On This Day in History April 12

April 12 – Events:

  • 467 – Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
  • 1606 – The Union Flag is adopted as the flag of Great Britain.
  • 1633 – The formal inquest of Galileo Galilei by the Inquisition begins.
  • 1776 – North Carolina’s Provincial Congress authorized its delegates to the Second Continental Congress to vote for independence by issuing the Halifax Resolves.
  • 1820 – Alexander Ypsilantis is declared leader of Filiki Eteria, a secret organization to overthrow Ottoman rule over Greece.
  • 1861 – American Civil War: The war begins with Confederate forces firing on Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. 
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Mobile, Alabama, falls to the Union Army.
  • 1877 – The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal.
  • 1917 – World War I: Canadian forces successfully complete the taking of Vimy Ridge from the Germans. It is also considered a major event in Canadian history for the primary role Canadian forces played in the attack.
  • 1927 – April 12 Incident: Chiang Kai-shek orders the CPC members executed in Shanghai, ending the First United Front (China).
  • 1934 – The strongest surface wind gust in the world, 231 mph, was measured by the staff of the Mount Washington Observatory on the summit of Mount Washington.
  • 1934 – The Auto-Lite Strike, which culminated in a five-day melee between Ohio National Guard troops and 6,000 strikers and picketers, began.
  • 1935 – First flight of the Bristol Blenheim.
  • 1937 – Sir Frank Whittle ground-tests the first jet engine designed to power an aircraft, at the British Thomson-Houston factory in Rugby, England.
  • 1945 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies while in office; Vice President Harry S. Truman is sworn in as the 33rd President of the United States.
  • 1955 – The polio vaccine, developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, is declared safe and effective.
  • 1961 – Human spaceflight: Yuri Gagarin became the first human to travel into outer space in Vostok 3KA-2 (Vostok 1).
  • 1963 – The Soviet nuclear powered submarine K-33 collides with the Finnish merchant vessel M/S Finnclipper in the Danish straits. Although both vessels are severely damaged both can make it to port.
  • 1968 – Nerve gas accident at Skull Valley, Utah.
  • 1980 – Samuel Doe takes control of Liberia in a coup d’etat, ending over 130 years of democratic presidential succession in that country.
  • 1980 – Terry Fox begins his “Marathon of Hope” by dipping his artificial leg into the Atlantic at St. John’s, Newfoundland.
  • 1981 – Human spaceflight: The first launch of a Space Shuttle: Columbia launches on the STS-1 mission.
  • 1990 – Opening of Jim Gary’s Twentieth Century Dinosaurs exhibition, the work of the only living sculptor ever invited to present a solo exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.
  • 1992 – Disneyland Resort Paris opens in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France, and is the second international Disney resort property.
  • 1994 – Canter & Siegel post the first commercial mass Usenet spam.
  • 1998 – An earthquake in Slovenia, measuring 5.6 on the Richter scale near the town of Bovec.
  • 1999 – American President Bill Clinton was cited for contempt of court for giving “intentionally false statements” in the Paula Jones sexual harassment civil lawsuit.
  • 2002 – Pedro Carmona becomes interim President of Venezuela during the Venezuelan coup attempt of 2002, a military coup against Hugo Chávez.
  • 2007 – The Kremlin vetos an investigation into the death of Yuri Gagarin, who was the first man in space.

April 12 – Birthdays:

  • 599 BC – Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism (d. 527 BC)
  • 812 – Muhammad at-Taqi, Muslim Shia Imam (d. 835)
  • 1484 – Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, Italian architect (d. 1546)
  • 1500 – Joachim Camerarius, German classical scholar (d. 1574)
  • 1526 – Muretus, French humanist (d. 1585)
  • 1550 – Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, English politician (d. 1604)
  • 1577 – Christian IV of Denmark (d. 1648)
  • 1705 – William Cookworthy, English chemist (d. 1780)
  • 1713 – Guillaume Thomas François Raynal, French writer (d. 1796)
  • 1722 – Pietro Nardini, Italian composer (d. 1793)
  • 1724 – Lyman Hall, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1790)
  • 1726 – Charles Burney, English music historian (d. 1814)
  • 1748 – Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, French botanist (d. 1836)
  • 1777 – Henry Clay, American statesman (d. 1852)
  • 1794 – Germinal Pierre Dandelin, Belgian mathematician (d. 1847)
  • 1796 – George N. Briggs, 19th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1861)
  • 1799 – Henri Druey, Swiss Federal Councilor (d. 1855)
  • 1823 – Alexandr Ostrovsky, Russian dramatist (d. 1886)
  • 1839 – Nikolai Przhevalsky, Russian explorer (d. 1888)
  • 1848 – José Gautier Benítez, Puerto Rican poet (d. 1880)
  • 1852 – Ferdinand von Lindemann, German mathematician (d. 1939)
  • 1856 – William Martin Conway, English art critic and mountaineer (d. 1937)
  • 1868 – Akiyama Saneyuki, Japanese naval commander (d. 1918)
  • 1869 – Henri Désiré Landru, French serial killer (d. 1922)
  • 1871 – Ioannis Metaxas, Greek general and dictator (d. 1941)
  • 1883 – Dally Messenger, Australian rugby league footballer (d. 1959)
  • 1884 – Otto Meyerhof, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate (d. 1951)
  • 1884 – Frederick Charles Davies, ‘Tenby Davies’, Welsh half-mile world champion runner (d. 1932)
  • 1887 – Harold Lockwood, American silent film actor (d. 1918)
  • 1888 – Heinrich Neuhaus, Soviet pianist (d. 1964)
  • 1892 – Johnny Dodds, American jazz clarinetist (d. 1940)
  • 1893 – Robert Harron, American actor (d. 1920)
  • 1894 – Francisco Craveiro Lopes, 13 President of Portugal (d. 1964)
  • 1898 – Lily Pons, American soprano (d. 1976)
  • 1901 – Lowell Stockman, American representative (d. 1962)
  • 1902 – Louis Beel, Prime Minister of the Netherlands (d. 1977)
  • 1903 – Jan Tinbergen, Dutch economist, Nobel laureate (d. 1994)
  • 1907 – Felix de Weldon, Austrian-born sculptor (d. 2003)
  • 1907 – Hardie Gramatky, American author and animator (d. 1979)
  • 1908 – Robert Lee Scott, Jr., American Air Force pilot (d. 2006)
  • 1911 – Mahmoud Younis, Suez Canal nationalization Engineer (d. 1976)
  • 1912 – Walt Gorney, American actor (d. 2004)
  • 1912 – Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, Second Vice President of Indonesia (d. 1988)
  • 1914 – Armen Alchian, American economist
  • 1916 – Beverly Cleary, American writer
  • 1916 – Benjamin Libet, American pioneering scientist (d. 2007)
  • 1917 – Helen Forrest, American singer (d. 1999)
  • 1919 – Billy Vaughn, American musician and bandleader (d. 1991)
  • 1923 – Ann Miller, American actress and dancer (d. 2004)
  • 1924 – Raymond Barre, French politician and Prime Minister (d. 2007)
  • 1924 – Peter Safar, Austrian physician (d. 2003)
  • 1928 – Hardy Krüger, German actor
  • 1928 – Jean-François Paillard, French conductor
  • 1930 – Manuel Neri, American sculptor, painter and printmaker
  • 1930 – Michal Zyczkowski, Polish technician (d. 2006)
  • 1932 – Dennis Banks, American activist
  • 1932 – Lakshman Kadirgamar, Sri Lankan politician (d. 2005)
  • 1932 – Tiny Tim, American musician (d. 1996)
  • 1933 – Montserrat Caballé, Spanish soprano
  • 1934 – Heinz Schneiter, Swiss footballer
  • 1939 – Alan Ayckbourn, English writer
  • 1939 – Johnny Raper, Australian rugby league footballer
  • 1940 – Herbie Hancock, American pianist and composer
  • 1941 – Bobby Moore, English footballer (d. 1993)
  • 1942 – Carlos Reutemann, Argentine racing driver and politician
  • 1944 – John Kay, German-born musician (Steppenwolf)
  • 1945 – Lee Jong-wook, Korean Director-General of the WHO (d. 2006)
  • 1946 – Ed O’Neill, American actor
  • 1947 – Tom Clancy, American author
  • 1947 – Woody Johnson, owner of the New York Jets
  • 1947 – David Letterman, American talk show host
  • 1948 – Jeremy Beadle, English television presenter (d. 2008)
  • 1948 – Joschka Fischer, Foreign Minister of Germany
  • 1948 – Sandra “Lois” Reeves, American singer (Martha & the Vandellas)
  • 1949 – Scott Turow, American writer
  • 1950 – Flavio Briatore, Italian businessman and F1 team principal (Renault F1)
  • 1950 – David Cassidy, American singer and actor
  • 1950 – Kari Palaste, Finnish architect
  • 1952 – Ralph Wiley, American sports journalist (d. 2004)
  • 1952 – Reuben Gant, American professional football player
  • 1954 – Pat Travers, Canadian musician
  • 1956 – Andy Garcia, Cuban-born actor
  • 1956 – Herbert Grönemeyer, German singer
  • 1957 – Vince Gill, American musician
  • 1958 – Will Sergeant, English musician (Echo & the Bunnymen)
  • 1958 – Howard Stableford, English actor, and host
  • 1960 – Ron MacLean, Canadian sportscaster
  • 1961 – Lisa Gerrard, Australian singer and musician (Dead Can Dance)
  • 1962 – Art Alexakis, American musician (Everclear)
  • 1962 – Takada Nobuhiko, Japanese wrestler
  • 1964 – Amy Ray, American musician (Indigo Girls)
  • 1965 – Tom O’Brien, American actor-producer
  • 1967 – Sarah Cracknell, English singer (Saint Etienne)
  • 1967 – Mellow Man Ace, Afro-Cuban rapper
  • 1969 – Lucas Radebe, South African footballer
  • 1970 – Nick Hexum, American musician (311)
  • 1971 – Nicholas Brendon, American actor
  • 1971 – Shannen Doherty, American actress
  • 1972 – Paul Lo Duca, American baseball player
  • 1972 – Dimitrios Kokotis, Greek high jumper
  • 1973 – J. Scott Campbell, American comic book artist
  • 1973 – Antonio Osuna, Mexican baseball player
  • 1973 – Claudia Jordan, American model
  • 1974 – Marley Shelton, American actress
  • 1974 – Sylvinho, Brazilian footballer
  • 1974 – Belinda Emmett, Australian actress (d. 2006)
  • 1975 – Paul Murphy, American writer
  • 1976 – Brad Miller, American basketball player
  • 1977 – Giovanny Espinoza, Ecuadorian footballer
  • 1977 – Glenn Rogers, Scottish Cricket Player
  • 1977 – Sarah Jane Morris, American actress
  • 1978 – Guy Berryman, British musician (Coldplay)
  • 1978 – Riley Smith, American actor
  • 1979 – Claire Danes, American actress
  • 1979 – Elena Grosheva, Olympic gymnast
  • 1979 – Mateja Kežman, Serbian footballer
  • 1979 – Jennifer Morrison, American actress and model
  • 1979 – Paul Nicholls, English actor
  • 1979 – Jordan De Jong, American baseball player
  • 1980 – Brian McFadden, Irish Singer
  • 1980 – Erik Mongrain, Canadian musician
  • 1981 – Nicolás Burdisso, Argentine footballer
  • 1981 – Brian Vandborg, Danish cyclist
  • 1982 – Deen, Bosnian singer
  • 1985 – Hitomi Yoshizawa, Japanese singer (Morning Musume)
  • 1985 – Jeisa Chiminazzo, Brazilian supermodel
  • 1985 – Olga Seryabkina, Russian singer
  • 1986 – Blerim Džemaili, Swiss footballer
  • 1987 – Brendon Urie, American musician (Panic! at the Disco)
  • 1994 – Moises Arias, American actor
  • 1994 – Saoirse Ronan, Irish actress

April 12 – Deaths:

  • 45 BC – Gnaeus Pompeius, the Younger, Roman general
  • 65 – Seneca the Younger, Roman philosopher, statesman and dramatist
  • 238 – Gordian I, Roman Emperor (suicide)
  • 238 – Gordian II, heir to the Roman Empire (killed in battle)
  • 352 – St. Julius I, 35th Pope
  • 434 – Archbishop Maximianus of Constantinople
  • 1125 – Vladislaus I of Bohemia
  • 1443 – Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury
  • 1550 – Claude, Duke of Guise, French soldier (b. 1496)
  • 1555 – Juana of Castile, wife of Philip I of Castile (b. 1479)
  • 1687 – Ambrose Dixon, Virginia Colony pioneer
  • 1704 – Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, French bishop and writer (b. 1627)
  • 1748 – William Kent, English architect
  • 1782 – Metastasio, Italian poet and librettist (b. 1698)
  • 1788 – Carlo Antonio Campioni, French-born composer (b. 1719)
  • 1795 – Johann Kaspar Basselet von La Rosée, Bavarian general (b. 1710)
  • 1814 – Charles Burney, English music historian (b. 1726)
  • 1850 – Adoniram Judson, American Baptist missionary (b. 1788)
  • 1872 – Nikolaos Mantzaros, Greek composer (b. 1795)
  • 1878 – William Marcy Tweed, aka Boss Tweed, American politician (b. 1823)
  • 1898 – Elzéar-Alexandre Taschereau, Roman catholic archbishop of Quebec (b. 1820)
  • 1902 – Marie Alfred Cornu, French physicist (b. 1842)
  • 1912 – Clara Barton, American nurse and Red Cross advocate (b. 1821)
  • 1938 – Feodor Chaliapin, Russian bass (b. 1873)
  • 1945 – Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States (b. 1882)
  • 1962 – Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, Indian politician and engineer (b. 1861)
  • 1968 – Heinrich Nordhoff, German automobile engineer and Volkswagen director (b. 1899)
  • 1971 – Igor Tamm, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1895)
  • 1971 – Ed Lafitte, American baseball player (b. 1871)
  • 1971 – Wynton Kelly, American jazz pianist (b. 1931)
  • 1975 – Josephine Baker, American dancer (b. 1906)
  • 1977 – Phil Wrigley, American manufacturer and baseball executive (b. 1894)
  • 1980 – Clark McConachy, New Zealand billiards and snooker player (b. 1895)
  • 1980 – William R. Tolbert, Jr., President of Liberia (b. 1913)
  • 1981 – Joe Louis, American boxer (b. 1914)
  • 1983 – Carl Morton, American baseball player (b. 1944)
  • 1986 – Valentin Kataev, Russian writer (b. 1897)
  • 1987 – Mike Von Erich, American wrestler
  • 1988 – Alan Paton, South African novelist (b. 1903)
  • 1989 – Gerald Flood, British actor (b. 1927)
  • 1989 – Abbie Hoffman, American radical leader (b. 1936)
  • 1989 – Sugar Ray Robinson, American boxer (b. 1921)
  • 1991 – Dead, Swedish musician (Mayhem) (b. 1969)
  • 1999 – Boxcar Willie, American singer (b. 1931)
  • 2001 – Harvey Ball, American inventor of the Smiley (b. 1921)
  • 2003 – Cecil H. Green, American manufacturer (b. 1900)
  • 2006 – Dr. Rajkumar, Kannada language film actor/singer (b. 1929)
  • 2006 – Puggy Pearson, American professional poker player (b. 1929)
  • 2007 – Kevin Crease, Australian TV anchor (b. 1936)

