Pyros)
  • 1959 – Brad McCrimmon, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1961 – Mike Kingery, American baseball player
  • 1961 – Amy Sedaris, American actress and comedian
  • 1961 – Gary Brabham, Australian racing driver
  • 1964 – Michael A. Jackson (Sheriff), Maryland politician
  • 1964 – Elle Macpherson, Australian model
  • 1965 – Voula Patoulidou, Greek athlete
  • 1965 – Emilios T. Harlaftis, Greek astrophysicist (d. 2005)
  • 1967 – Brian Jordan, American baseball player
  • 1967 – John Popper, American musician (Blues Traveler)
  • 1968 – Lucy Lawless, New Zealand actress and singer
  • 1968 – Sue Foley, Canadian singer and guitarist
  • 1971 – Aaron Lawrence, American porn actor
  • 1971 – Lara Logan, South-African born journalist and reporter
  • 1972 – Rui Costa, Portugal footballer
  • 1972 – Junichi Suwabe, Japanese voice actor
  • 1973 – Marc Overmars, Dutch footballer
  • 1974 – Marc Gené, Spanish racing car driver
  • 1974 – Kristoffer Cusick, American actor
  • 1976 – Jennifer Capriati, American tennis player
  • 1976 – Igor Astarloa, Spanish cyclist
  • 1978 – Michael Kaczurak, American singer and actor
  • 1980 – Kim Tae Hee, South Korean actress
  • 1980 – Prince Hamzah bin Al Hussein, of Jordan
  • 1980 – Amy Mathews, Australian actress
  • 1981 – Megan Hilty, American actress
  • 1981 – Jlloyd Samuel, WestIndian-born footballer
  • 1982 – Hideaki Takizawa, Japanese artist
  • 1983 – Luiza Sá, Brazilian musician (CSS)
  • 1985 – Maxim Lapierre, Canadian ice hockey forward
  • 1985 – Mickey Pimentel, National Football League linebacker
  • 1986 – Sylvan Ebanks-Blake, English Footballer

March 29 – Deaths:

  • 1058 – Pope Stephen IX
  • 1368 – Emperor Go-Murakami, Emperor of Japan (b. 1328)
  • 1461 – Henry Percy, 3rd Earl of Northumberland, English politician (b. 1421)
  • 1578 – Arthur Champernowne, English admiral (b. 1524)
  • 1578 – Louis I, Cardinal of Guise, French cardinal (b. 1527)
  • 1625 – Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas, Spanish historian (b. 1549)
  • 1628 – Tobias Matthew, Archbishop of York (b. 1546)
  • 1629 – Jacob de Gheyn II, Dutch artist (b. 1565)
  • 1683 – Yaoya Oshichi, a young girl burned at the stake for arson in 17th Century Japan (b. 1667)
  • 1751 – Thomas Coram, English sea captain and philanthropist
  • 1772 – Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish philosopher and mathematician (b. 1688)
  • 1788 – Charles Wesley, English Methodist hymnist (b. 1707)
  • 1792 – King Gustav III of Sweden (shot) (b. 1746)
  • 1800 – Marc René, marquis de Montalembert, French military engineer and writer (b. 1714)
  • 1803 – Gottfried van Swieten, Dutch composer (b. 1733)
  • 1826 – Johann Heinrich Voß, German poet (b. 1751)
  • 1848 – John Jacob Astor, American businessman (b. 1763)
  • 1855 – Henri Druey, Swiss Federal Councilor (b. 1799)
  • 1873 – Francesco Zantedeschi, Italian physicist (b. 1797)
  • 1888 – Charles-Valentin Alkan, French composer (b. 1813)
  • 1906 – Slava Raskaj, Croatian painter (b. 1878)
  • 1912 – Members of the Scott Expedition to the South Pole:
    • Henry Robertson Bowers (b. 1883)
    • Sir Robert Falcon Scott, English explorer (b. 1868)
    • Edward Adrian Wilson, English physician and naturalist (b. 1872)
    • 1924 – Charles Villiers Stanford, Irish composer (b. 1852)
    • 1934 – Otto Hermann Kahn, German millionaire and benefactor (b. 1867)
    • 1937 – Karol Szymanowski, Polish composer (b. 1882)
    • 1940 – Alexander Obolensky, Russian prince and famed Rugby Union footballer who played for England.(b. 1916)
    • 1948 – Olev Siinmaa, Estonian architect (b. 1881)
    • 1956 – Infante Alfonso of Spain (b. 1941)
    • 1957 – Joyce Cary, Irish author (b. 1888)
    • 1959 – Barthelemy Boganda, first President of the Central African Republic (b. 1910)
    • 1970 – Anna Louise Strong, American communist journalist (b. 1885)
    • 1971 – Dhirendranath Datta, Bangladeshi politician (b. 1886)
    • 1972 – Lord J. Arthur Rank, British movie theater owner (b. 1888)
    • 1980 – Mantovani, Italian-born conductor and arranger (b. 1905)
    • 1982 – Carl Orff, German composer (b. 1895)
    • 1982 – Nathan Twining, USAF general (b. 1897)
    • 1985 – Luther Terry, Surgeon General of the United States (b. 1911)
    • 1985 – Jeanine Deckers, Belgian nun (b. 1933)
    • 1986 – Harry Ritz, American actor and comedian (b. 1907)
    • 1989 – Bernard Blier, French actor (b. 1916)
    • 1991 – Lee Atwater, American political consultant (b. 1951)
    • 1992 – Paul Henreid, Austrian actor (b. 1908)
    • 1994 – Eugène Ionesco, Romanian-born playwright (b. 1912)
    • 1994 – Bill Travers, British actor (b. 1922)
    • 1995 – Baltimora, British singer (b. 1957)
    • 1995 – Terry Moore, American baseball player (b. 1912)
    • 1996 – Frank Daniel, Czech-born writer, director, producer and teacher (b. 1926)
    • 1999 – Joe Williams, American singer (b. 1918)
    • 2001 – Helge Ingstad, Norwegian explorer (b. 1899)
    • 2001 – John Lewis, American jazz pianist (b. 1920)
    • 2002 – Rico Yan, Philippine Young Movie & TV Actor (b. 1975)
    • 2002 – Rachel Levy and Ayat al-Akhras, Israeli and Palestinian children
    • 2003 – Carlo Urbani, Italian physician (SARS) (b. 1956)
    • 2005 – Johnnie Cochran, American lawyer (b. 1937)
    • 2005 – Mitch Hedberg, American comedian (b. 1968)
    • 2005 – Miltos Sahtouris, Greek poet (b. 1919)
    • 2006 – Salvador Elizondo, Mexican writer (b. 1932)
    • 2007 – Calvin Lockhart, Bahamian actor (b. 1934)

March 29 – Holidays:

  • Día del joven combatiente a remembrance day celebrated with civil disorder in Chile by leftists and anarchists.
  • Youth Day in Taiwan.
  • St. Bertold (d. 1179)
  • St. Eustace of Luxeuil
  • Saint Mark of Arethusa bishop, martyred in 362 during the persecution of Julian the Apostate
  • Saint Gladys

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On This Day in History March 28

March 28 – Events:

  • 37 – Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the  Senate.
  • 193 – Roman Emperor Pertinax is assassinated by Praetorian Guards, who then sell the throne in an auction to Didius Julianus.
  • 364 – Roman Emperor Valentinian I appoints his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor.
  • 845 – Paris is sacked by Viking raiders, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collects a huge ransom in exchange for leaving.
  • 1776 – Juan Bautista de Anza finds the site for the Presidio of San Francisco.
  • 1794 – Allies under the prince of Coburg defeated French forces at Le Cateau.
  • 1795 – Partitions of Poland: The Duchy of Courland, a northern fief of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, ceases to exist and becomes part of Imperial Russia.
  • 1802 – Heinrich Wilhelm Matthäus Olbers discovers 2 Pallas, the second asteroid known to man.
  • 1809 – Peninsular War: In the Battle of Medelin France defeats Spain.
  • 1834 – The United States Senate censures President Andrew Jackson for his actions in defunding the Second Bank of the United States.
  • 1854 – Crimean War: France and Britain declare war on Russia.
  • 1860 – First Taranaki War: The Battle of Waireka begins.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Glorieta Pass – In New Mexico, Union forces succeed in stopping the Confederate invasion of New Mexico territory. The battle began on March 26.
  • 1871 – The Paris Commune is formally established in Paris.
  • 1910 – Henri Fabre becomes the first person to fly a seaplane, the Fabre Hydravion, after taking off from a water runway near Martigues, France.
  • 1913 – Guatemala becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
  • 1920 – Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1920 affects the Great Lakes region and Deep South states.
  • 1930 – Constantinople and Angora change their names to Istanbul and Ankara.
  • 1939 – Spanish Civil War: Generalissimo Francisco Franco conquers Madrid.
  • 1940 – The exhibition center to host the Thessaloniki International Trade Fair starts being built.
  • 1941 – World War II: Battle of Cape Matapan – In the Mediterranean Sea, British Admiral Andrew Browne Cunningham leads the Royal Navy in the destruction of three major Italian battleships and two destroyers.
  • 1942 – World War II: In occupied France, British naval forces raid the German-occupied port of St. Nazaire.
  • 1979 – In Pennsylvania, a pump in the reactor cooling system fails in the Three Mile Island accident, resulting in the evaporation of some contaminated water causing a nuclear meltdown.
  • 1979 – British Prime Minister James Callaghan, is defeated by one vote in a Motion of No Confidence. This results in Parliament being dissolved in order to make way for a forthcoming General Election.
  • 2005 – The 2005 Sumatran earthquake rocks Indonesia, and at magnitude 8.7 is the second strongest earthquake since 1960.
  • 2006 – At least 1 million union members, students and unemployed take to the streets in France in protest at the government’s proposed First Employment Contract law.

March 28 – Birthdays:

  • 1138 – Maimonides, Spanish rabbi and philosopher (d. 1204)
  • 1472 – Fra Bartolommeo, Italian artist (d. 1517)
  • 1515 – Saint Teresa of Avila, Spanish Carmelite nun (d. 1582)
  • 1522 – Albert the Warlike, Prince of Bayreuth (d. 1557)
  • 1569 – Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma (d. 1622)
  • 1592 – Comenius, Czech bishop (d. 1670)
  • 1599 – Witte Corneliszoon de With, Dutch naval officer (d. 1658)
  • 1609 – King Frederick III of Denmark (d. 1670)
  • 1613 – Xiaozhuangwen Grand Empress Dowager, Empress of Manchu (d. 1688)
  • 1652 – Samuel Sewall, American magistrate (d. 1730)
  • 1725 – Andrew Kippis, English clergyman and biographer (d. 1795)
  • 1750 – Francisco de Miranda, Venezuelan revolutionary (d. 1816)
  • 1760 – Thomas Clarkson, British abolitionist (d. 1846)
  • 1773 – Henri Gratien, Comte Bertrand, French general (d. 1844)
  • 1793 – Henry Schoolcraft, American geographer and geologist (d. 1864)
  • 1795 – Georg Heinrich Pertz, German historian (d. 1876)
  • 1806 – Thomas Hare, English barrister (d. 1891)
  • 1815 – Arsène Houssaye, French novelist (d. 1896)
  • 1818 – Wade Hampton III, American soldier and politician (d. 1902)
  • 1819 – Sir Joseph Bazalgette, English civil engineer (d. 1891)
  • 1836 – Frederick Pabst, American brewer (d. 1904)
  • 1840 – Emin Pasha, Equatorian politician (d. 1892)
  • 1842 – William Harvey Carney, American Civil War officier (d. 1908)
  • 1849 – James Darmesteter, French author and antiquarian (d. 1894)
  • 1851 – Bernardino Machado, Portuguese politician (d. 1944)
  • 1862 – Aristide Briand, French politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1932)
  • 1866 – Jimmy Ross, Scottish footballer (d. 1902)
  • 1868 – Maxim Gorky, Russian author (d. 1936)
  • 1871 – Willem Mengelberg, Dutch conductor (d. 1951)
  • 1890 – Paul Whiteman, American bandleader (d. 1967)
  • 1892 – Corneille Heymans, Belgian physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1968)
  • 1892 – Tom Maguire, Irish republican (d. 1993)
  • 1893 – Spyros Skouras, Greek-born American movie executive (d. 1971)
  • 1895 – Christian Herter, 59 Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1966)
  • 1895 – Spencer W. Kimball, American religious leader (d. 1985)
  • 1897 – Sepp Herberger, German football coach (d. 1977)
  • 1899 – Harold B. Lee, American religious leader (d. 1973)
  • 1899 – August Anheuser Busch, Jr., brewing magnate and American baseball executive (d. 1989)
  • 1899 – Ernst Lindemann, German naval officer (d. 1941)
  • 1899 – Buck Shaw, American football coach (d. 1977)
  • 1900 – Edward Wagenknecht, American literary critic (d. 2004)
  • 1902 – Dame Flora Robson, English actress (d. 1984)
  • 1902 – Jaromír Vejvoda, Czech composer (d. 1988)
  • 1903 – Rudolf Serkin, Austrian pianist (d. 1991)
  • 1903 – Charles Starrett, American actor (d. 1986)
  • 1905 – Marlin Perkins, American naturalist and television host (d. 1986)
  • 1905 – Pandro S. Berman, American film producer (d. 1996)
  • 1907 – “Swifty” Lazar, American talent agent (d. 1993)
  • 1909 – Nelson Algren, American writer (d. 1981)
  • 1910 – Frederick Baldwin Adams, Jr., American Librarian (d. 2001)
  • 1910 – Jimmie Dodd, American actor (d. 1964)
  • 1910 – Queen Ingrid of Denmark (d. 2000)
  • 1911 – J. L. Austin, British philosopher of language (d. 1960)
  • 1912 – A. Bertram Chandler Australian author (d. 1984)
  • 1912 – Marina Raskova, Russian navigator (d. 1943)
  • 1914 – Edward Anhalt, American screenwriter (d. 2000)
  • 1914 – Bohumil Hrabal, Czech writer (d. 1997)
  • 1914 – Edmund Muskie, American politician (d. 1996)
  • 1914 – Kenneth Richard Norris, Australian entomologist (d. 2003)
  • 1915 – Jay Livingston, American composer and songwriter (d. 2001)
  • 1919 – Vic Raschi, American baseball player (d. 1988)
  • 1921 – Dirk Bogarde, English actor (d. 1999)
  • 1922 – Neville Bonner, Australian politician (d. 1999)
  • 1922 – Felice Chiusano, Italian singer (d. 1990)
  • 1922 – Joey Maxim, American boxer (d. 2001)
  • 1924 – Freddie Bartholomew, Irish actor (d. 1992)
  • 1925 – Dorothy DeBorba, American child actress
  • 1926 – Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, 18th Duchess of Alba
  • 1927 – Marianne Fredriksson, Swedish author (d. 2007)
  • 1928 – Zbigniew Brzezinski, U.S. National Security Advisor
  • 1928 – Alexander Grothendieck, German mathematician
  • 1929 – Paul England, Australian racing driver
  • 1930 – Robert Ashley, American composer
  • 1930 – Elizabeth Bainbridge, English opera singer
  • 1930 – Jerome Isaac Friedman, American physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1933 – Tete Montoliu, Spanish jazz pianist (d. 1997)
  • 1933 – Frank Murkowski, American politician
  • 1935 – Michael Parkinson, English broadcaster
  • 1936 – Mario Vargas Llosa, Peruvian author and politician
  • 1940 – Tony Barber, Australian television personality
  • 1941 – Alf Clausen, orchestra conductor (The Simpsons)
  • 1941 – Jim Turner, American football player
  • 1942 – Daniel Dennett, American philosopher
  • 1942 – Neil Kinnock, British statesman
  • 1942 – Mike Newell, English film director
  • 1942 – Samuel Ramey, American opera singer
  • 1942 – Conrad Schumann, East German border guard (d. 1998)
  • 1942 – Jerry Sloan, American basketball player and coach
  • 1943 – Conchata Ferrell, American actress
  • 1944 – Rick Barry, American basketball player
  • 1944 – Ken Howard, American actor
  • 1945 – Count Björn Hamilton, Swedish politician
  • 1946 – Alejandro Toledo, President of Peru
  • 1946 – Wubbo Ockels, Dutch physicist and astronaut
  • 1947 – John Landecker, American disk jockey
  • 1948 – Dianne Wiest, American actress
  • 1948 – Gerry House, American radio personality
  • 1948 – John Evan, British musician (Jethro Tull)
  • 1948 – Milan Williams, American musician The Commodores (d. 2006)
  • 1948 – Matthew Corbett, English retired actor
  • 1951 – Karen Kain, Canadian ballerina
  • 1951 – Matti Pellonpää, Finnish actor and musician (d. 1995)
  • 1952 – Tony Brise, racing driver (d. 1975)
  • 1953 – Melchior Ndadaye, Burundian politician (d. 1993)
  • 1954 – Morris Mason, American convicted rapist and murderer (d. 1985)
  • 1955 – John Alderdice, Northern Irish politician
  • 1955 – Reba McEntire, American singer and actress
  • 1956 – April Margera, Bam Margera’s mother
  • 1958 – Curt Hennig, American professional wrestler (d. 2003)
  • 1959 – Chris Myers, American sportscaster
  • 1960 – Chris Barrie, British actor
  • 1960 – José Maria Neves, Cape Verdeian politician
  • 1961 – Byron Scott, American basketball player
  • 1962 – Jure Franko, Slovenian skier
  • 1962 – Terry Szopinski, American pro-wrestler
  • 1965 – Steve Bull, English footballer
  • 1968 – Iris Chang, American author (d. 2004)
  • 1968 – Nasser Hussain, English cricketer
  • 1968 – Jon Lee, British drummer (d. 2002)
  • 1968 – Tim Lovejoy, British television presenter
  • 1969 – Brett Ratner, American film director
  • 1969 – Rodney Atkins, American country music singer-songwriter
  • 1970 – Vince Vaughn, American actor
  • 1970 – Michelle Gildernew, Irish republican politician
  • 1971 – Mr. Cheeks, American rapper
  • 1972 – Nick Frost, English comedian and actor
  • 1972 – Keith Tkachuk, American ice hockey player
  • 1973 – Eddie Fatu, Samoan professional wrestler
  • 1973 – Matt Nathanson, American singer-songwriter
  • 1974 – Mark King, English snooker player
  • 1974 – Scott Mills, British radio disc jockey
  • 1975 – Shanna Moakler, former beauty queen
  • 1975 – Iván Helguera, Spanish footballer
  • 1975 – Matt Reis, American soccer goalkeeper
  • 1975 – Richard Kelly, American film director
  • 1975 – Derek Hill, American racing driver
  • 1976 – David Keuning, American guitar player (The Killers)
  • 1977 – Erik Rasmussen, American ice hockey player
  • 1977 – Lauren Weisberger, American novelist
  • 1979 – Park Chae-rim, South Korean actress
  • 1980 – Stiliani Pilatou, Greek long jumper
  • 1980 – Luke Walton, American basketball player
  • 1981 – Julia Stiles, American actress
  • 1981 – Edwar Ramirez, American baseball player
  • 1982 – Sonia Agarwal, Indian actress
  • 1983 – Ryan Ashington, English footballer
  • 1984 – Christopher Samba, French-born footballer
  • 1984 – Nikki Sanderson, British actress and model
  • 1984 – Yordanos Abay, Ethiopian footballer
  • 1986 – J-Kwon, American rapper
  • 1986 – Barbora Strýcová, Czech tennis player
  • 1988 – Lacey Turner, British soap actress
  • 1989 – Marek Suchý, Czech footballer
  • 1989 – Lukas Jutkiewicz, English footballer
  • 1989 – Mira Leung, Canadian figure skater
  • 1989 – Afrikan Boy, a grime MC
  • 1991 – Amy Bruckner, American actress
  • 1991 – Sophie Mullen, English actress

March 28 – Deaths:

  • 193 – Pertinax, Roman Emperor (b. 126)
  • 1072 – Ordulf, Duke of Saxony
  • 1239 – Emperor Go-Toba of Japan (b. 1180)
  • 1285 – Pope Martin IV
  • 1563 – Heinrich Glarean, Swiss music theorist (b. 1488)
  • 1566 – Sigismund von Herberstein, Austrian diplomat and historian (b. 1486)
  • 1677 – Václav Hollar, Czech-born actor (b. 1607)
  • 1687 – Constantijn Huygens, Dutch poet and composer (b. 1596)
  • 1794 – Marquis de Condorcet, French mathematician and philosopher (b. 1743)
  • 1850 – Gerard C. Brandon, American politician (b. 1788)
  • 1866 – Solomon Foot, American politician (b. 1802)
  • 1868 – James Thomas Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan, British military leader (b. 1797)
  • 1870 – George Henry Thomas, American general (b. 1816)
  • 1874 – Peter Andreas Hansen, Danish astronomer (b. 1795)
  • 1881 – Modest Mussorgsky, Russian composer (b. 1839)
  • 1910 – David Josiah Brewer, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (b. 1837)
  • 1910 – Edouard Judas Colonne, French violinist (b. 1838)
  • 1929 – Lomer Gouin, Quebec politician (b. 1861)
  • 1939 – Francis Matthew John Baker, Australian politician (b. 1903)
  • 1941 – Virginia Woolf, English feminist writer (b. 1882)
  • 1942 – Miguel Hernández, Spanish poet, death in prison (b. 1910)
  • 1943 – Sergei Rachmaninoff, Russian composer and pianist (b. 1873)
  • 1944 – Stephen Leacock, Canadian humorist (b. 1869)
  • 1946 – Chick Fullis, baseball player (b. 1904)
  • 1947 – Karol Swierczewski, Polish general (b. 1897)
  • 1949 – Grigoras Dinicu, Romanian composer and violinist (b. 1889)
  • 1953 – Jim Thorpe, American athlete (b. 1887)
  • 1958 – W.C. Handy, American composer (b. 1873)
  • 1965 – Jack Hoxie, American actor and rodeo performer (b. 1885)
  • 1965 – Clemence Dane, British novelist and playwright (b. 1888)
  • 1969 – Dwight D. Eisenhower, 34th President of the United States (b. 1890)
  • 1974 – Dorothy Fields, American librettist and lyricist (b. 1905)
  • 1976 – Arthur Crudup, American blues singer and guitarist (b. 1905)
  • 1976 – Richard Arlen, American actor (b. 1898)
  • 1978 – Dino Ciani, Italian pianist (d. 1941)
  • 1979 – Emmett Kelly, American clown (b. 1898)
  • 1980 – Dick Haymes, Argentine-born singer and actor (b. 1918)
  • 1982 – William Giauque, Canadian chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 1895)
  • 1985 – Marc Chagall, Russian-born painter (b. 1887)
  • 1986 – Virginia Gilmore. American actress (b. 1919)
  • 1987 – Maria von Trapp, Austrian-born singer (b. 1905)
  • 1987 – Patrick Troughton, British actor (b. 1920)
  • 1993 – Scott Cunningham, Occult author (b. 1956)
  • 1995 – Hugh O’Connor, American actor (b. 1962)
  • 1999 – Freaky Tah, American rapper (Lost Boyz) (b. 1971)
  • 2000 – Anthony Powell, British novelist (b. 1905)
  • 2001 – Moe Koffman, Canadian musician (b. 1928)
  • 2004 – Art James, American game show host (b. 1929)
  • 2004 – Peter Ustinov, British actor (b. 1921)
  • 2005 – Dame Moura Lympany, British pianist (b. 1916)
  • 2006 – Caspar Weinberger, United States Secretary of Defense (b. 1917)
  • 2006 – Charles Schepens, American ophthalmologist (b. 1912)
  • 2006 – Kevin Pro Hart, Australian artist (b. 1928)
  • 2006 – Proinsias Ó Maonaigh, Irish musician (b. 1922)

March 28 – Holidays:

  • Slovakia, Czech Republic – Teachers’ Day.
  • Liturgical feasts:
    • Saint Castor
    • Saint Gontram (d. 592)
    • Saint Malchus
    • Saint Priscus
    • Saint Sixtus III

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On This Day in History March 27

March 27 – Events:

  • 1329 – Pope John XXII issues his ‘In Agro Dominico’ condemning some writings of Meister Eckhart as heretical.
  • 1513 (not 1512 as often cited) – Explorer Juan Ponce de León sights North America (specifically Florida) for the first time, mistaking it for another island.
  • 1613 – First English child born in Canada at Cuper’s Cove, Newfoundland to Nicholas Guy.
  • 1625 – Charles I becomes King of England, Scotland and Ireland as well as claiming the title King of France.
  • 1642 – The sixth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Joseph takes his office.
  • 1782 – Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
  • 1794 – The government of the United States establishes a permanent United States Navy and authorizes the building of six frigates.
  • 1794 – Denmark and Sweden form a neutrality compact.
  • 1814 – War of 1812: In central Alabama, United States forces under General Andrew Jackson defeat the Creek at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
  • 1834 – Andrew Jackson is censured by the U.S. Senate for his actions regarding the U.S. National Bank.
  • 1836 – Texas Revolution: Goliad massacre – Antonio López de Santa Anna orders the Mexican army to kill about 400 Texans at Goliad, Texas.
  • 1846 – Mexican-American War: Siege of Fort Texas.
  • 1851 – First reported case of Europeans seeing Yosemite Valley.
  • 1854 – Crimean War: United Kingdom declares war on Russia.
  • 1868 – The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company is organized in Oswego, New York.
  • 1871 – First international rugby football match, England v. Scotland, played in Edinburgh at Raeburn Place.
  • 1881 – Rioting takes place in Basingstoke in protest against the daily vociferous promotion of rigid Temperence by the Salvation Army.
  • 1890 – A tornado strikes Louisville, Kentucky, killing 76 and injuring 200.
  • 1906 – Founding of the Alpine Club of Canada in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
  • 1918 – Moldova and Bessarabia join Romania.
  • 1941 – World War II: Yugoslavian Air Force officers topple the pro-axis government in a bloodless coup.
  • 1942 – World War II: United Kingdom forces raid the U-boat base at St. Nazaire, France.
  • 1943 – World War II: Battle of the Komandorski Islands – In the Aleutian Islands the battle begins when United States Navy forces intercept Japanese attempting to reinforce a garrison at Kiska.
  • 1945 – World War II: Operation Starvation, the aerial mining of Japan’s ports and waterways begins.
  • 1948 – The Second Congress of the Workers Party of North Korea is convened.
  • 1958 – Nikita Khrushchev becomes Premier of the Soviet Union.
  • 1963 – Dr. Richard Beeching issues a report calling for huge cuts to the United Kingdom’s rail network.
  • 1964 – The Good Friday Earthquake, the most powerful earthquake in U.S. history at a magnitude of 9.2 strikes South Central Alaska, killing 125 people and inflicting massive damage to the city of Anchorage.
  • 1968 – Yuri Gagarin, Soviet Cosmonaut, first human in space dies in aircraft training accident.
  • 1969 – Mariner 7 is launched.
  • 1970 – The Concorde makes its first supersonic flight
  • 1977 – Tenerife disaster: Two Boeing 747 airliners collide on a foggy runway on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, killing 583 (all 247 on KLM and 335 on PAN AM) and 61 survived on a PAN AM flight.
  • 1980 – The Norwegian oil platform Alexander Kielland collapses in the North Sea, killing 123 of its crew of 212.
  • 1986 – Car bomb explodes at Russell Street Police HQ in Melbourne, killing 1 police officer and injuring 21 people.
  • 1990 – The United States begins broadcasting TV Martí to Cuba in an effort to bridge the information blackout imposed by the Castro regime.
  • 1993 – Jiang Zemin is appointed President of the People’s Republic of China.
  • 1994 – One of the biggest tornado outbreaks in recent memory hits the Southeastern United States. One tornado slams into a church in Piedmont, Alabama during Palm Sunday services killing 20 and injuring 90.
  • 1998 – The Food and Drug Administration approves Viagra for use as a treatment for male impotence, the first pill to be approved for this condition in the United States.
  • 2002 – Passover Massacre: A suicide bomber kills 29 people in Netanya, Israel.
  • 2006 – The UN Commission on Human Rights holds its final meeting.