April 12 – Holidays:

  • The Roman holiday of Cerealia begins.
  • Yuri’s Night, an international celebration of the first human in space, Yuri Gagarin; in Russia (and formerly in USSR), the Cosmonautics Day.
  • The Feast of St. Basil the Confessor in the Greek Orthodox Church. In the Roman Catholic  Church:
    • Saint Damian
    • Saint Erkembode
    • Saint Julius I
    • Saint Zeno of Verona
    • Saint Alferius
    • Blessed Angelo Carletti di Chivasso
    • Saint Constantine
    • Saint Sabas 
    • Saint Victor 
    • Saint Wigbert

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On This Day in History April 11

April 11 – Events:

  • 491 – Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I.
  • 1079 – Bishop Stanislaus of Krakow is executed by order of Boleslaw II of Poland.
  • 1241 – Batu Khan defeats Béla IV of Hungary at the Battle of Muhi.
  • 1512 – War of the League of Cambrai: French forces led by Gaston de Foix was victorious in the Battle of Ravenna.
  • 1689 – William III and Mary II are crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain.
  • 1713 – War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War): Treaty of Utrecht.
  • 1775 – Last execution for witchcraft in Germany.
  • 1828 – Foundation of Bahia Blanca.
  • 1856 – In Rivas, Nicaragua, Juan Santamaria burns down the hostel where William Walker’s filibusters are holed up.
  • 1865 – Abraham Lincoln makes his last public speech.
  • 1868 – The Shogunate is abolished in Japan.
  • 1876 – The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks is organized.
  • 1888 – The Concertgebouw in Amsterdam is inaugurated.
  • 1899 – Spain cedes Puerto Rico to the United States.
  • 1905 – Einstein reveals his Theory of Relativity (special relativity).
  • 1919 – International Labour Organization founded.
  • 1921 – First sports broadcast on the radio.
  • 1921 – The Emirate of Transjordan is created.
  • 1921 – Iowa becomes the first U.S. state to impose a cigarette tax.
  • 1945 – World War II: United States forces liberate Buchenwald concentration camp.
  • 1951 – Korean War: President Harry S. Truman relieves General Douglas MacArthur of overall command in Korea.
  • 1951 – The Stone of Scone, the stone upon which Scottish monarchs were traditionally crowned, is found on the site of the altar of Arbroath Abbey. It had been taken by Scottish nationalist students from its traditional (to the British government) location in Westminster Abbey.
  • 1952 – The Battle of Nanri island takes place.
  • 1955 – The Air India Kashmir Princess downs in a failed assassination attempt on Zhou Enlai by the Kuomintang.
  • 1957 – Britain agrees to Singaporean self-rule.
  • 1961 – Trial of Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem.
  • 1965 – The Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1965: Fifty-one tornadoes hit in six Midwestern states, killing 256 people.
  • 1968 – Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968.
  • 1968 – German student leader Rudi Dutschke is shot in Berlin.
  • 1970 – Apollo 13 is launched.
  • 1979 – Ugandan dictator Idi Amin is deposed.
  • 1981 – A massive riot in Brixton, South London, results in almost 300 police injuries and 65 serious civilian injuries.
  • 1981 – President Ronald Reagan returns to the White House from the hospital, 12 days after he was wounded in an assassination attempt.
  • 1987 – The London Agreement is secretly signed between Israeli Foreign Affairs Minister Shimon Peres and King Hussein of Jordan.
  • 1990 – Customs officers in Middlesbrough, United Kingdom, say they have seized what they believe to be the barrel of a massive gun on a ship bound for Iraq.
  • 2000 – AT&T Park in San Francisco, Minute Maid Park in Houston, and Comerica Park in Detroit open.
  • 2001 – The detained crew of a United States EP-3E aircraft that landed in Hainan, People’s Republic of China after a collision with an J-8 fighter is released.
  • 2002 – The Ghriba synagogue bombing by Al Qaeda kills 21 in Tunisia.
  • 2002 – An attempted coup d’état in Venezuela against President Hugo Chávez began.
  • 2006 – Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announces that Iran has successfully enriched uranium.
  • 2007 – Two bombings in the Algerian capital of Algiers, kills 33 people and wounds a further 222 others.

April 11 – Birthdays:

  • 146 – Septimius Severus (d. 211)
  • 1357 – John I of Portugal (d. 1433)
  • 1374 – Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (d. 1398)
  • 1492 – Marguerite of Navarre, wife of Henry II of Navarre (d. 1549)
  • 1592 – John Eliot, English statesman (d. 1632)
  • 1721 – David Zeisberger, Moravian missionary (d. 1808)
  • 1722 – Christopher Smart, English poet (d. 1771)
  • 1755 – James Parkinson, English physician (d. 1824)
  • 1769 – Jean Lannes, French marshal (d. 1809)
  • 1770 – George Canning, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1827)
  • 1794 – Edward Everett, 15th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1865)
  • 1798 – Macedonio Melloni, Italian physicist (d. 1854)
  • 1810 – Henry Rawlinson, English scholar (d. 1895)
  • 1819 – Charles Hallé, German pianist and conductor (d. 1895)
  • 1825 – Ferdinand Lassalle, German politician (d. 1864)
  • 1852 – Cap Anson, American baseball player (d. 1922)
  • 1862 – Charles Evans Hughes, 11th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1948)
  • 1862 – William Wallace Campbell, American astronomer (d. 1938)
  • 1867 – Mark Keppel, Superintendent of Schools of Los Angeles County (d. 1928)
  • 1869 – Gustav Vigeland, Norwegian sculptor (d. 1943)
  • 1873 – Edward Lawson, Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross (d. 1955)
  • 1876 – Paul Henry, Northern Irish artist (d. 1958)
  • 1889 – Nick LaRocca, American musician (d. 1961)
  • 1890 – Donna Rachele Mussolini, wife of Benito Mussolini (d. 1979)
  • 1893 – Dean Acheson, U.S. Secretary of State (d. 1971)
  • 1896 – Léo-Paul Desrosiers, Quebec novelist (d. 1967)
  • 1899 – Percy Lavon Julian, American chemist (d. 1975)
  • 1900 – Sandor Marai, Hungarian writer (d. 1989)
  • 1905 – József Attila, Hungarian poet (d. 1937)
  • 1906 – Dale Messick, American cartoonist (d. 2005)
  • 1907 – Ivor Spencer-Thomas, English farmer, entrepreneur and inventor (d. 2001)
  • 1908 – Jane Bolin, first African American female judge (d. 2007)
  • 1908 – Masaru Ibuka, Japanese industrialist (Sony) (d. 1997)
  • 1908 – Dan Maskell, English tennis commentator (d. 1992)
  • 1908 – Leo Rosten, American humorist and author (d. 1997)
  • 1910 – António de Spínola, Portuguese general and politician, 15 President of Portugal (d. 1996)
  • 1911 – Stanislawa Walasiewicz aka Stella Walsh, Polish-born runner (d. 1980)
  • 1913 – Oleg Cassini, American fashion designer (d. 2006)
  • 1914 – Norman McLaren, Canadian film animator and director (d. 1987)
  • 1914 – Robert Stanfield, Premier of Nova Scotia (d. 2003)
  • 1916 – Alberto Ginastera, Argentine composer (d. 1983)
  • 1916 – Howard W. Koch, American film director (d. 2001)
  • 1917 – Danny Gallivan, Canadian radio and television sportscaster (d. 1993)
  • 1917 – David Westheimer, American novelist (d. 2005)
  • 1918 – Richard Wainwright, English politician (d. 2003)
  • 1921 – Jim Hearn, American baseball player (d. 1998)
  • 1925 – Pierre Péladeau, Canadian businessman and newspaper editor (Quebecor) (d. 1997)
  • 1928 – Ethel Kennedy, wife of Robert F. Kennedy
  • 1930 – Anton LaVey, American founder of the Church of Satan (d. 1997)
  • 1931 – Johnny Sheffield, American actor
  • 1931 – Koichi Sugiyama, Japanese composer
  • 1932 – Joel Grey, American singer and actor
  • 1933 – Tony Brown, American journalist
  • 1934 – Mark Strand, Canadian-born American poet
  • 1935 – Richard Berry, American singer and composer (d. 1997)
  • 1935 – Richard Kuklinski, American mafia hitman (d. 2006)
  • 1938 – Michael Deaver, Reagan Administration Deputy White House Chief of Staff (d. 2007)
  • 1938 – Kurt Moll, German bass
  • 1939 – Louise Lasser, American actress
  • 1941 – Ellen Goodman, American political columnist
  • 1941 – Shirley Stelfox, English actress
  • 1944 – John Milius, American director and writer
  • 1946 – Bob Harris, British disc jockey and presenter
  • 1947 – Peter Riegert, American actor
  • 1947 – Meshach Taylor, American actor
  • 1948 – Marcello Lippi, Italian football coach
  • 1949 – Bernd Eichinger, German film producer
  • 1949 – Carl Franklin, American actor
  • 1951 – Doris McGowen Beck Angleton, American socialite (d. 1997)
  • 1951 – Paul Fox, English guitarist (The Ruts) (d. 2007)
  • 1951 – James Patrick Kelly, American author
  • 1952 – Peter Windsor, English motor racing journalist and F1 television reporter
  • 1953 – Andrew Wiles, British mathematician
  • 1953 – Guy Verhofstadt, Prime Minister of Belgium
  • 1955 – Kevin Brady, American politician
  • 1955 – Michael Callen, American singer, songwriter and AIDS activist (d. 1993)
  • 1958 – Stuart Adamson, British musician (Big Country) (d. 2001)
  • 1958 – Brynn Hartman, American murderer (d. 1998)
  • 1960 – Jeremy Clarkson, British journalist
  • 1961 – Doug Hopkins, American musician
  • 1962 – Vincent Gallo, American actor
  • 1963 – Chris Ferguson, American poker player
  • 1963 – Billy Bowden, test cricket umpire from New Zealand
  • 1964 – Steve Azar, American country music singer-songwriter
  • 1964 – Johann Sebastian Paetsch, American cellist
  • 1966 – Mason Reese, American actor
  • 1966 – Virgil Runnels III, American professional wrestler (Dustin Rhodes; Goldust; Black Reign)
  • 1966 – Lisa Stansfield, English singer
  • 1968 – Sergey Lukyanenko, Russian author
  • 1969 – Cerys Matthews, Welsh singer (Catatonia)
  • 1969 – Chisato Moritaka, Japanese singer
  • 1970 – Trevor Linden, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1970 – Johnny Messner, American actor
  • 1971 – Oliver Riedel, German musician (Rammstein)
  • 1972 – Jason Varitek, American baseball player
  • 1972 – Balls Mahoney, American professional wrestler
  • 1973 – Jennifer Esposito, American television actress
  • 1974 – Àlex Corretja, Spanish tennis player
  • 1974 – Ashot Danielyan, Armenian Olympic Weightlifter
  • 1974 – Anton Glanzelius, Danish actor
  • 1974 – Tricia Helfer, Canadian model and actress
  • 1974 – Zöe Lucker, British television actress
  • 1974 – Trot Nixon, Major League Baseball outfielder
  • 1975 – Walid Soliman, Tunisian author
  • 1978 – Brett Claywell, American actor
  • 1978 – Josh Hancock, American baseball player (d. 2007)
  • 1979 – Malcolm Christie, English footballer
  • 1979 – Chris Gaylor, American drummer
  • 1979 – Michel Riesen, Swiss ice hockey player
  • 1979 – Josh Server, American actor
  • 1979 – Sebastien Grainger, Canadian musician
  • 1980 – Mark Teixeira, American baseball player
  • 1981 – Alessandra Ambrosio, Brazilian model
  • 1981 – Alexandre Burrows, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1982 – Ian Bell, English cricketer
  • 1982 – Thora Birch, American film actress
  • 1983 – Nicky Pastorelli, Dutch racing driver
  • 1984 – Kelli Garner, American actress
  • 1985 – Will Minson, Australian rules footballer
  • 1986 – Roman Heart, American porn actor
  • 1987 – Joss Stone, English singer
  • 1994 – Dakota Blue Richards, English child actress
  • 1994 – Peter Townsend, American child actor
  • 2002 – Alexa Gerasimovich, American child actress

April 11 – Deaths:

  • 1034 – Romanus III, Byzantine emperor (b. 1028)
  • 1240 – Llywelyn the Great, King of Gwynedd
  • 1554 – Thomas Wyatt the younger, English rebel (b. 1521)
  • 1612 – Emanuel van Meteren, Flemish historian (b. 1535)
  • 1612 – Edward Wightman, English Baptist preacher (b. 1566)
  • 1626 – Marino Ghetaldi, Croatian mathematician (b. 1568)
  • 1712 – Richard Simon, French Biblical critic (b. 1638)
  • 1723 – John Robinson, English diplomat (b. 1650)
  • 1798 – Karl Wilhelm Ramler, German poet (b. 1725)
  • 1856 – Juan Santamaría, national hero of Costa Rica (b. 1831)
  • 1861 – Francisco González Bocanegra, Mexican poet (b. 1824)
  • 1873 – Edward Canby, U.S. general (b. 1817)
  • 1890 – Joseph Merrick, “The Elephant Man” (b. 1862)
  • 1894 – Constantin Lipsius, German architect (b. 1832)
  • 1906 – James Anthony Bailey, American circus impresario (b. 1847)
  • 1906 – Francis Pharcellus Church, American editor and publisher (b. 1839)
  • 1908 – Henry Bird, English Chess player and author (b. 1829)
  • 1916 – Richard Harding Davis, American author (b. 1864)
  • 1926 – Luther Burbank, American botanist (b. 1849)
  • 1947 – Louise Peete, American murderess (b. 1880)
  • 1953 – Kid Nichols, American baseball player (b. 1869)
  • 1958 – Konstantin Yuon, Russian painter (b. 1875)
  • 1967 – Donald Sangster, Jamaican prime-minister (b. 1911)
  • 1970 – Cathy O’Donnell, American actress (b. 1923)
  • 1970 – John O’Hara, American author (b. 1905)
  • 1977 – Jacques Prévert, French poet and screenwriter (b. 1900)
  • 1983 – Dolores del Rio, Mexican actress (b. 1905)
  • 1985 – Enver Hoxha, Albanian Communist dictator (b. 1908)
  • 1985 – Bunny Ahearne, British ice hockey promoter (b. 1900)
  • 1987 – Erskine Caldwell, American author (b. 1903)
  • 1987 – Primo Levi, Italian chemist and author (b. 1919)
  • 1990 – Harold Ballard, Canadian ice hockey club owner and executive (b. 1903)
  • 1990 – Xenophon Zolotas, Greek economist, Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1904)
  • 1991 – Walker Cooper, American baseball player (b. 1915)
  • 1992 – Alejandro Obregón, Colombian painter (b. 1920)
  • 1992 – Eve Merriam, American playwright, director, and poet (b. 1916)
  • 1996 – Jessica Dubroff, American pilot (b. 1988)
  • 2000 – Diana Darvey, British actress, singer and dancer (b. 1945)
  • 2001 – Sandy Bull, American musician (b. 1941)
  • 2001 – Harry Secombe, Welsh actor and comedian (b. 1921)
  • 2003 – Cecil Howard Green, British geophysicist and businessman (b. 1900)
  • 2005 – André François, French cartoonist (b. 1915)
  • 2005 – Lucien Laurent, French footballer (b. 1907)
  • 2006 – June Pointer, American singer (Pointer Sisters) (b. 1953)
  • 2006 – Proof, American rapper (D12) (b. 1973)
  • 2007 – Roscoe Lee Browne, American actor (b. 1925)
  • 2007 – Kurt Vonnegut, American author (b. 1922)
  • 2007 – Ronald Speirs, American Army officer(CO of Easy Company) (b. 1920)
  • 2007 – Janet McDonald, American novelist (b. 1954)

April 11 – Holidays:

  • Juan Santamaría Day, anniversary of his death in the Battle of Rivas (State holiday in Costa Rica).
  • The Feast Day of Saint Antipas of Pergamum in the Greek Orthodox Church.
  • In the Catholic church:
    • Saint Stanislaus of Szczepanów
    • Saint Gemma of Lucca
    • Saint Godeberta

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On This Day in History April 10

April 10 – Events:

  • 879 – Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks.
  • 1500 – Ludovico Sforza is captured by the Swiss troops at Novara and handed over to the French.
  • 1606 – The Charter of the Virginia Company of London was established by royal charter by James I of England with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.
  • 1710 – The first law regulating copyright is issued in Great Britain.
  • 1741 – War of the Austrian Succession: Prussia defeats Austria in the Battle of Mollwitz.
  • 1790 – United States Patent system established.
  • 1815 – Mount Tambora eruption covers several islands with ash in Indonesia.
  • 1816 – The U.S. government approved the creation of a Second Bank of the United States.
  • 1821 – Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople is hanged by the Turks from the main gate of the Patriarchate and his body is thrown into the Bosphorus.
  • 1826 – The 10,500 inhabitants of the Greek town Messolonghi start leaving the town after a year’s siege by Turkish forces. Very few of them survive.
  • 1856 – Theta Chi Fraternity Founded at Norwich University.
  • 1857 – The Sepoy Mutiny popularly known as the “Revolt of 1857″ broke out in Meerut, India as part of the Indian independence movement.
  • 1864 – Archduke Maximilian of Habsburg is elected emperor of Mexico.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: A day after his surrender to Union forces, Confederate General Robert E. Lee addresses his troops for the last time.
  • 1866 – The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is founded in New York City by Henry Bergh.
  • 1868 – At Arogee in Abyssinia, British and Indian forces defeat an army of Emperor Theodore.  
  • 1869 – José Martí founds the Cuban Revolutionary Party.
  • 1874 – The first Arbor Day is celebrated in Nebraska, USA.
  • 1896 – Spiridon Louis wins the marathon of the first Olympic Games.
  • 1906 – The Four Million, O. Henry’s second short story collection, is published.
  • 1912 – The RMS Titanic leaves port in Southampton, England for her first and only voyage.
  • 1916 – The Professional Golfers Association of America (PGA) is created in New York City.
  • 1919 – Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead by government forces in Morelos.
  • 1925 – The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is first published in New York, New York by Charles Scribner’s Sons.
  • 1933 – New Deal: The Civilian Conservation Corps is created.
  • 1938 – Édouard Daladier becomes Prime Minister of France.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Axis Powers in Europe establish the Independent State of Croatia from occupied Yugoslavia with Ante Pavelic’s Ustase fascist insurgents in power.
  • 1944 – Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler escape from Birkenau death camp.
  • 1944 – Henry Ford II is named executive vice president of Ford Motor Company.
  • 1957 – The Suez Canal is reopened for all shipping after being closed for three months.
  • 1959 – Akihito, future Emperor of Japan, weds Michiko.
  • 1963 – The submarine USS Thresher is lost at sea, with all hands (129 officers, crewmen and civilian technicians).
  • 1968 – Shipwreck of the Wahine outside Wellington harbor.
  • 1971 – Ping Pong Diplomacy: In an attempt to thaw relations with the United States, the
  • People’s Republic of China hosts the U.S. table tennis team for a weeklong visit.
  • 1972 – 20 days after he was kidnapped in Buenos Aires, Oberdan Sallustro is executed by communist guerrillas.
  • 1972 – Vietnam War: For the first time since November 1967 American B-52 bombers begin bombing North Vietnam.
  • 1973 – A British Vanguard turboprop crashes during a snowstorm at Basel, Switzerland killing 104.
  • 1978 – Volkswagen becomes the first non-American automobile manufacturer to build cars in the United States, opening a plant in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania.
  • 1979 – On “Terrible Tuesday,” a tornado lands in Wichita Falls, Texas killing 42 people.
  • 1991 – Italian ferry Moby Prince collides with an oil tanker in dense fog off Livorno, Italy killing 140.
  • 1991 – A rare tropical storm develops in the Southern Hemisphere near Angola; the first to be documented by satellites.
  • 1998 – The Belfast Agreement is signed.

April 10 – Birthdays:

  • 1389 – Cosimo de’ Medici, ruler of Florence (d. 1464)
  • 1583 – Hugo Grotius, Dutch philosopher and writer (d. 1645)
  • 1651 – Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, German mathematician (d. 1708)
  • 1656 – René Lepage de Ste-Claire, lord-founder of the town of Rimouski, in New France (d. 1718)
  • 1704 – Benjamin Heath, English classical scholar (d. 1766)
  • 1713 – John Whitehurst, English clockmaker and scientist (d. 1788)
  • 1735 – Button Gwinnett, Signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1777)
  • 1755 – Samuel Hahnemann, German physician (d. 1843)
  • 1762 – Giovanni Aldini, Italian physicist (d. 1834)
  • 1778 – William Hazlitt, English writer (d. 1830)
  • 1794 – Matthew Perry, American commodore (d. 1858)
  • 1829 – William Booth, English founder of the Salvation Army (d. 1912)
  • 1837 – Forceythe Willson, American poet (d. 1867)
  • 1847 – Joseph Pulitzer, American journalist and publisher (d. 1911)
  • 1864 – Eugen d’Albert, German composer (d. 1932)
  • 1867 – George William Russell, Irish nationalist (d. 1935)
  • 1868 – George Arliss, English actor (d. 1946)
  • 1880 – Montague Summers, English writer (d. 1948)
  • 1880 – Mohammed Nadir Shah, Afghan king (d. 1933)
  • 1882 – Frances Perkins, American politician (d. 1965)
  • 1887 – Bernardo Houssay, Argentine physiologist, Nobel laureate (d. 1971)
  • 1894 – Shri Ghanshyam Das Birla, Indian industrialist (d. 1983)
  • 1910 – Paul Sweezy, American economist and editor (d. 2004)
  • 1911 – Martin Denny, American musician (d. 2005)
  • 1913 – Stefan Heym, German author (d. 2001)
  • 1915 – Harry Morgan, American actor
  • 1917 – Robert Burns Woodward, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1979)
  • 1918 – Lee Bergere, American actor (d. 2007)
  • 1921 – Chuck Connors, American actor (d. 1992)
  • 1921 – Sheb Wooley, American actor and singer (d. 2003)
  • 1923 – Roger Gaillard, Haitian historian and novelist (d. 2000)
  • 1924 – Kenneth Noland, American painter
  • 1926 – Junior Samples, American musician (d. 1983)
  • 1927 – Marshall Warren Nirenberg, American scientist, Nobel laureate
  • 1929 – Mike Hawthorn, English race car driver and one-time F1 world champion (d. 1959)
  • 1929 – Max von Sydow, Swedish actor
  • 1930 – Claude Bolling, French jazz composer/pianist
  • 1930 – Norma Candal, Puerto Rican actress/comedian (d. 2006)
  • 1930 – Spede Pasanen, Finnish comedian (d. 2001)
  • 1932 – Omar Sharif, Egyptian actor
  • 1934 – David Halberstam, American journalist, historian and author (d. 2007)
  • 1934 – Vladimir Posner, Russian journalist
  • 1936 – John Madden, American football coach and broadcaster
  • 1937 – Bella Akhmadulina, Russian poet
  • 1938 – Don Meredith, American football player and broadcaster
  • 1941 – Paul Theroux, American author
  • 1942 – Ian Callaghan, English footballer
  • 1943 – Andrzej Badenski, Polish athlete
  • 1946 – David Angell, American television producer (d. 2001)
  • 1947 – Bunny Wailer, Jamaican musician
  • 1948 – Jaya Bachchan, Indian Actress
  • 1950 – Ken Griffey, Sr., American baseball player
  • 1950 – Eddie Hazel, American guitarist (P-Funk and The Temptations) (d. 1992)
  • 1950 – Akiko Wada, Japanese singer and television performer
  • 1951 – David Helvarg, American journalist and environmental activist
  • 1951 – Steven Seagal, American actor
  • 1954 – Peter MacNicol, American actor
  • 1955 – Lesley Garrett, British soprano
  • 1957 – John M. Ford, American science fiction author and poet (d. 2006)
  • 1957 – Steve Gustafson, American rock bassist (10,000 Maniacs)
  • 1958 – Bob Bell, British engineer
  • 1958 – Yefim Bronfman, Russian-born pianist
  • 1958 – Kenneth “Babyface” Edmonds, American music producer, musician, and film producer
  • 1959 – Yvan Loubier, Quebec politician
  • 1959 – Brian Setzer, American musician (Stray Cats)
  • 1960 – Steve Bisciotti, American owner of the Baltimore Ravens
  • 1960 – Katrina Leskanich, American singer (Katrina and the Waves)
  • 1962 – Steve Tasker, American football player
  • 1963 – Warren DeMartini, American rock guitarist (Ratt)
  • 1963 – Doris Leuthard, member of the Swiss Federal Council
  • 1965 – Tim Alexander, American drummer (Primus)
  • 1967 – Donald Dufresne, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1968 – Orlando Jones, American actor and comedian
  • 1969 – Billy Jayne, American actor
  • 1969 – Ekaterini Koffa, Greek sprinter
  • 1970 – Matt Barlow, American former heavy metal singer (Iced Earth), now law enforcer
  • 1970 – Enrico Ciccone, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1970 – Leonard Dorin, Canadian boxer
  • 1970 – Kenny Lattimore, American singer
  • 1970 – Mike Mushok, American rock guitarist (Staind)
  • 1970 – Q-Tip, American rapper
  • 1971 – Al Reyes, Dominican baseball player
  • 1973 – Guillaume Canet, French actor and film director
  • 1973 – Roberto Carlos, Brazilian footballer
  • 1973 – Aidan Moffat, Scottish singer and musician (Arab Strap)
  • 1973 – Christopher Simmons, American designer
  • 1974 – Petros Passalis, Greek footballer
  • 1975 – Chris Carrabba, American singer (Dashboard Confessional)
  • 1976 – Sara Renner, Canadian cross country skier
  • 1979 – Shemekia Copeland, American singer
  • 1979 – Rachel Corrie, American activist (d. 2003)
  • 1979 – Tsuyoshi Domoto, Japanese artist
  • 1979 – Sophie Ellis-Bextor, English singer
  • 1979 – Peter Kopteff, Finnish footballer
  • 1980 – Sean Avery, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1980 – Charlie Hunnam, British actor
  • 1980 – Kasey Kahne, American race-car driver
  • 1980 – Bryce Soderberg, American rock bassist (Lifehouse)
  • 1981 – Laura Bell Bundy, American actress
  • 1981 – Liz McClarnon, British singer
  • 1981 – Michael Pitt, American actor
  • 1981 – Alexei Semenov, Russian ice hockey player
  • 1982 – Damián Lanza, Ecuadorian footballer
  • 1982 – Chyler Leigh, American actress
  • 1982 – Andre Ethier, American baseball player
  • 1983 – Ryan Merriman, American actor
  • 1984 – Mandy Moore, American singer/actress
  • 1985 – Dion Phaneuf, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1986 – Vincent Kompany, Belgian footballer
  • 1987 – Hayley Westenra, New Zealand soprano
  • 1988 – Haley Joel Osment, American actor
  • 1991 – Amanda Michalka, American actress/singer
  • 2007 – Princess Ariane of the Netherlands, Dutch Princess