March 27 – Birthdays:

  • 972 – King Robert II of France (d. 1031)
  • 1416 – Antonio Squarcialupi, Italian composer (d. 1480)
  • 1627 – Stephen Fox, English politician (d. 1716)
  • 1676 – Francis II Rákóczi, leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburg (d. 1735)
  • 1696 – Antoine Court, French Huguenot minister (d. 1760)
  • 1702 – Johann Ernst Eberlin, German composer (d. 1762)
  • 1712 – Claude Bourgelat, French veterinary surgeon (d. 1779)
  • 1714 – Francesco Antonio Zaccaria, Italian theologian and historian (d. 1795)
  • 1730 – Thomas Tyrwhitt, English classical scholar (d. 1786)
  • 1746 – Michael Bruce, Scottish poet (d. 1767)
  • 1765 – Franz Xaver von Baader, German philosopher and theologian (d. 1841)
  • 1785 – King Louis XVII of France (d. 1795)
  • 1797 – Alfred de Vigny, French author (d. 1863)
  • 1809 – Baron Haussmann, French civic planner (d. 1891)
  • 1810 – William Hepworth Thompson, English classical scholar (d. 1886)
  • 1813 – Nathaniel Currier, American illustrator (d. 1888)
  • 1817 – Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli, Swiss biologist (d. 1891)
  • 1845 – Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1923)
  • 1847 – Otto Wallach, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1931)
  • 1851 – Vincent d’Indy, French composer and teacher (d. 1931)
  • 1857 – Karl Pearson, English statistician (d. 1936)
  • 1859 – George Giffen, Australian cricketer (d. 1927)
  • 1860 – Frank Frost Abbott, American classical scholar (d. 1924)
  • 1863 – Sir Henry Royce, English automobile pioneer (d. 1933)
  • 1869 – James McNeill, Irish politician (d. 1938)
  • 1871 – Heinrich Mann, German writer (d. 1950)
  • 1879 – Miller Huggins, American baseball player and manager (d. 1929)
  • 1883 – Marie Under, Estonian author and poet (d. 1980)
  • 1886 – Sergey Kirov, Russian bolshevik leader (d. 1934)
  • 1886 – Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, German architect (d. 1969)
  • 1892 – Ferde Grofé, American composer (d. 1972)
  • 1893 – Karl Mannheim, Hungarian sociologist (d. 1947)
  • 1899 – Gloria Swanson, American actress (d. 1983)
  • 1897 – Douglas Hartree, English mathematical physicist (d. 1958)
  • 1901 – Carl Barks, American illustrator (d. 2000)
  • 1901 – Erich Ollenhauer, German politician (d. 1963)
  • 1901 – Eisaku Sato, Prime Minister of Japan, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1975)
  • 1901 – Kenneth Slessor, Australian poet (d. 1971)
  • 1902 – Charles Lang, American cinematographer (d. 1998)
  • 1905 – Elsie MacGill, Canadian aeronautical engineer (d. 1980)
  • 1906 – Pee Wee Russell, American musician (d. 1969)
  • 1909 – Golo Mann, German historian (d. 1994)
  • 1909 – Ben Webster, American jazz saxophonist (d. 1973)
  • 1912 – James Callaghan, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 2005)
  • 1913 – Theodor Dannecker, SS officer (d. 1945)
  • 1914 – Richard Denning, American actor (d. 1998)
  • 1914 – Budd Schulberg, American screenwriter and novelist
  • 1915 – Robert Lockwood, Jr., American blues guitarist (d. 2006)
  • 1917 – Cyrus Vance, American politician (d. 2002)
  • 1920 – Robin Jacques, illustrator (d. 1995)
  • 1921 – Harold Nicholas, American dancer (d. 2000)
  • 1922 – Stefan Wul, French author (d. 2003)
  • 1923 – Endo Shusaku, Japanese author (d. 1996)
  • 1923 – Louis Simpson, Jamaican-born poet
  • 1924 – Sarah Vaughan, American singer (d. 1990)
  • 1927 – Mstislav Rostropovich, Russian cellist and conductor (d. 2007)
  • 1931 – David Janssen, American actor (d. 1980)
  • 1935 – Abelardo Castillo, Argentine writer
  • 1935 – Julian Glover, British actor
  • 1937 – Thomas Aquinas Daly, American painter
  • 1939 – Cale Yarborough, American race car driver
  • 1940 – Janis Martin, American singer (d. 2007)
  • 1941 – Ivan Gašparovic, President of Slovakia
  • 1942 – John E. Sulston, British chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 1942 – Michael York, English actor
  • 1942 – Michael Jackson, English writer (d. 2007)
  • 1943 – Phil Frank, American cartoonist (d. 2007)
  • 1946 – Olaf Malolepski, German musician (Die Flippers)
  • 1947 – Brian Jones, British balloonist
  • 1947 – Walt Mossberg, Wall Street Journal columnist
  • 1950 – Tony Banks, English musician (Genesis)
  • 1950 – Petros Efthimiou, Greek politician
  • 1950 – Lynn McGlothen, American baseball player (d. 1984)
  • 1952 – Maria Schneider, French actress
  • 1952 – Richard Séguin, Quebec singer and songwriter
  • 1956 – Leung Kwok Hung, Hong Kong activist
  • 1956 – Thomas Wassberg, Swedish cross-country skier
  • 1957 – Nick Hawkins, British politician
  • 1957 – Billy Mackenzie, Scottish musician (Associates) (d. 1997)
  • 1959 – Andrew Farriss, Australian musician (INXS)
  • 1960 – Hans Pflügler, German footballer
  • 1961 – Tak Matsumoto, Japanese guitarist (B’z)
  • 1961 – Tony Rominger, Swiss cyclist
  • 1962 – Jann Arden, Canadian musician
  • 1963 – Charly Alberti, Argentinian musician
  • 1963 – Randall Cunningham American football player
  • 1963 – Quentin Tarantino, American director, writer, and producer
  • 1963 – Xuxa, Brazilian television personality
  • 1964 – Glenn Carter, English actor and singer-songwriter
  • 1966 – Paula Trickey, American actress
  • 1967 – Paul Adams, American celebrity
  • 1967 – Talisa Soto, American actress
  • 1968 – Sandra Hess, Swiss-born actress and model
  • 1969 – Pauley Perrette, American actress, photographer, poet, writer
  • 1970 – Mariah Carey, American singer
  • 1970 – Brent Fitz, Canadian Musician (Theory of a Deadman)
  • 1970 – Brendan Hill, British drummer (Blues Traveler)
  • 1970 – Princess Leila of Iran (d. 2001)
  • 1970 – Elizabeth Mitchell, American actress
  • 1971 – Thom Barron, German porn star
  • 1971 – David Coulthard, Scottish Formula One driver
  • 1971 – Nathan Fillion, Canadian actor
  • 1972 – Charlie Haas, professional wrestler
  • 1972 – Jimmy Floyd Hasselbaink, Dutch footballer
  • 1974 – Russ Haas, wrestler (d. 2001)
  • 1974 – Gaizka Mendieta, Spanish footballer
  • 1975 – Stacy “Fergie” Ferguson, American musician (Black Eyed Peas)
  • 1976 – Djamel Belmadi, Algerian footballer
  • 1976 – Carl Ng, Hong Kong/British actor and model
  • 1977 – Violetta Blue, American porn star
  • 1977 – Vitor Meira, Brazilian racing driver
  • 1977 – Adrian Anca, Romanian footballer
  • 1979 – Michael Cuddyer, Minnesota Twins baseball player
  • 1981 – Carey Davis, National Football League fullback
  • 1981 – Lin Jun Jie, Chinese Singer
  • 1981 – Terry McFlynn, Northern Irish footballer
  • 1982 – Kurara Chibana, Japanese beauty queen, first runner-up Miss Universe 2006
  • 1985 – Caroline Winberg, Swedish supermodel
  • 1985 – Dario Baldauf, Austrian footballer
  • 1986 – Valerie “So Cal Val” Wyndham, American professional wrestling valet
  • 1987 – Chad Denny, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1988 – Brenda Song, American actress
  • 1995 – Taylor Atelian, American actress
  • 1997 – Princess Sara bint Al Faisal, of Jordan