April 10 – Deaths:

  • 879 – Louis the Stammerer, King of the West Franks (b. 846)
  • 948 – King Hugh of Italy
  • 1533 – King Frederick I of Denmark (b. 1471)
  • 1545 – Costanzo Festa, Italian composer
  • 1585 – Pope Gregory XIII (b. 1502)
  • 1599 – Gabrielle d’Estrée, mistress of King Henry IV of France (b. 1571)
  • 1601 – Mark Alexander Boyd, Scottish poet (b. 1562)
  • 1619 – Thomas Jones, Archbishop of Dublin (b. c1550)
  • 1640 – Agostino Agazzari, Italian composer (b. 1578)
  • 1646 – Santino Solari, Swiss architect and sculptor (b. 1576)
  • 1704 – William Egon of Fürstenberg, Bishop of Strassburg (b. 1629)
  • 1706 – Arthur Chichester, 3rd Earl of Donegall, Irish soldier (b. 1666)
  • 1756 – Giacomo Antonio Perti, Italian composer (d. 1661)
  • 1760 – Jean Lebeuf, French historian (b. 1687)
  • 1786 – John Byron, British naval officer (b. 1723)
  • 1813 – Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Italian-born mathematician (b. 1736)
  • 1823 – Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Austrian philosopher (b. 1757)
  • 1862 – W.H.L. Wallace, American Union general (b. 1821)
  • 1882 – Dante Gabriel Rossetti, English poet and painter (b. 1828)
  • 1904 – Queen Isabella II of Spain (b. 1830)
  • 1909 – Algernon Charles Swinburne, English poet and critic (b. 1837)
  • 1919 – Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolutionary (b. 1879)
  • 1920 – Moritz Cantor, German mathematician (b. 1829)
  • 1931 – Khalil Gibran, Lebanese poet and painter (b. 1883)
  • 1945 – Charles Nordhoff, English-born writer (b. 1887)
  • 1945 – H.N. Werkman, Dutch artist and printer (b. 1882)
  • 1954 – Auguste Lumière, French film pioneer (b. 1862)
  • 1954 – Oscar Mathisen, Norwegian speed skater (b. 1888)
  • 1955 – Teilhard de Chardin, French paleontologist and theologian (b. 1881)
  • 1958 – Chuck Willis, American singer and songwriter (b. 1928)
  • 1962 – Michael Curtiz, Hungarian-born director (b. 1886)
  • 1962 – Stuart Sutcliffe, English musician (The Beatles) (b. 1940)
  • 1965 – Lloyd Casner, American race car driver and owner (b. 1928)
  • 1965 – Linda Darnell, American actress (b. 1923)
  • 1966 – Evelyn Waugh, English writer (b. 1903)
  • 1968 – Gustavs Celmins, Latvian politician (b. 1899)
  • 1969 – Harley J. Earl, American automobile designer (b. 1893)
  • 1975 – Marjorie Main, American actress (b. 1890)
  • 1979 – Nino Rota, Italian composer (b. 1911)
  • 1980 – Kay Medford, American actress (b. 1914)
  • 1986 – Linda Creed, American songwriter (b. 1948)
  • 1991 – Kevin Peter Hall, American actor (b. 1955)
  • 1991 – Natalie Schafer, American actress (b. 1900)
  • 1992 – Sam Kinison, American comedian (b. 1953)
  • 1993 – Chris Hani, South African activist (b. 1942)
  • 1994 – Sam B. Hall, American politician (b. 1924)
  • 1995 – Morarji Desai, Indian activist (b. 1896)
  • 1997 – Michael Dorris, American author (b. 1945)
  • 1999 – Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, German-born biochemist (b. 1910)
  • 1999 – Jean Vander Pyl, American voice actress (b. 1919)
  • 2000 – Peter Jones, English comedian (b. 1920)
  • 2000 – Larry Linville, American actor (b. 1939)
  • 2000 – Kirsten Rolffes, Danish actress (b. 1928)
  • 2005 – Norbert Brainin, Austrian violinist (b. 1923)
  • 2005 – Iakovos, Archbishop of America (b. 1911)
  • 2005 – Al Lucas, American football player (b. 1978)

April 10 – Holidays:

  • Saint Fulbert of Chartres
  • James, Azadanus and Abdicius
  • Saint Paternus

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On This Day in History April 9

April 9 – Events:

  • 193 – Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans).
  • 475 – Byzantine Emperor Basiliscus issues a circular letter (Enkyklikon) to the bishops of his empire, supporting the Monophysiste christological position.
  • 1241 – Battle of Liegnitz: Mongol forces defeats the Polish and German armies.
  • 1413 – Henry V is crowned King of England.
  • 1440 – Christopher of Bavaria is appointed King of Denmark.
  • 1682 – Robert Cavelier de La Salle discovers the mouth of the Mississippi River, claims it for France and names it Louisiana.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia (26,765 troops) to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, effectively ending the war.
  • 1867 – Alaska purchase: Passing by a single vote, the United States Senate ratifies a treaty with Russia for the purchase of Alaska.
  • 1909 – The U.S. Congress passes the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act.
  • 1916 – World War I: Battle of Verdun – German forces launch their third offensive of the battle.
  • 1917 – World War I: Battle of Arras – The battle begins with Canadian forces executing a massive assault on Vimy Ridge.
  • 1937 – The Kamikaze arrives at Croydon Airport in London – it is the first Japanese-built aircraft to fly to Europe.
  • 1939 – Marian Anderson sings at the Lincoln Memorial, after having been refused the right to sing at the Daughters of the American Revolution’s Constitution Hall.
  • 1940 – World War II: Germany invades Denmark and Norway.
  • 1942 – World War II: Battle of Bataan/Bataan Death March – United States forces surrender on the Bataan Peninsula. Japanese Navy launches air raid on Trincomalee in Ceylon (Sri Lanka); Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Hermes and Royal Australian Navy Destroyer HMAS Vampire are sunk off the island’s east coast.
  • 1945 – World War II: The German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer is sunk.
  • 1945 – World War II: Battle of Königsberg, in East Prussia, ends.
  • 1945 – The United States Atomic Energy Commission formed.
  • 1947 – The Glazier-Higgins-Woodward Tornadoes kill 181 and injure 970 in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
  • 1947 – The Journey of Reconciliation, the first interracial Freedom Ride begins through the upper South in violation of Jim Crow laws. The riders wanted enforcement of the United States Supreme Court’s 1946 Irene Morgan decision that banned racial segregation in interstate travel.
  • 1948 – Jorge Eliécer Gaitán’s assassination provokes a violent riot in Bogotá (the Bogotazo), and a further ten years of violence in all of Colombia (La violencia).
  • 1948 – Massacre at Deir Yassin.
  • 1953 – Warner Brothers premieres the first 3-D film, entitled House of Wax.
  • 1957 – The Suez Canal in Egypt is cleared and opens to shipping.
  • 1959 – Mercury program: NASA announces the selection of the United States’ first seven astronauts, which the news media quickly dub the “Mercury Seven.”
  • 1967 – The first Boeing 737 (a 100 series) takes its maiden flight.
  • 1969 – The “Chicago Eight” plead not guilty on federal charges of conspiracy to incite a riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois.
  • 1991 – Georgia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
  • 1992 – US Federal Court finds former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega guilty on drug and racketeering charges. He is sentenced to 30 years in prison.
  • 1992 – John Major’s Conservative Party wins an unprecedented fourth general election victory in the United Kingdom.
  • 1999 – Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara, President of Niger, is assassinated.
  • 2003 – 2003 invasion of Iraq: Baghdad, Iraq falls to American forces.
  • 2005 – HRH Charles, Prince of Wales weds Camilla Parker Bowles.

April 9 – Birthdays:

  • 1336 – Tamerlane (Timur), Central Asian, Turkic conqueror (d. 1405)
  • 1498 – John, Cardinal of Lorraine, French churchman (d. 1550)
  • 1597 – John Davenport, Connecticut pioneer (d. 1670)
  • 1634 – Albertine Agnes of Nassau, Regent of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe (d. 1696)
  • 1648 – Henri de Massue, Marquis de Ruvigny, 1st Viscount Galway, French soldier and diplomat (d. 1720)
  • 1649 – James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of Charles II of Great Britain (d. 1685)
  • 1680 – Philippe Néricault Destouches, French dramatist (d. 1754)
  • 1686 – James Craggs the Younger, British politician (d. 1721)
  • 1691 – Johann Matthias Gesner, German classical scholar (d. 1761)
  • 1757 – Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, British admiral (d. 1833)
  • 1770 – Thomas Johann Seebeck, German physicist (d. 1831)
  • 1773 – Étienne Aignan, French writer (d. 1824)
  • 1794 – Theobald Boehm, German inventor of the modern flute (d. 1881)
  • 1806 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel, British engineer (d. 1859)
  • 1821 – Charles Baudelaire, French poet (d. 1867)
  • 1830 – Eadweard Muybridge, English-born photographer and motion picture pioneer (d. 1904)
  • 1835 – King Léopold II of Belgium (d. 1909)
  • 1865 – Erich Ludendorff, German general in World War I (d. 1937)
  • 1867 – Chris Watson, third Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1941)
  • 1872 – Léon Blum, French prime minister (d. 1950)
  • 1882 – Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, (d. 1946)
  • 1888 – Sol Hurok, Russian-born impresario (d. 1974)
  • 1889 – Efrem Zimbalist, Russian violinist (d. 1985)
  • 1895 – Michel Simon, French actor (d. 1975)
  • 1897 – John B. Gambling, American radio talk-show host (d. 1974)
  • 1898 – Curly Lambeau, American football coach, executive (d. 1965)
  • 1898 – Paul Robeson, American singer and activist (d. 1976)
  • 1903 – Ward Bond, American actor (d. 1960)
  • 1904 – Sharkey Bonano, American musician (d. 1972)
  • 1905 – J. William Fulbright, U.S. Senator from Arkansas (d. 1995)
  • 1906 – Antal Dorati, Hungarian conductor (d. 1988)
  • 1906 – Rafaela Aparicio, Spanish actress (d. 1996)
  • 1908 – Victor Vasarely, Hungarian-born painter (d. 1997)
  • 1910 – Abraham Ribicoff, American politician (d. 1998)
  • 1912 – Lew Kopelew, Russian author (d. 1997)
  • 1915 – Daniel Johnson, Sr., Quebec politician (d. 1968)
  • 1917 – Johannes Bobrowski, German lyricist and writer (d. 1965)
  • 1917 – Brad Dexter, American actor (d. 2002)
  • 1918 – Jørn Utzon, Danish architect
  • 1919 – J. Presper Eckert, American computer pioneer (d. 1995)
  • 1921 – Jean-Marie Balestre, French motorsports official (FIA)
  • 1921 – Frankie Thomas, American actor (d. 2006)
  • 1922 – Carl Amery, German writer (d. 2005)
  • 1926 – Hugh Hefner, American editor and publisher, founder of Playboy
  • 1928 – Tom Lehrer, American musician and mathematician
  • 1928 – Paul Arizin, American basketball player (d. 2006)
  • 1930 – F. Albert Cotton, American chemist (d. 2007)
  • 1931 – Richard Hatfield, Canadian politician (d. 1991)
  • 1932 – Jim Fowler, American zoologist
  • 1932 – Armin Jordan, Swiss conductor (d. 2006)
  • 1932 – Carl Perkins, American musician (d. 1998)
  • 1932 – Cheeta, chimpanzee actor
  • 1933 – Jean-Paul Belmondo, French actor
  • 1934 – Bill Birch, New Zealand politician
  • 1935 – Avery Schreiber, American actor (d. 2002)
  • 1937 – Marty Krofft, Canadian children’s television producer
  • 1938 – Viktor Chernomyrdin, Russian politician
  • 1939 – Michael Learned, American actress
  • 1940 – Jim Roberts, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1941 – Kaye Adams, American country singer
  • 1941 – Chu Song-woong, Korean stage actor (d. 1985)
  • 1942 – Brandon De Wilde, American actor (d. 1972)
  • 1943 – Terry Knight, American music promoter (Grand Funk Railroad) (d. 2004)
  • 1945 – Peter Gammons, American baseball journalist
  • 1945 – Steve Gadd, American session drummer
  • 1946 – David Webb, English football player and coach
  • 1948 – Jaya Bachchan, Indian actress
  • 1953 – Hal Ketchum, American musician
  • 1954 – Dennis Quaid, American actor
  • 1954 – Iain Duncan Smith, British politician
  • 1955 – Joolz Denby, English poet and novelist
  • 1955 – Kate Heyhoe, American food writer
  • 1957 – Seve Ballesteros, Spanish golfer
  • 1957 – Brian Alexander, British broadcaster
  • 1957 – Martin Margiela, Belgian fashion designer
  • 1961 – Mark Kelly, British keyboard player (Marillion)
  • 1962 – Imran Sherwani, British field hockey player
  • 1963 – Marc Jacobs, American fashion designer
  • 1963 – Joe Scarborough, American talk-show host, commentator, and former politician
  • 1964 – Rick Tocchet, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1964 – Rob Awalt, American football player
  • 1964 – Soyo Oka, Japanese musician
  • 1965 – Jeff Zucker, American television executive
  • 1965 – Paulina Porizkova, Czechoslovakian-born actress and supermodel
  • 1965 – Jay Wesley Neill, American convicted murderer (d. 2002)
  • 1966 – Cynthia Nixon, American actress
  • 1967 – Rajendra Yadav, Indian doctor
  • 1970 – Mike Barz, American meteorologist, sports reporter, and TV anchor
  • 1971 – Jacques Villeneuve, Canadian race car driver and one-time F1 world champion
  • 1971 – Peter Canavan, Gaelic footballer
  • 1974 – Jenna Jameson, American porn star
  • 1974 – Andrew Hansen, Australian Comedian The Chaser
  • 1974 – Alexander Pichushkin , Russian serial killer
  • 1975 – Robbie Fowler, English footballer
  • 1977 – Gerard Way, American musician (My Chemical Romance)
  • 1978 – Jorge Andrade, Portuguese footballer
  • 1978 – Rachel Stevens, English singer (S Club)
  • 1978 – Vesna Pisarovic, Croatian singer
  • 1979 – Keshia Knight Pulliam, American actress
  • 1979 – Albert Hammond, Jr., American guitarist (The Strokes)
  • 1979 – Keith Nobbs, American actor
  • 1980 – Yoanna House, American model
  • 1980 – Jerko Leko, Croatian footballer
  • 1981 – Milan Bartovic, Slovak ice hockey player
  • 1981 – Eric Harris, Columbine High School shooter (d. 1999)
  • 1981 – Ireneusz Jelen, Polish footballer
  • 1981 – Taylor Kitsch, Canadian actor and model
  • 1981 – Dennis Sarfate, American baseball player
  • 1982 – Carlos Hernández, Costa Rican footballer
  • 1984 – Linda Chung, Hong Kong actress and singer
  • 1984 – Adam Loewen, Canadian baseball player
  • 1985 – Yamashita Tomohisa, Japanese singer (member of NEWS (band))
  • 1986 – Brian Larsen, American musician and record producer
  • 1986 – Leighton Meester, American actress
  • 1987 – Jesse McCartney, American actor and singer
  • 1987 – Jarrod Mullen, Australian rugby league footballer
  • 1990 – Kristen Stewart, American actress