March 27 – Deaths:

  • 973 – Herman, Duke of Saxony
  • 1191 – Pope Clement III
  • 1350 – King Alfonso XI of Castile (b. 1312)
  • 1378 – Pope Gregory XI
  • 1462 – Vasili II of Russia, Grand Prince of Moscow (b. 1415)
  • 1482 – Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Charles the Bold; wife of Maximilian I (b. 1457)
  • 1555 – William Hunter, Protestant martyr
  • 1572 – Girolamo Maggi, Italian Renaissance man (b. abt. 1523)
  • 1625 – King James I of England and Ireland, James VI of Scotland (b. 1566)
  • 1635 – Robert Naunton, English politician (b. 1563)
  • 1697 – Simon Bradstreet, English colonial magistrate (b. 1603)
  • 1757 – Johann Stamitz, Czech-born composer (b. 1717)
  • 1770 – Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Italian artist (b. 1696)
  • 1809 – Joseph-Marie Vien, French painter (b. 1716)
  • 1827 – François Alexandre Frédéric, French social reformer (b. 1747)
  • 1836 – James Fannin, Texas revolutionary (b. 1804)
  • 1843 – Karl Salomo Zachariae von Lingenthal, German jurist (b. 1769)
  • 1849 – Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford (b. 1776)
  • 1850 – Wilhelm Beer, German astronomer (b. 1797)
  • 1864 – Jean-Jacques Ampère, French scholar (b. 1800)
  • 1865 – Petrus Hoffman Peerlkamp, Dutch scholar (b. 1786)
  • 1873 – Amedée Simon Dominique Thierry, French journalist and historian (b. 1797)
  • 1875 – Edgar Quinet, French historian (b. 1803)
  • 1878 – Sir George Gilbert Scott, English architect (b. 1811)
  • 1889 – John Bright, English statesman (b. 1811)
  • 1897 – Andreas Anagnostakis, Greek physician (b. 1826)
  • 1898 – Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Indian Muslim intellectual (b. 1817)
  • 1910 – Alexander Emanuel Agassiz, American scientist; son of Louis Agassiz (b. 1835)
  • 1918 – Henry Adams, American historian (b. 1838)
  • 1923 – Sir James Dewar, Scottish chemist (b. 1842)
  • 1924 – Walter Parratt, English composer (b. 1841)
  • 1926 – Georges Vézina, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1887)
  • 1927 – Joe Start, American baseball player (b. 1842)
  • 1931 – Arnold Bennett, British novelist (b. 1867)
  • 1940 – Michael Joseph Savage, Prime Minister of New Zealand (b. 1872)
  • 1967 – Jaroslav Heyrovský, Czech chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1890)
  • 1967 – Jim Thompson, American designer (disappeared) (b. 1906)
  • 1968 – Yuri Gagarin, Soviet cosmonaut (b. 1934)
  • 1972 – Sharkey Bonano, American musician (b. 1904)
  • 1972 – M.C. Escher, Dutch artist (b. 1898)
  • 1977 – A. P. Hamann, American politician
  • 1977 – Diana Hyland, American actress (b. 1936)
  • 1981 – Mao Dun, Chinese writer (b. 1895)
  • 1989 – May Allison, American actress (b. 1890)
  • 1989 – Jack Starrett, American actor and film director (b. 1936)
  • 1991 – Ralph Bates, British actor (b. 1940)
  • 1991 – Aldo Ray, American actor (b. 1926)
  • 1992 – Easley Blackwood, American bridgeplayer (b. 1903)
  • 1993 – Clifford Jordan, American saxophonist and bandleader (b. 1931)
  • 1993 – Paul László, Hungarian interior designer and architect (b. 1900)
  • 1998 – David McClelland, American psychologist (b. 1917)
  • 1998 – Ferry Porsche, Austrian automobile manufacturer (b. 1909)
  • 2000 – Ian Dury, English musician (b. 1942)
  • 2002 – Milton Berle, American actor and comedian (b. 1908)
  • 2002 – Dudley Moore, British actor (b. 1935)
  • 2002 – Billy Wilder, American director (b. 1906)
  • 2003 – Daniel Ceccaldi, French actor (b. 1927)
  • 2003 – Ricardo Munguia, Salvadoran aid worker
  • 2003 – Paul Zindel, American writer (b. 1936)
  • 2004 – Adán Sánchez, Mexican-American singer (b. 1984)
  • 2005 – Wilfred Bigelow, Canadian heart surgeon (b. 1913)
  • 2005 – Bob Casey, American baseball announcer (b. 1925)
  • 2005 – Grant Johannesen, American concert pianist (b. 1921)
  • 2006 – Dan Curtis, American television producer and director (b. 1928)
  • 2006 – Stanislaw Lem, Polish writer (b. 1921)
  • 2006 – Ruari McLean, British typographer (b. 1917)
  • 2006 – Lyn Nofziger, American journalist and political advisor to Ronald Reagan (b. 1924)
  • 2007 – Paul Lauterbur, American chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 1929)

March 27 – Holidays:

  • Angolan Victory Day
  • Osweiler in Luxembourg.
  • Feast day of Rupert of Salzburg in the Roman Catholic Church.

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On This Day in History March 26

March 26 – Events:

  • 1026 – Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1199 – Richard the Lionheart is fatally wounded by a crossbow bolt during a siege in France, he dies eleven days later. The marksman, a French noble named Pierre Basile, is executed.
  • 1484 – William Caxton printed his translation of Aesop’s Fables.
  • 1552 – Guru Amar Das becomes the Third Sikh Guru.
  • 1636 – Utrecht University is founded in The Netherlands.
  • 1808 – Charles IV of Spain abdicates in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII.
  • 1812 – An earthquake destroys Caracas, Venezuela.
  • 1839 – The first Henley Royal Regatta is held.
  • 1881 – Thessaly is freed and becomes part of Greece again.
  • 1913 – Balkan War: Bulgarian forces take Adrianople.
  • 1917 – World War I: First Battle of Gaza – British troops are halted after 17,000 Turks block their advance.
  • 1934 – Driving test introduced in the United Kingdom.
  • 1942 – World War II: In Poland, Auschwitz receives its first female prisoners.
  • 1945 – World War II: In Iwo Jima, US forces declare Iwo Jima as “secure.”
  • 1953 – Jonas Salk announces his polio vaccine.
  • 1958 – The United States Army launches Explorer 3.
  • 1958 – The African Regroupment Party (PRA) is launched at a meeting in Paris.
  • 1965 – A truck loses control down Moosic Street, Scranton, Pennsylvania, killing the driver. This accident later inspired the 1974 Harry Chapin song, “30,000 Pounds of Bananas.”
  • 1967 – Ten thousand people gather for the Central Park Be-In.
  • 1971 – East Pakistan declares its independence from Pakistan to form People’s Republic of Bangladesh and Bangladesh Liberation War begins.
  • 1975 – The Biological Weapons Convention enters into force.
  • 1976 – Queen Elizabeth II sent out the first royal email, from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment.
  • 1977 – Focus on the Family is founded by Dr. James Dobson.
  • 1979 – Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin and Jimmy Carter sign the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in Washington, DC.
  • 1982 – A groundbreaking ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is held in Washington, DC.
  • 1995 – The Schengen Treaty goes into effect.
  • 1996 – The International Monetary Fund approves a $10.2 billion loan for Russia.
  • 1997 – Thirty-nine bodies found in the Heaven’s Gate cult suicides.
  • 1998 – Oued Bouaicha massacre in Algeria; 52 people killed with axes and knives, 32 of them babies under the age of 2.
  • 1999 – The “Melissa worm” infects Microsoft word processing and e-mail systems around the world.
  • 1999 – A jury in Michigan finds Dr. Jack Kevorkian guilty of second-degree murder for administering a lethal injection to a terminally ill man.
  • 2005 – The Taiwanese government calls on 1 million Taiwanese to demonstrate in Taipei, in opposition to the Anti-Secession Law of the People’s Republic of China. Around 200,000 to 300,000 attend the walk.
  • 2006 – In Scotland, the prohibition of smoking in all substantially enclosed public places comes into force.
  • 2006 – The military junta ruling Myanmar officially named Naypyidaw, a new city in Mandalay Division, as the new capital. Yangon had formerly been the nation’s capital.