April 9 – Deaths:

  • 93 – Yuan An, Minister over the Masses of the Han dynasty
  • 491 – Zeno, Byzantine Emperor
  • 715 – Pope Constantine
  • 1024 – Pope Benedict VIII
  • 1137 – William X, Duke of Aquitaine (b. 1099)
  • 1483 – King Edward IV of England (b. 1442)
  • 1484 – Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales (b. 1473)
  • 1492 – Lorenzo de’ Medici, Italian statesmen (b. 1449)
  • 1553 – François Rabelais, French writer
  • 1557 – Mikael Agricola, Finnish scholar (b. 1510)
  • 1626 – Sir Francis Bacon, English philosopher, statesman, and essayist (b. 1561)
  • 1654 – Matei Basarab, Prince of Wallachia (b. 1588)
  • 1693 – Roger de Rabutin, Comte de Bussy, French writer (b. 1618)
  • 1747 – Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat, Scottish clan chief
  • 1754 – Christian Wolff, German philosopher (b. 1679)
  • 1761 – William Law, British minister (b. 1686)
  • 1804 – Jacques Necker, French statesman (b. 1732)
  • 1806 – William V of Orange, Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic
  • 1876 – Charles Goodyear, American politician (b. 1804)
  • 1889 – Michel Eugène Chevreul, French chemist (b. 1786)
  • 1909 – Helena Modrzejewska, Polish-American actress (b. 1840)
  • 1917 – James Hope Moulton, British scholar of Classical Greek (b. 1863)
  • 1936 – Ferdinand Tönnies, German sociologist (b. 1855)
  • 1940 – Mrs. Patrick Campbell, British actress (b. 1865)
  • 1944 – Evgeniya Rudneva, Russian World War II heroine (b. 1920)
  • 1945 – Wilhelm Canaris, German Nazi leader (b. 1887)
  • 1945 – Dietrich Bonhoeffer, German theologian (b. 1906)
  • 1945 – Georg Elser, failed assassin of Hitler (b. 1903)
  • 1948 – George Carpenter, Australian Salvation Army general (b. 1872)
  • 1948 – Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, Colombian politician (b. 1903)
  • 1951 – Vilhelm Bjerknes, Norwegian physicist (b. 1862)
  • 1959 – Frank Lloyd Wright, American architect (b. 1867)
  • 1961 – King Zog of Albania (b. 1895)
  • 1963 – Eddie Edwards, American jazz trombonist (b. 1891)
  • 1970 – Gustaf Tenggren, Swedish illustrator (b. 1896)
  • 1976 – Dagmar Nordstrom, American composer, pianist (b. 1903)
  • 1976 – Phil Ochs, American singer (b. 1940)
  • 1978 – Clough Williams-Ellis, Welsh architect (b.1883)
  • 1982 – Wilfrid Pelletier, French Canadian conductor (b. 1896)
  • 1988 – Brook Benton, American singer (b. 1931)
  • 1988 – David Prater, American singer (Sam & Dave) (b. 1937)
  • 1991 – Martin Hannett, record producer (b. 1948)
  • 1996 – Richard Condon, American novelist (b. 1915)
  • 1996 – James W. Rouse, American real estate developer, activist, and philanthropist (b. 1914)
  • 1997 – Helene Hanff, American writer (b. 1916)
  • 1997 – Mae Boren Axton, American singer and songwriter (b. 1914)
  • 1998 – Tom Cora, American cellist and composer (b. 1953)
  • 1999 – Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara, Niger politician and general (b. 1949)
  • 2001 – Willie Stargell, American baseball player (b. 1940)
  • 2002 – Leopold Vietoris, Austrian mathematician (b. 1891)
  • 2002 – Pat Flaherty, American racecar driver (b. 1926)
  • 2006 – Billy Hitchcock, American baseball player, coach, and official (b. 1916)
  • 2007 – Egon Bondy, Czech philosopher and writer (b. 1930)

April 9 – Holidays:

  • Araw ng Kagitingan (Day of Valor, celebrated as Bataan Day in Bataan) in the Philippines.
  • Saint Waltrudis

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On This Day in History April 8

April 8 – Events:

  • 217 – Roman Emperor Caracalla is assassinated (and succeeded) by his Praetorian Guard prefect, Marcus Opellius Macrinus.
  • 1093 – The new Winchester Cathedral is dedicated by Walkelin.
  • 1139 – Roger II of Sicily is excommunicated.
  • 1149 – Pope Eugene III takes refuge in the castle of Ptolemy II of Tusculum.
  • 1271 – In Syria, sultan Baybars conquers the Krak of Chevaliers.
  • 1513 – Explorer Juan Ponce de León declares Florida a territory of Spain.
  • 1730 – Shearith Israel, the first synagogue in New York City, is dedicated.
  • 1767 – Ayutthaya kingdom falls to Burmese invaders.
  • 1820 – The Venus de Milo is discovered on the Aegean island of Melos.
  • 1832 – Black Hawk War: Around 300 United States 6th Infantry troops leave St. Louis, Missouri to fight the Sauk Native Americans.
  • 1848 – Battle of Goito, part of the Italian Wars of Independence.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Mansfield – Union forces are thwarted by a Confederate army at Mansfield, Louisiana.
  • 1866 – Italy and Prussia ally against Austria-Hungary.
  • 1867 – The first World’s Fair is inaugurated in Paris.
  • 1886 – William Ewart Gladstone introduces the first Irish Home Rule Bill into the British House of Commons.
  • 1893 – The first recorded college basketball game occurs in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania.
  • 1895 – The United States Supreme Court declares income tax to be unconstitutional in Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan & Trust Co.
  • 1899 – Martha Place becomes the first woman to be executed in an electric chair.
  • 1904 – The French Third Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland sign the Entente cordiale.
  • 1904 – British mystic Aleister Crowley transcribes the first chapter of the Book of the Law.
  • 1904 – Longacre Square in Midtown Manhattan is renamed Times Square after The New York Times.
  • 1913 – The 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution, requiring direct election of Senators, becomes law.
  • 1916 – In Corona, California, car racer Bob Burman crashes, killing three and badly injuring five spectators.
  • 1918 – World War I: Actors Douglas Fairbanks and Charlie Chaplin sell war bonds on the streets of New York, New York’s financial district.
  • 1929 – Indian Independence Movement: At Delhi Central Assembly, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt throw handouts and bombs to court arrest.
  • 1935 – The Works Progress Administration is formed when the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 becomes law.
  • 1940 – World War II: Great Britain and France announce that they have mined Norwegian territorial waters to prevent their use by German supply ships.
  • 1942 – World War II: Siege of Leningrad – Soviet Union forces open a much-needed railway link to Leningrad.
  • 1942 – World War II: the Japanese take Bataan in the Philippines.
  • 1943 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in an attempt to check inflation, freezes wages and prices, prohibits workers from changing jobs unless the war effort would be aided thereby, and bars rate increases to common carriers and public utilities.
  • 1946 – The last meeting of the League of Nations, the precursor of the United Nations, is held.
  • 1950 – India and Pakistan sign the Liaquat-Nehru Pact.
  • 1952 – U.S. President Harry S. Truman calls for the seizure of all domestic steel mills to prevent a nationwide strike.
  • 1953 – Mau Mau leader Jomo Kenyatta is convicted by Kenya’s British rulers.
  • 1957 – The Suez Canal in Egypt is reopened.
  • 1960 – The U.S. Senate approves a civil rights bill despite Southern senators’ marathon filibuster effort.
  • 1973 – 32 terrorist bombings in Cyprus.
  • 1975 – Frank Robinson manages the Cleveland Indians in his first game as major league baseball’s first African American manager.
  • 1985 – Bhopal disaster: India files suit against Union Carbide for the disaster which killed an estimated 2,000 and injured another 200,000.
  • 1987 – Los Angeles Dodgers executive Al Campanis resigns amid controversy over racially-charged remarks he had made while on Nightline.
  • 1989 – South Africa: the Democratic Party is formed from the merger of four parties.
  • 1989 – The two Greek Communist parties, along with smaller left-wing parties, merge to form the Coalition of the Left and Progress in Greece.
  • 1990 – New Democracy wins the national election in Greece.
  • 1992 – Retired tennis great Arthur Ashe announces that he has AIDS, acquired from blood transfusions during one of his two heart surgeries.
  • 1999 – Haryana Gana Parishad, a political party in the Indian state of Haryana, merges with the Indian National Congress.
  • 2000 – 19 Marines are killed when an Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft crashes near Marana, Arizona.
  • 2004 – Darfur conflict: The Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement is signed by the Sudanese government and two rebel groups.
  • 2006 – Shedden massacre: the bodies of eight men, all shot to death, are found in a field in Ontario, Canada. The murders are soon linked to the Bandidos motorcycle gang.

April 8 – Birthdays:

  • 1320 – King Peter I of Portugal (d. 1367)
  • 1533 – Claudio Merulo, Italian composer (d. 1604)
  • 1541 – Michele Mercati, Italian physician (d. 1593)
  • 1605 – King Philip IV of Spain, (d. 1665)
  • 1641 – Henry Sydney, 1st Earl of Romney, English statesman (d. 1704)
  • 1692 – Giuseppe Tartini, Italian composer (d. 1770)
  • 1732 – David Rittenhouse, American astronomer, inventor, and mathematician (d. 1796)
  • 1818 – August Wilhelm von Hofmann, German chemist (d. 1892)
  • 1818 – King Christian IX of Denmark (d. 1906)
  • 1826 – Pancha Carrasco, Costa Rican war heroine (d. 1890)
  • 1827 – Ramón Emeterio Betances, Puerto Rican politician, medical doctor and diplomat (d. 1898)
  • 1842 – Elizabeth Bacon Custer, wife of George Armstrong Custer (d. 1933)
  • 1859 – Edmund Husserl, Austrian philosopher (d. 1938)
  • 1865 – Charles W. Woodworth, American entomologist (d. 1940)
  • 1869 – Harvey Cushing, American neuorosurgeon (d. 1939)
  • 1871 – Clarence Hudson White American photographer (d. 1925)
  • 1874 – Stanislaw Taczak, Polish general (d. 1960)
  • 1875 – King Albert I of Belgium (d. 1934)
  • 1883 – R. P. Keigwin, English academic (d. 1972)
  • 1888 – Dennis Chavez, American politician (d. 1964)
  • 1889 – Sir Adrian Boult, British conductor (d. 1983)
  • 1892 – Richard Neutra, American architect (d. 1970)
  • 1892 – Mary Pickford, Canadian actress (d. 1979)
  • 1896 – Yip Harburg, American lyricist (d. 1981)
  • 1904 – John Hicks, British economist, Bank of Sweden Prize winner (d. 1989)
  • 1905 – Helen Joseph, South African anti-apartheid activist (d. 1992)
  • 1905 – Erwin Keller, German field hockey player (d. 1971)
  • 1906 – Raoul Jobin, French Canadian tenor (d. 1974)
  • 1908 – Hugo Fregonese, Argentine film director (d. 1987)
  • 1910 – George Musso, American football player (d. 2000)
  • 1911 – Melvin Calvin, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1997)
  • 1911 – Emil Cioran, Romanian philosopher and essayist (d. 1995)
  • 1912 – Alois Brunner, Austrian Nazi
  • 1912 – Sonja Henie, Norwegian figure skater and actress (d. 1969)
  • 1914 – María Félix, Mexican actress (d. 2002)
  • 1918 – Betty Ford, First Lady of the United States
  • 1918 – Glendon Swarthout, American author (d. 1992)
  • 1919 – Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia (d. 2007)
  • 1920 – Carmen McRae, American jazz singer (d. 1994)
  • 1921 – Alfie Bass, Emglish actor (d. 1987)
  • 1921 – Franco Corelli, Italian tenor (d. 2003)
  • 1921 – Jan Novák, Czech composer (d. 1984)
  • 1923 – George Fisher, American cartoonist (d. 2003)
  • 1923 – Edward Mulhare, Irish actor (d. 1997)
  • 1924 – Frédéric Back, German-born Canadian short film director and screenwriter
  • 1924 – Sir Anthony Farrar-Hockley, English soldier and historian (d. 2006)
  • 1926 – Henry N. Cobb, American architect
  • 1926 – Shecky Greene, American comedian
  • 1926 – Jürgen Moltmann, German theologian
  • 1928 – Leah Rabin, wife of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (d. 2000)
  • 1928 – Monty Sunshine, English jazz clarinetist
  • 1929 – Walter Berry, Austrian bass-baritone (d. 2000)
  • 1929 – Jacques Brel, Belgian singer/composer (d. 1978)
  • 1929 – Renzo De Felice, Italian historian (d. 1996)
  • 1930 – Carlos Hugo of Bourbon-Parma, Duke of Parma
  • 1931 – John Gavin, American actor and politician
  • 1933 – Fred Ebb, American composer (d. 2004)
  • 1934 – Kisho Kurokawa, Japanese architect (d. 2007)
  • 1935 – Albert Bustamante, American politician
  • 1937 – Seymour Hersh, American journalist
  • 1938 – Kofi Annan, Ghanaian United Nations Secretary General
  • 1940 – John Havlicek, American basketball player
  • 1941 – Darlene Gillespie, Canadian-born American actress
  • 1941 – Peggy Lennon, American singer (The Lennon Sisters)
  • 1941 – Vivienne Westwood, English fashion designer
  • 1942 – Roger Chapman, British rock singer (Family, Streetwalkers)
  • 1942 – Douglas Trumbull, American film director
  • 1943 – Tony Banks, British politician (d. 2006)
  • 1943 – Michael Bennett, American dancer/choreographer (d. 1987)
  • 1943 – Miller Farr, American football player
  • 1944 – Hywel Bennett, Welsh actor
  • 1944 – Odd Nerdrum, Norwegian painter
  • 1945 – Derrick Walker, British racing team owner
  • 1946 – Catfish Hunter, American baseball player (d. 1999)
  • 1946 – Stuart Pankin, American actor
  • 1946 – Tim Thomerson, American actor
  • 1947 – Tom DeLay, American politician
  • 1947 – Steve Howe, English guitarist (Yes, Asia, GTR)
  • 1947 – Robert Kiyosaki, American investor
  • 1947 – Larry Norman, American singer/songwriter
  • 1948 – Michael Leshner, Canadian lawyer and gay rights advocate
  • 1949 – John Madden, English film director
  • 1949 – Brenda Russell, American singer/songwriter
  • 1950 – Grzegorz Lato, Polish footballer
  • 1954 – Gary Carter, American baseball player
  • 1955 – Ricky Bell, American football player (d. 1984)
  • 1955 – Kane Hodder, American actor and stuntman
  • 1955 – Barbara Kingsolver, American novelist
  • 1955 – David Wu, Taiwanese-born American politician
  • 1956 – Christine Boisson, French actress
  • 1956 – Jim Piddock, English actor, writer and producer
  • 1957 – Fred Smerlas, American football player
  • 1960 – John Schneider, American actor
  • 1961 – Richard Hatch, American reality television personality
  • 1962 – Izzy Stradlin, American musician (Guns N’ Roses)
  • 1963 – Julian Lennon, English musician and singer
  • 1963 – Terry Porter, American basketball player and coach
  • 1963 – Alec Stewart, English cricketer
  • 1963 – Seth Tobias, American financial commentator (d. 2007)
  • 1964 – Lisa Guerrero, American sports broadcaster
  • 1964 – Biz Markie, American rapper/disc jockey
  • 1964 – John McGinlay, Scottish footballer
  • 1965 – Michael Niko Jones, New Zealand rugby player and coach
  • 1966 – Mark Blundell, British racing driver
  • 1966 – Mazinho, Brazilian footballer
  • 1966 – Bobby Ologun, Nigerian television personality
  • 1966 – Robin Wright Penn, American actress
  • 1967 – Arwyn Davies, Welsh actor
  • 1968 – Patricia Arquette, American actress
  • 1968 – Tracy Grammer, American folk singer
  • 1970 – Sami Lukis, Australian journalist and television presenter
  • 1971 – Chino XL, American rapper
  • 1971 – Craig Mazin, American screenwriter and director
  • 1972 – Paul Gray, American bassist (Slipknot)
  • 1973 – Khaled Badra, Tunisian footballer
  • 1973 – Emma Caulfield, American actress
  • 1973 – Alex S. Gonzalez, American baseball player
  • 1974 – Holger Hott Johansen, Norwegian orienteerist
  • 1974 – Nnedi Okorafor-Mbachu, Nigerian American writer
  • 1975 – Anouk, Dutch singer
  • 1975 – Timo Pérez, Dominican baseball player
  • 1977 – Mehran Ghassemi, Iranian journalist (d. 2008)
  • 1977 – Mark Spencer, American computer programmer
  • 1978 – Ana de la Reguera, Mexican actress
  • 1978 – Bernt Haas, Swiss footballer
  • 1979 – Jeremy Guthrie, American baseball player
  • 1979 – Alexi Laiho, Finnish guitarist and singer (Children of Bodom, Sinergy, Kylähullut)
  • 1980 – Manuel Ortega, Austrian singer
  • 1980 – Katee Sackhoff, American actress
  • 1981 – Brian Burres, American baseball player
  • 1982 – Judy Star, Canadian porn star
  • 1983 – Allu Arjun, Indian film actor
  • 1983 – Adrian Bellani, American actor
  • 1984 – Júlia Liptáková, Slovakian model
  • 1984 – Taran Noah Smith, American actor
  • 1984 – Kirsten Storms, American actress
  • 1986 – Igor Akinfeev, Russian footballer
  • 1986 – Félix Hernández, Venezuelan baseball player
  • 1986 – Erika Sawajiri, Japanese actress, model and singer
  • 1987 – Royston Drenthe, Dutch footballer
  • 1989 – Hitomi Takahashi, Japanese singer
  • 1992 – Shelby Young, American actress

April 8 – Deaths:

  • 217 – Caracalla, Roman Emperor (b. 186)
  • 956 – Gilbert of Chalon, Duke of Burgundy
  • 1143 – John II Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (b. 1087)
  • 1364 – King John II of France (b. 1319)
  • 1461 – Georg Purbach, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1423)
  • 1586 – Martin Chemnitz, Lutheran reformer and theologian (b. 1522)
  • 1587 – John Foxe, English writer (b. 1516)
  • 1691 – Carlo Rainaldi, Italian architect (b. 1611)
  • 1697 – Niels Juel, Danish admiral (b. 1629)
  • 1704 – Hiob Ludolf, German orientalist (b. 1624)
  • 1704 – Henry Sydney, 1st Earl of Romney, English statesman (b. 1641)
  • 1725 – John Wise, English clergyman (b. 1652)
  • 1735 – Francis II Rákóczi, leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburg (b. 1676)
  • 1848 – Gaetano Donizetti, Italian composer (b. 1797)
  • 1857 – Mangal Pandey, Indian soldier
  • 1861 – Elisha Otis, American elevator builder (b. 1811)
  • 1870 – Charles de Bériot, Belgian composer (b. 1802)
  • 1919 – Loránd Eötvös, Hungarian physicist (b. 1848)
  • 1920 – Charles Tomlinson Griffes, American composer (b. 1884)
  • 1931 – Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Swedish writer, Nobel laureate (b. 1864)
  • 1936 – Robert Bárány, Austrian physician, Nobel laureate (b. 1876)
  • 1938 – Joe “King” Oliver, American musician (b. 1885)
  • 1942 – Kostas Skarvelis, Greek songwriter (b. 1880)
  • 1950 – Vaslav Nijinsky, Polish-born ballet dancer (b. 1890)
  • 1965 – Lars Hanson, Swedish actor (b. 1886)
  • 1973 – Pablo Picasso, Spanish artist and sculptor (b. 1881)
  • 1974 – James Charles McGuigan, Catholic archbishop of Toronto (b. 1894)
  • 1978 – Ford Frick, American baseball commissioner (b. 1894)
  • 1981 – Omar Bradley, U.S. general (b. 1893)
  • 1984 – Pyotr Kapitsa, Russian physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1894)
  • 1985 – J. Fred Coots, American songwriter (b. 1897)
  • 1986 – Yukiko Okada, Japanese idol singer (b. 1967)
  • 1990 – Ryan White, American AIDS activist (b. 1971)
  • 1991 – Dead (musician), Swedish metal singer (b. 1969)
  • 1992 – Daniel Bovet, Swiss-born pharmacologist, Nobel laureate (b. 1907)
  • 1993 – Marian Anderson, American contralto (b. 1897)
  • 1994 – François Rozet, French Canadian actor (b. 1899)
  • 1996 – George W. Jenkins, American businessman (b. 1907)
  • 1996 – Ben Johnson, American actor (b. 1918)
  • 1996 – León Klimovsky, Argentine film director (b. 1906)
  • 1997 – Laura Nyro, American singer and composer (b. 1947)
  • 2000 – Claire Trevor, American actress (b. 1910)
  • 2002 – María Félix, Mexican actress (b. 1914)
  • 2004 – Enda Colleran, Gaelic footballer (b. 1941)
  • 2005 – Eddie Miksis, American baseball player (b. 1926)
  • 2005 – Onna White, Canadian choreographer (b. 1924)
  • 2006 – Gerard Reve, Dutch writer (b. 1923)

April 8 – Holidays:

  • Buddha’s Birthday in Japan
  • Saint Walter of Pontoise (d. 1099)
  • Saint Constance
  • Saint Julie Billiart of Namur (d. 1816).
  • International day of the Roma

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On This Day in History April 7

April 7 – Events:

  • 529 – First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I.
  • 1348 – Charles University is founded in Prague.
  • 1521 – Ferdinand Magellan arrives at Cebu.
  • 1541 – Francis Xavier leaves Lisbon on a mission to the Portuguese East Indies.
  • 1795 – France adopts the metre as the basic measure of length.
  • 1798 – The Mississippi Territory is organized from territory ceded by Georgia and South Carolina and is later twice expanded to include disputed territory claimed by both the U.S. and Spain.
  • 1805 – Lewis and Clark Expedition: The Corps of Discovery breaks camp among the Mandan tribe and resumes its journey West along the Missouri River.
  • 1805 – First public performance of Beethoven’s Third Symphony (Eroica).
  • 1827 – John Walker, an English chemist, sells the first friction match. He had invented it in the previous year.
  • 1829 – Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, commences translation of the Book of Mormon, with Oliver Cowdery as his scribe.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Shiloh ends – Union Army under General Ulysses S. Grant defeat the Confederates near Shiloh, Tennessee.
  • 1868 – Thomas D’Arcy McGee, one of the Canadian Fathers Of Confederation is assassinated by the Irish, in one of the few Canadian political assassinations, the only one at the federal level.
  • 1890 – Completion of the first Lake Biwa Canal.
  • 1906 – Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples.
  • 1906 – The Algeciras Conference gives France and Spain control over Morocco.
  • 1908 – H. H. Asquith of the Liberal Party takes office as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, from Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
  • 1922 – Teapot Dome scandal: United States Secretary of the Interior leases Teapot Dome petroleum reserves in Wyoming.
  • 1927 – First distance public television broadcast (from Washington, DC to New York City, displaying the image of Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover).
  • 1933 – Prohibition was repealed for beer of no more than 3.2% alcohol by weight, eight months before the ratification of XXI amendment.
  • 1939 – World War II: Italy invades Albania.
  • 1940 – Booker T. Washington becomes the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp.
  • 1943 – Holocaust: In Terebovlia, Ukraine, Germans order 1,100 Jews to undress to their underwear and march through the city of Terebovlia to the nearby village of Plebanivka.  They were then shot dead and buried in ditches.
  • 1945 – World War II: The Japanese battleship Yamato, the largest battleship ever constructed, is sunk 200 miles north of Okinawa while en-route on a suicide mission in Operation Ten-Go.
  • 1945 – World War II: Visoko was liberated by the 7th, 9th and 17th Krajina brigades from the Tenth division of Yugoslav Partisan forces.
  • 1946 – Syria’s independence from France is officially recognized.
  • 1948 – The World Health Organization is established by the United Nations.
  • 1948 – Buddhist monastery burns in Shanghai, China, leaving twenty monks dead.
  • 1954 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower gives his “domino theory” speech during a news conference.
  • 1956 – Spain relinquishes its protectorate in Morocco.
  • 1963 – Yugoslavia is proclaimed to be a Socialist republic and Josip Broz Tito is named President for life.
  • 1964 – IBM announces the System/360.
  • 1969 – The Internet’s symbolic birth date: publication of RFC 1.
  • 1971 – U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon announces his decision to increase the rate of American troop withdrawals from Vietnam.
  • 1976 – Former British Cabinet Minister John Stonehouse resigns from the Labour Party, leaving Prime Minister James Callaghan in power.
  • 1977 – German Federal Prosecutor Siegfried Buback and his driver are shot by two Red Army Faction members while waiting at a red light.
  • 1978 – Development of the neutron bomb is canceled by U.S. President Jimmy Carter.
  • 1983 – During STS-6, astronauts Story Musgrave and Don Peterson perform the first space shuttle spacewalk.
  • 1985 – Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev declares a moratorium on the deployment of middle-range missiles in Europe.
  • 1989 – Soviet submarine Komsomolets sinks in the Barents Sea off the coast of Norway killing 42 sailors.
  • 1990 – Iran Contra Affair: John Poindexter is found guilty of five charges for his part in the scandal (the conviction was reversed on appeal).
  • 1992 – Republika Srpska announces its independence.
  • 1994 – Massacres of Tutsis begin in Kigali, Rwanda.
  • 1999 – The World Trade Organisation (WTO) rules in favor of the United States in its long-running trade dispute with the European Union over bananas.
  • 2001 – Mars Odyssey is launched.
  • 2003 – U.S. troops capture Baghdad; Saddam Hussein’s regime falls two days later.