March 26 – Birthdays:

  • 1516 – Conrad Gessner, Swiss naturalist (d. 1565)
  • 1554 – Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne, French military leader (d. 1611)
  • 1698 – Václav Prokop Diviš, Czech theologian and natural scientist (d. 1765)
  • 1749 – William Blount, American Statesman (d. 1800)
  • 1753 – Benjamin Thompson, American physicist and inventor (d. 1814)
  • 1773 – Nathaniel Bowditch, American mathematician and navigation expert (d. 1838)
  • 1794 – Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, German painter (d. 1872)
  • 1859 – Alfred Edward Housman, English poet (d. 1936)
  • 1859 – Adolf Hurwitz, German mathematician (d. 1919)
  • 1868 – King Fuad I of Egypt (d. 1936)
  • 1874 – Robert Frost, American poet (d. 1963)
  • 1875 – Max Abraham, German physicist (d. 1922)
  • 1875 – Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea (d. 1965)
  • 1876 – Prince William of Wied, sovereign Prince of Albania (d. 1945)
  • 1879 – Othmar Ammann, Swiss-born bridge engineer (d. 1965)
  • 1882 – Hermann Obrecht, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1940)
  • 1884 – Wilhelm Backhaus, German pianist (d. 1969)
  • 1886 – Hugh Mulzac, America military officer (d. 1971)
  • 1894 – Viorica Ursuleac, Romanian soprano (d. 1985)
  • 1896 – Rudolf Dassler, Founder of PUMA AG (d. 1974)
  • 1898 – Charles Shadwell, English conductor and bandleader (d. 1979)
  • 1888 – Elsa Brändström, Swedish nurse (d. 1948)
  • 1893 – Palmiro Togliatti, Italian communist leader (d. 1964)
  • 1904 – Joseph Campbell, American author (d. 1987)
  • 1904 – Emilio Fernández, Mexican actor, screenwriter and film director (d. 1986)
  • 1904 – Xenophon Zolotas, Greek economist, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 2004)
  • 1905 – Viktor Frankl, Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist (d. 1997)
  • 1906 – Rafael Mendez, Mexican trumpetist (d. 1981)
  • 1908 – Franz Stangl, German commandant of Nazi concentration camps (d. 1971)
  • 1911 – Bernard Katz, German-born biophysicist, Nobel laureate (d. 2003)
  • 1911 – Tennessee Williams, American dramatist (d. 1983)
  • 1911 – T. Hee, American animator (d. 1988)
  • 1913 – Paul Erdos, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1996)
  • 1914 – Toru Kumon, Japanese educator (d. 1995)
  • 1914 – William Westmoreland, U.S. general (d. 2005)
  • 1916 – Christian B. Anfinsen, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1995)
  • 1916 – Bill Edrich, English cricketer (d. 1986)
  • 1916 – Sterling Hayden, American actor (d. 1986)
  • 1917 – Rufus Thomas, American musician (d. 2001)
  • 1919 – Strother Martin, American actor (d. 1980)
  • 1922 – Oscar Sala, Italian-born physicist
  • 1923 – Gert Bastian, German politician (d. 1992)
  • 1923 – Bob Elliott, American comedian
  • 1925 – Pierre Boulez, French composer and conductor
  • 1925 – James Moody, American jazz musician, composer, and actor
  • 1930 – Gregory Corso, American poet (d. 2001)
  • 1930 – Sandra Day O’Connor, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
  • 1931 – Leonard Nimoy, American actor and director
  • 1934 – Alan Arkin, American actor
  • 1935 – Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestine National Authority
  • 1937 – Wayne Embry, American basketball player
  • 1938 – Anthony James Leggett, American physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1940 – James Caan, American actor
  • 1940 – Nancy Pelosi, American politician and 60th Speaker of the House
  • 1941 – Richard Dawkins, British evolutionary biologist
  • 1941 – Yvon Marcoux, Quebec politician
  • 1942 – Erica Jong, American author
  • 1943 – Bob Woodward, American journalist
  • 1944 – Diana Ross, American singer (Supremes)
  • 1945 – Mikhail Voronin, Soviet gymnast (d. 2004)
  • 1946 – Johnny Crawford, American actor
  • 1946 – Alain Madelin, French politician
  • 1947 – Dar Robinson, American stuntman (d. 1986)
  • 1948 – Richard Tandy, British keyboardist (Electric Light Orchestra)
  • 1948 – Steven Tyler, American singer (Aerosmith)
  • 1949 – Vicki Lawrence, American actress and singer
  • 1949 – Patrick Süskind, German writer
  • 1950 – Teddy Pendergrass, American singer
  • 1950 – Martin Short, Canadian comedian
  • 1950 – Ernest Thomas, American actor
  • 1951 – Carl Wieman, American physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1952 – Didier Pironi, French Formula One driver (d. 1987)
  • 1953 – Elaine Chao, U.S. Secretary of Labor
  • 1953 – Lincoln Chafee, American Senator from Rhode Island
  • 1953 – Youssouf Togoïmi, Chadian rebel (d. 2002)
  • 1954 – Kazuhiko Inoue, Japanese seiyu (voice actor)
  • 1954 – Curtis Sliwa, American founder of the Guardian Angels
  • 1955 – Danny Arndt, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1956 – Charly McClain, American singer
  • 1957 – Leeza Gibbons, American television host
  • 1957 – Paul Morley, English music journalist and musician
  • 1958 – Chris Codiroli, American baseballer
  • 1958 – Elio de Angelis, Italian racing driver (d. 1986)
  • 1959 – Chris Hansen, American reporter and correspondent
  • 1960 – Catherine Keener, American actress
  • 1960 – Marcus Allen, American football player
  • 1960 – Jennifer Grey, American actress
  • 1961 – William Hague, British politician
  • 1962 – John Stockton, American basketball player
  • 1962 – Paul de Leeuw, Dutch television host
  • 1963 – Natsuhiko Kyogoku, Japanese writer
  • 1963 – Amparo Larrañaga, Spanish actress
  • 1963 – Roch Voisine, Canadian singer and songwriter
  • 1964 – Martin Donnelly, Irish racecar driver
  • 1964 – Ulf Samuelsson, Swedish ice hockey player
  • 1966 – Nick Wirth, British engineer
  • 1966 – Michael Imperioli, actor on The Sopranos
  • 1968 – Kenny Chesney, American singer
  • 1968 – James Iha, American musician (The Smashing Pumpkins and A Perfect Circle)
  • 1968 – Laurent Brochard, French cyclist
  • 1971 – Behzad Ghorbani, Iranian zoologist and sociobiologist
  • 1972 – Jon Reep, American comedian and actor
  • 1973 – Heather Goldenhersh, American actress
  • 1973 – Lawrence E. Page, American search engine pioneer
  • 1973 – T.R. Knight, American actor
  • 1973 – Matt Burke, Australian Rugby Union player
  • 1974 – Mike Peca, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Amy Smart, American actress
  • 1976 – Natalia Livingston, American Soap actress
  • 1976 – Nurgül Yesilçay, Turkish actress
  • 1976 – Ufuk Talay, Australian soccer player
  • 1977 – Kevin Davies, English footballer
  • 1977 – Sylvain Grenier, Canadian professional wrestler
  • 1978 – Anastasia Kostaki, Greek basketball player
  • 1979 – Hiromi Uehara, Japanese jazz pianist
  • 1979 – Pierre Wome, Cameroonian footballer
  • 1981 – Baruch Dego, Israeli football player
  • 1981 – Josh Wilson, American baseball player
  • 1982 – Mikel Arteta, Spanish footballer
  • 1983 – David Bennett, Canadian powerlifter and steamfitter
  • 1983 – Michael Brendli, American professional wrestler
  • 1984 – Gregory Strydom, Zimbabwean cricketer
  • 1984 – Stéphanie Lapointe, Canadian artist and singer, 2004 Star Académie winner
  • 1984 – Sara Jean Underwood, American model
  • 1985 – Keira Knightley, English actress
  • 1985 – Prosper Utseya, Zimbabwean cricket captain
  • 1985 – Jonathan Groff, American stage actor
  • 1987 – Yui, Japanese musician
  • 1991 – Brittney Wilson, Canadian actress

March 26 – Deaths:

  • 304 – Saint Emmanuel, Christian martyr killed under Diocletian
  • 922 – Al-Hallaj, Persian Sufi teacher and writer
  • 1130 – King Sigurd I of Norway (b. ca. 1090)
  • 1212 – King Sancho I of Portugal (b. 1154)
  • 1517 – Heinrich Isaac, Flemish composer
  • 1535 – Georg Tannstetter, Austrian scientist (b. 1482)
  • 1546 – Thomas Elyot, English diplomat
  • 1566 – Antonio de Cabezón, Spanish composer (b. 1510)
  • 1649 – John Winthrop, second governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • 1679 – Johannes Schefferus, Alsatian-born humanist (b. 1621)
  • 1697 – Godfrey McCulloch, Scottish politician and murderer (executed) (b. 1640)
  • 1726 – Sir John Vanbrugh, English dramatist (b. 1664)
  • 1772 – Charles Pinot Duclos, French writer (b. 1704)
  • 1776 – Samuel Ward, American politician (b. 1725)
  • 1780 – Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (b. 1713)
  • 1793 – John Mudge, English physician (b. 1721)
  • 1797 – James Hutton, Scottish geologist (b. 1726)
  • 1814 – Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, namesake of the guillotine (b. 1738)
  • 1827 – Ludwig van Beethoven, German composer (b. 1770)
  • 1858 – John Addison Thomas, American soldier (b. 1811)
  • 1881 – Roman Sanguszko, Polish aristocrat (b. 1800)
  • 1892 – Walt Whitman, American poet (b. 1819)
  • 1902 – Cecil Rhodes, English explorer (b. 1853)
  • 1905 – Maurice Barrymore, actor; patriarch of the Barrymore family (b. 1849)
  • 1910 – Auguste Charlois, French astronomer (b. 1864)
  • 1910 – An Jung-geun, Japanese assassin of Ito Hirobumi (executed) (b. 1879)
  • 1920 – William Chester Minor, American surgeon and contributor to the Oxford English Dictionary (b. 1834)
  • 1923 – Sarah Bernhardt, French actress (b. 1844)
  • 1926 – Konstantin Fehrenbach, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1852)
  • 1929 – Katharine Lee Bates, American poet (b. 1859)
  • 1933 – Eddie Lang, American musician (b. 1902)
  • 1940 – Spiridon Louis, Greek runner, winner of the first modern Olympics
  • marathon (b. 1873)
  • 1942 – Jimmy Burke, American baseball player (b. 1874)
  • 1945 – David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1863)
  • 1951 – James F. Hinkle, American politician, sixth Governor of New Mexico (d. 1864)
  • 1957 – Édouard Herriot, French politician (b. 1872)
  • 1958 – Phil Mead, English cricketer (b. 1887)
  • 1959 – Raymond Chandler, American-born novelist (b. 1888)
  • 1969 – John Kennedy Toole, American author (b. 1937)
  • 1973 – Noel Coward, English composer and playwright (b. 1899)
  • 1973 – Johnny Drake, American football player (b. 1916)
  • 1973 – Don Messer, Canadian fiddler (b. 1909)
  • 1973 – George Sisler, American baseball player (b. 1893)
  • 1976 – Josef Albers, German artist (b. 1888)
  • 1976 – Lin Yutang, Chinese writer (b. 1895)
  • 1978 – Wilfred Pickles, English actor and broadcaster (b. 1904)
  • 1983 – Anthony Blunt, British art historian and spy (b. 1907)
  • 1984 – Ahmed Sékou Touré, President of Guinea (b. 1922)
  • 1987 – Eugen Jochum, German conductor (b. 1902)
  • 1990 – Halston, American fashion designer (b. 1932)
  • 1992 – Barbara Frum, Canadian journalist (b. 1937)
  • 1995 – Eazy-E, American rapper (b. 1963)
  • 1996 – Edmund Muskie, American politician (b. 1914)
  • 1996 – David Packard, American engineer and businessman (b. 1912)
  • 1997 – Marshall Applewhite, American cult leader (b. 1931)
  • 2000 – Alex Comfort, American author (b. 1920)
  • 2002 – Randy Castillo, American drummer (Ozzy Osbourne, Mötley Crüe) (b. 1950)
  • 2003 – Daniel Patrick Moynihan, U.S. Senator (b. 1927)
  • 2004 – Jan Berry, American musician (Jan and Dean) (b. 1941)
  • 2004 – Jan Sterling, American actress (b. 1921)
  • 2005 – James Callaghan, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1912)
  • 2005 – Paul Hester, Australian drummer (Split Enz and Crowded House) (b. 1959)
  • 2005 – Marius Russo, American baseball player (b. 1914)
  • 2006 – Anil Biswas, Indian politician (b. 1944)
  • 2006 – Paul Dana, American race car driver (b. 1975)
  • 2006 – Nikki Sudden, British singer/songwriter (b. 1956)

March 26 – Holidays:

  • Independence Day – Bangladesh
  • Zoroastrianism – Prophet Zoroaster’s Birthday.
  • Prince Kuhio Day in Hawaii
  • Saint Emmanuel (died 304)
  • Saint Ludger
  • Saint Larissa
  • Eastern (Byzantine) Catholic Church: Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel
  • Orthodox Christian liturgical calendar – Synaxis of St. Gabriel the Archangel

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