April 7 – Birthdays:

  • 1506 – Saint Francis Xavier, Spanish founder of the Society of Jesus (d. 1552) 
  • 1539 – Tobias Stimmer, Swiss painter (d. 1584) 
  • 1613 – Gerhard Douw, Dutch painter (d. 1675) 
  • 1644 – François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, French soldier (d. 1730)
  • 1648 – John Sheffield, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby, English statesman and poet (d. 1721) 
  • 1652 – Pope Clement XII (d. 1740) 
  • 1718 – Hugh Blair, Scottish preacher and man of letters (d. 1800)
  • 1727 – Michel Adanson, French botanist (d. 1806)
  • 1770 – William Wordsworth, English poet (d. 1850)
  • 1772 – Charles Fourier, French philosopher (d. 1837)
  • 1803 – Flora Tristan, French feminist and socialist philosopher (d. 1844)
  • 1803 – James Curtiss, Mayor of Chicago (d. 1859)
  • 1848 – Randall Thomas Davidson, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1930)
  • 1859 – Walter Camp, sports authority known as the “Father of American Football” (d. 1925)
  • 1860 – Will Keith Kellogg, American cereal manufacturer (d. 1951)
  • 1867 – Holger Pedersen, Danish linguist (d. 1953)
  • 1870 – Gustav Landauer, German anarchist and revolutionary (d. 1919)
  • 1873 – John McGraw, American baseball player and manager (d. 1934)
  • 1883 – Gino Severini, Italian painter (d. 1966)
  • 1886 – Ed Lafitte, American baseball player (d. 1971)
  • 1889 – Gabriela Mistral, Chilean writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1957)
  • 1890 – Marjory Stoneman Douglas, American conservationist and writer (d. 1998)
  • 1891 – Ole Kirk Christiansen, Danish inventor (d. 1958)
  • 1893 – Allen Dulles, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 1969)
  • 1897 – Walter Winchell, American broadcaster and journalist (d. 1972)
  • 1899 – Robert Casadesus, French pianist (d. 1972)
  • 1908 – Percy Faith, Canadian composer and musician (d. 1976)
  • 1909 – Robert Charroux, French writer (d. 1978)
  • 1911 – Hervé Bazin, French writer (d. 1996)
  • 1913 – Charles Vanik, American politician (d. 2007)
  • 1915 – Stanley Adams, American actor (d. 1977)
  • 1915 – Billie Holiday, American singer (d. 1959)
  • 1915 – Henry Kuttner, American writer (d. 1958)
  • 1916 – Anthony Caruso, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1917 – R.G. Armstrong, American actor
  • 1918 – Bobby Doerr, American baseball player
  • 1919 – Edoardo Mangiarotti, Italian fencer
  • 1919 – Roger Lemelin, Quebec novelist and television writer (d. 1992)
  • 1920 – Ravi Shankar, Indian sitar player
  • 1922 – Mongo Santamaria, Cuban musician (d. 2003)
  • 1924 – Johannes Mario Simmel, Austrian writer
  • 1927 – Babatunde Olatunji, Nigerian drummer (d. 2003)
  • 1928 – James Garner, American actor
  • 1928 – Alan J. Pakula, American film producer and director (d. 1998)
  • 1928 – James White, Northern Irish science fiction writer (d. 1999)
  • 1929 – Bob Denard, French mercenary (d. 2007)
  • 1930 – Andrew Sachs, English actor
  • 1931 – Donald Barthelme, American author
  • 1933 – Wayne Rogers, American actor
  • 1934 – Ian Richardson, Scottish actor (d. 2007)
  • 1935 – Bobby Bare, American musician
  • 1935 – Hodding Carter III, American journalist and politician
  • 1936 – Jean-Pierre Changeux, French neuroscientist
  • 1938 – Jerry Brown, American politician
  • 1938 – Spencer Dryden, American drummer (Jefferson Airplane) (d. 2005)
  • 1938 – Freddie Hubbard, American jazz trumpeter
  • 1939 – Francis Ford Coppola, American film director
  • 1939 – Sir David Frost, English broadcaster and TV host
  • 1941 – Gorden Kaye, British actor
  • 1942 – Jeetendra, Indian actor
  • 1944 – Julia Phillips, American film producer and writer (d. 2002)
  • 1944 – Gerhard Schröder, Chancellor of Germany
  • 1944 – Bill Stoneman, American baseball player and manager
  • 1945 – Martin Lewis, British newsreader
  • 1945 – Megas, Icelandic singer, songwriter and writer
  • 1945 – Joël Robuchon, French chef
  • 1945 – Werner Schroeter, German film director
  • 1946 – Colette Besson, French runner (d. 2005)
  • 1947 – Patricia Bennett, American singer (The Chiffons)
  • 1947 – Florian Schneider, German musician (Kraftwerk)
  • 1947 – Eliseo Soriano, Philippine evangelist
  • 1948 – Carol Douglas, American singer
  • 1949 – John Oates, American musician (Hall & Oates)
  • 1951 – Janis Ian, American singer and songwriter
  • 1954 – Jackie Chan, Hong Kong actor
  • 1954 – Tony Dorsett, American football player
  • 1955 – Werner Stocker, German actor (d. 1993)
  • 1956 – Annika Billström, Swedish politician
  • 1956 – Christopher Darden, American O.J. Simpson prosecutor
  • 1957 – Kim Kap-su, South Korean actor
  • 1961 – Pascal Olmeta, French footballer
  • 1962 – Andrew “Andy” Hampsten, American cyclist
  • 1962 – Hugh O’Connor, American actor (d. 1995)
  • 1962 – Alain Robert, French rock and urban climber
  • 1963 – Jaime de Marichalar, duke of Lugo, Spanish royalty
  • 1964 – Russell Crowe, New Zealand actor
  • 1964 – Steve Graves, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1965 – Bill Bellamy, American actor and comedian
  • 1965 – Alison Lapper, British artist
  • 1966 – Gary Wilkinson, English snooker player
  • 1967 – Artemis Gounaki, composer, writer and music producer
  • 1968 – Duncan Armstrong, Australian swimmer
  • 1969 – Ricky Watters, American football player
  • 1970 – Leif Ove Andsnes, Norwegian pianist
  • 1971 – Guillaume Depardieu, French actor
  • 1971 – Victor Kraatz, Canadian figure skater
  • 1971 – Jennifer Schwalbach Smith, American actress
  • 1973 – Carole Montillet, French skier
  • 1973 – Ève Salvail, Canadian model
  • 1973 – Brett Tomko, American baseball player
  • 1975 – Ronde Barber, American football player
  • 1975 – Tiki Barber, American football player
  • 1975 – Ronnie Belliard, American baseball player
  • 1976 – Kevin Alejandro, American actor
  • 1977 – Silvana Arias, Peruvian actress
  • 1977 – Guido van der Werve, Dutch artist
  • 1978 – Vladimir Voltchkov, Belarusian tennis player
  • 1979 – Tony Malone, British designer and activist
  • 1979 – Adrián Beltré, Dominican baseball player
  • 1981 – Suzann Pettersen, Norwegian golfer
  • 1982 – Sonjay Dutt, Indian American professional wrestler
  • 1986 – Brooke Brodack, American internet celebrity

April 7 – Deaths:

  • 1307 – Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward I of England (b. 1271)
  • 1498 – King Charles VIII of France (b. 1470)
  • 1614 – El Greco, Greek-born artist (b. 1541)
  • 1638 – Shimazu Tadatsune, Japanese ruler of Satsuma (b. 1576)
  • 1651 – Lennart Torstenson, Swedish soldier and engineer (b. 1603)
  • 1658 – Juan Eusebio Nieremberg, Spanish mystic (b. 1595)
  • 1661 – Sir William Brereton, 1st Baronet, English soldier and politician (b. 1604)
  • 1663 – Francis Cooke, Mayflower pilgrim (b. c. 1583)
  • 1668 – William Davenant, English poet (b. 1606)
  • 1719 – Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, French saint (b. 1651)
  • 1739 – Dick Turpin, English highwayman (hanged) (b. 1706)
  • 1747 – Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, Prussian field marshal (b. 1676)
  • 1761 – Thomas Bayes, English mathematician (b. 1702)
  • 1766 – Tiberius Hemsterhuis, Dutch philologist and critic (b. 1685)
  • 1767 – Franz Sparry, composer (b. 1715)
  • 1782 – Taksin, King of Thailand (b. 1734)
  • 1789 – Abd-ul-Hamid I, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1725)
  • 1789 – Petrus Camper, Dutch anatomist (b. 1722)
  • 1801 – Noël François de Wailly, French lexicographer (b. 1724)
  • 1804 – Toussaint Louverture, Haitian Revolutionary (b. 1743)
  • 1811 – Garsevan Chavchavadze, Georgian diplomat and politician (b. 1757)
  • 1823 – Jacques Charles, French chemist (b. 1746)
  • 1833 – Antoni Radziwill, Polish politician (b. 1775)
  • 1836 – William Godwin, English political writer (b. 1756)
  • 1850 – William Lisle Bowles, English poet and critic (b. 1762)
  • 1858 – Anton Diabelli, Austrian music publisher, editor, and composer (b. 1781)
  • 1868 – D’Arcy McGee, Canadian journalist and Father of Confederation (b. 1825)
  • 1871 – Alexander Lloyd, Mayor of Chicago (b. 1805)
  • 1885 – Carl Theodor Ernst von Siebold, German physiologist (b. 1804)
  • 1891 – P. T. Barnum, American circus impresario (b. 1810)
  • 1920 – Karl Binding, German jurist (b. 1841)
  • 1928 – Alexander Bogdanov, Russian physician and philosopher (b. 1873)
  • 1939 – Joseph Lyons, tenth Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1879)
  • 1943 – Jovan Ducic, Serbian poet
  • 1943 – Alexandre Millerand, President of France (b. 1859)
  • 1947 – Henry Ford, American automobile manufacturer and industrialist (b. 1863)
  • 1950 – Walter Huston, Canadian-born actor (b. 1884)
  • 1955 – Theda Bara, American film actress (b. 1885)
  • 1968 – Jim Clark, OBE, Scottish race car driver and two-time F1 world champion (b. 1936)
  • 1981 – Kit Lambert, British record producer and manager (The Who) (b. 1935)
  • 1981 – Norman Taurog, American film director (b. 1899)
  • 1982 – Brenda Benet, American actress (b. 1945)
  • 1982 – Harald Ertl, Austrian racing driver (b. 1948)
  • 1984 – Frank Church, U.S. Senator from Idaho (b. 1924)
  • 1990 – Ronald Evans, American astronaut (b. 1933)
  • 1992 – Ace Bailey, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1903)
  • 1994 – Albert Guðmundsson, Icelandic footballer and politician (b. 1923)
  • 1994 – Golo Mann, German historian (b. 1909)
  • 1994 – Agathe Uwilingiyimana, Prime Minister of Rwanda (b. 1953)
  • 1997 – Luis Aloma, Cuban baseball player (b. 1923)
  • 1997 – Georgi Shonin, Soviet cosmonaut (b. 1935)
  • 1997 – Tomoyuki Tanaka, Japanese film producer (Godzilla) (b. 1910)
  • 1998 – Broery Marantika, Indonesian singer
  • 2001 – David Graf, American actor (b. 1950)
  • 2001 – Beatrice Straight, American actress (b. 1914)
  • 2002 – John Agar, American actor (b. 1921)
  • 2003 – Cecile de Brunhoff, French storyteller (b. 1903)
  • 2003 – David Greene, British television director (b. 1921)
  • 2004 – Victor Argo, American actor (b. 1934)
  • 2005 – Grigoris Bithikotsis, Greek singer (b. 1922)
  • 2005 – Bob Kennedy, American baseball player and manager (b. 1920)
  • 2005 – Cliff Allison, British racing driver (b. 1932)
  • 2007 – Johnny Hart, American cartoonist (b. 1931)
  • 2007 – Barry Nelson, American actor (b. 1917)
  • 2007 – Diego Corrales, American boxer (b. 1977)

April 7 – Holidays:

  • World Health Day – April 7th of every year is designated as World Health Day and celebrated by the 191 member countries of the World Health Organization to emphasize significant issues in public health of worldwide concern. Observed annually since 1948.
  • Mozambique – Women’s Day.
  • Compton, California – Eazy-E Day
  • The feast of Annunciation is celebrated by the Western Orthodox Church.
  • Saint John Baptist de La Salle (d. 1719)

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On This Day in History April 6

April 6 – Events:

  • 402 – Stilicho stymies the Visigoths under Alaric in the Battle of Pollentia.
  • 1320 – The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath.
  • 1327 – The poet Petrarch first sees his idealized love, Laura, in the church of Saint Clare in Avignon.
  • 1385 – John, Master of the Order of Aviz, is made king John I of Portugal.
  • 1652 – Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp at the Cape of Good Hope, which eventually becomes Cape Town.
  • 1667 – An earthquake devastates Dubrovnik, then an independent city-state.
  • 1782 – Rama I succeeds King Taksin of Thailand, who was overthrown in a coup d’état.
  • 1793 – During the French Revolution, the Committee of Public Safety becomes the executive organ of the republic, and the period known as the Reign of Terror begins.
  • 1808 – John Jacob Astor incorporates the American Fur Company.
  • 1814 – Napoleon abdicates. He is then exiled to Elba.
  • 1830 – The Mormon church is organized by Joseph Smith, Jr. and others at Fayette, New York.
  • 1832 – Indian Wars: Black Hawk War begins – The Sauk warrior Black Hawk enters into war with the United States.
  • 1860 – Joseph Smith III, creates the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints by reorganizing the previous church organized by his father, Joseph Smith, Jr.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Shiloh begins – In Tennessee, forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant meet Confederate troops led by General Albert Sidney Johnston.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Battle of Sayler’s Creek – Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia fights its last major battle while in retreat from Richmond, Virginia.
  • 1866 – The Grand Army of the Republic, an American patriotic organization composed of Union veterans of the American Civil War, is founded. It lasts until 1956.
  • 1869 – Celluloid is patented. 
  • 1895 – Oscar Wilde is arrested (in Cadogan Hotel, London) after losing a libel case against the John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry.
  • 1896 – In Athens, the opening of the first modern Olympic Games 1,500 years after being banned by Roman Emperor Theodosius I.
  • 1903 – The Kishinev pogrom in Kishinev (Bessarabia) begins, forcing tens of thousands of Jews to later seek refuge in Israel and the Western world.
  • 1909 – Robert Peary allegedly reaches the North Pole.
  • 1911 – Dedë Gjon Luli Dedvukaj, Leader of the Malësori Albanians, raises the Albanian flag in the town of Tuzi, Montenegro, for the first time after Gjergj Kastrioti (Skenderbeg).
  • 1917 – World War I: United States declares war on Germany.
  • 1919 – Gandhi orders a General Strike.
  • 1923 – The first Prefects Board in Southeast Asia is formed in Victoria Institution, Malaysia.
  • 1924 – The first successful flight (with stops) completely around the world begins.
  • 1926 – Walter Varney Airlines makes first commercial flight (Varney is the root company of United Airlines).
  • 1930 – Gandhi raises a lump of mud and salt and declares, “With this, I am shaking the foundations of the British Empire.” Thus he starts Salt Satyagraha.
  • 1936 – Tupelo-Gainesville Outbreak: Another tornado from the same storm system as the Tupelo tornado hits Gainesville, Georgia, killing 203.
  • 1941 – World War II: Operation Castigo begins; Germany invades Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Greece.
  • 1947 – The first Tony Awards are presented for theatrical achievements.
  • 1957 – Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis buys the Hellenic National Airlines (TAE) and founds Olympic Airlines.
  • 1965 – Launch of Early Bird, the first communications satellite to be placed in synchronous orbit.
  • 1968 – In Richmond, Indiana’s downtown district, a double explosion kills 41 and injures 150.
  • 1970 – Newhall Incident: Four California Highway Patrol officers are killed.
  • 1972 – Vietnam War: Easter Offensive – American forces begin sustained air strikes and naval bombardments.
  • 1973 – Launch of Pioneer 11 spacecraft.
  • 1984 – Members of Cameroon’s Republican Guard unsuccessfully attempt to overthrow the government headed by Paul Biya.
  • 1992 – A general strike is declared by communist groups in Nepal.
  • 1994 – The Rwandan Genocide begins when the aircraft carrying Rwandan president Juvénal Habyarimana and Burundian president Cyprien Ntaryamira is shot down.
  • 1998 – Pakistan tests medium-range missiles capable of hitting India.
  • 2004 – Rolandas Paksas becomes the first president of Lithuania to be peacefully removed from the post by impeachment.
  • 2005 – Kurdish leader Jalal Talabani becomes the Iraqi president; Shiite Arab Ibrahim al-Jaafari is named premier the next day.

April 6 – Birthdays:

  • 1483 – Raphael, Italian painter and architect (d. 1520)
  • 1613 – Stjepan Gradic, Croatian philosopher and scientist (d. 1683)
  • 1632 – Maria Leopoldine of Austria, Holy Roman Empire Empress (d. 1649)
  • 1651 – André Dacier, French classical scholar (d. 1722)
  • 1664 – Arvid Horn, Swedish statesman (d. 1742)
  • 1671 – Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, French poet (d. 1741)
  • 1725 – Pasquale Paoli, Corsican patriot and military leader (d. 1807)
  • 1812 – Alexander Herzen, Russian writer (d. 1870)
  • 1815 – Robert Volkmann, German composer (d. 1883)
  • 1818 – Aasmund Olavsson Vinje, Norwegian poet (d. 1870)
  • 1820 – Nadar, French photographer (d. 1910)
  • 1823 – Joseph Medill, journalist and mayor of Chicago (d. 1899)
  • 1826 – Gustave Moreau, French painter (d. 1898)
  • 1841 – Karl Binding, German jurist (d. 1920)
  • 1849 – John William Waterhouse, British painter (d. 1917)
  • 1851 – Guillaume Bigourdan, French astronomer (d. 1932)
  • 1878 – Erich Mühsam, German author (d. 1934)
  • 1884 – Walter Huston, Canadian-born actor (d. 1950)
  • 1890 – Anthony Fokker, Dutch designer of aircraft (d. 1939)
  • 1892 – Donald Wills Douglas, Sr., American industrialist (d. 1981)
  • 1892 – Lowell Thomas, American travel writer (d. 1981)
  • 1901 – Pier Giorgio Frassati, Italian Catholic (d. 1925)
  • 1902 – Veniamin Kaverin, Russian writer (d. 1989)
  • 1903 – Mickey Cochrane, American baseball player (d. 1962)
  • 1903 – Harold Edgerton, American electrical engineer (d. 1990)
  • 1909 – Hermann Lang, German race car driver (d. 1987)
  • 1909 – William M. Branham, American evangelist (d. 1965)
  • 1911 – Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen, German biochemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1979)
  • 1918 – Alfredo Ovando Candía, Bolivian president (d. 1982)
  • 1920 – Edmond H. Fischer, Swiss-American biochemist, Nobel laureate
  • 1926 – Sergio Franchi, Italian-born singer and actor (d. 1990)
  • 1926 – Gil Kane, Latvian-born cartoonist (d. 2000)
  • 1926 – Ian Paisley, Northern Irish politician
  • 1927 – Gerry Mulligan, American musician (d. 1996)
  • 1928 – James D. Watson, American geneticist, Nobel laureate
  • 1929 – Joi Lansing, American model and actress (d. 1972)
  • 1929 – André Previn, German-born composer and conductor
  • 1931 – Ivan Dixon, American actor and director
  • 1933 – Roy Goode, British lawyer
  • 1933 – Eduardo Malapit, American Democratic politician (d. 2007)
  • 1934 – Anton Geesink, Dutch judoka
  • 1937 – Merle Haggard, American musician
  • 1937 – Billy Dee Williams, American actor
  • 1938 – Paul Daniels, English magician
  • 1938 – Roy Thinnes, American actor
  • 1939 – André Ouellet, French Canadian politician
  • 1940 – Pedro Armendáriz Jr., Mexican actor
  • 1941 – Phil Austin, American comedian
  • 1941 – Don “The Snake” Prudhomme, American drag racer
  • 1941 – Gheorghe Zamfir, Romanian musician
  • 1942 – Barry Levinson, American film producer/director
  • 1944 – Felicity Palmer, English soprano
  • 1945 – Neal Boortz, American talk radio personality
  • 1947 – John Ratzenberger, American actor
  • 1949 – Horst Ludwig Störmer, German-born physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1951 – Bert Blyleven, Dutch-born baseball player
  • 1952 – Udo Dirkschneider, German singer (Accept and U.D.O.)
  • 1952 – Marilu Henner, American actress
  • 1952 – Michel Larocque, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1992)
  • 1955 – Keith Hunter Jesperson, Canadian-born serial killer
  • 1955 – Michael Rooker, American actor
  • 1956 – Dilip Vengsarkar, Indian cricketer and administrator
  • 1960 – Warren Haynes, American guitarist, singer and songwriter (The Allman Brothers Band, Gov’t Mule)
  • 1964 – Phil Gayle, English news presenter
  • 1965 – Frank Black, American singer/songwriter (Pixies)
  • 1967 – Mika Koivuniemi, Finnish ten-pin bowler
  • 1968 – Affonso Giaffone, Brazilian racing driver
  • 1969 – Jack Canfora, American playwright
  • 1969 – Bison Dele, American basketball player (disappeared 2002)
  • 1969 – Ari Meyers, Puerto Rican-born American actress
  • 1969 – Philipp Peter, Austrian racing driver
  • 1969 – Paul Rudd, American actor
  • 1969 – Bret Boone, Baseball Player
  • 1970 – Olaf Kölzig, South African-born ice hockey player
  • 1970 – Huang Xiaomin, Chinese swimmer
  • 1971 – Lou Merloni, American baseball player
  • 1972 – Jason Hervey, American actor
  • 1973 – Donnie Edwards, American football player
  • 1973 – Rie Miyazawa, Japanese actress/singer
  • 1973 – Prashanth, Indian actor
  • 1973 – Sun Wen, Chinese footballer
  • 1973 – Gina Yashere, English comedian
  • 1974 – Adithya, Indian actor
  • 1974 – Robert Kovac, Croatian footballer
  • 1975 – Zach Braff, American actor
  • 1975 – Hal Gill, Ice Hockey Defenseman for the Pittsburgh Penguins
  • 1976 – Candace Cameron, American actress
  • 1976 – Georg Hólm, Icelandic musician
  • 1977 – Andy Phillips, American Baseball Player
  • 1978 – Tim Hasselbeck, American football player
  • 1978 – Myleene Klass, British singer (Hear’Say)
  • 1978 – Blaine Neal, American baseball player
  • 1981 – Robert Earnshaw, Zambian born, Welsh international footballer
  • 1982 – Michael Guy Chislett, American/Australian musician  
  • 1982 – Ilan Hall, Israeli-American chef
  • 1983 – Diora Baird, American actress
  • 1983 – Jade Seah, Singaporean model, host and actress
  • 1984 – Max Bemis, American musician/songwriter (Say Anything)
  • 1985 – Garrett Zablocki, (Senses Fail)
  • 1987 – Levi Porter, English footballer
  • 1987 – Hilary Rhoda, American supermodel
  • 1988 – Mike Bailey, English actor
  • 1988 – Fabrice Muamba, Anglo-Congolese footballer
  • 2007 – Princess Haalah bint Hashim, Princess of Jordan

April 6 – Deaths:

  • 1147 – Frederick II, Duke of Swabia (b. 1090)
  • 1199 – King Richard I of England (b. 1157)
  • 1199 – Pierre Basile, French soldier
  • 1362 – James I, Count of La Marche, French soldier (b. 1319)
  • 1490 – King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary
  • 1520 – Raphael, Italian painter and architect (b. 1483)
  • 1528 – Albrecht Dürer, German artist (b. 1471)
  • 1551 – Joachim Vadian, Swiss humanist (b. 1484)
  • 1571 – John Hamilton, Scottish prelate and politician
  • 1590 – Francis Walsingham, English spymaster
  • 1605 – John Stow, English historian
  • 1655 – David Blondel, French Protestant clergyman (b. 1591)
  • 1686 – Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, English royalist statesman (b. 1614)
  • 1707 – Willem van de Velde, the younger, Dutch painter (b. 1633)
  • 1755 – Richard Rawlinson, English minister and antiquarian (b. 1690)
  • 1825 – Vladimir Borovikovsky, Russian painter (b. 1757)
  • 1829 – Niels Henrik Abel, Norwegian mathematician (b. 1802)
  • 1833 – Adamantios Korais, Greek humanist scholar (b. 1748)
  • 1838 – José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva, Brazilian statesman and geologist (b. 1763)
  • 1862 – Albert Sidney Johnston, American Confederate general (b. 1803)
  • 1883 – Benjamin Wright Raymond, American politician (b. 1801)
  • 1906 – Alexander Kielland, Norwegian author (b. 1849)
  • 1933 – Elizabeth Bacon Custer, wife of George Armstrong Custer (b. 1842)
  • 1935 – Edwin Arlington Robinson, American poet (b. 1869)
  • 1953 – Idris Davies, Welsh poet (b. 1905)
  • 1961 – Jules Bordet, Belgian immunologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1870)
  • 1963 – Otto Struve, Russian-born astronomer (b. 1897)
  • 1970 – Sam Sheppard, American accused murderer (b. 1923)
  • 1970 – Maurice Stokes, American basketball player (b. 1933)
  • 1971 – Igor Stravinsky, Russian composer (b. 1882)
  • 1974 – Willem Marinus Dudok, Dutch architect (b. 1884)
  • 1974 – Hudson Fysh, Australian aviator and businessman (b.1895)
  • 1976 – Sidney Franklin, American bullfighter (b. 1903)
  • 1992 – Isaac Asimov, Russian-born author (b. 1920)
  • 1994 – Juvénal Habyarimana, Rwandan politician (b. 1937)
  • 1994 – Cyprien Ntaryamira, Burundian politician (b. 1956)
  • 1996 – Greer Garson, Irish actress (b. 1904)
  • 1998 – Wendy O. Williams, American singer (Plasmatics) (b. 1949)
  • 1998 – Tammy Wynette, American singer (b. 1942)
  • 1999 – Red Norvo, American jazz vibraphonist (b. 1908)
  • 2000 – Habib Bourguiba, Tunisian politician (b. 1903)
  • 2001 – Charles Pettigrew, American singer (b. 1963)
  • 2003 – David Bloom, American reporter (b. 1963)
  • 2003 – Babatunde Olatunji, Nigerian drummer (b. 1927)
  • 2003 – Gerald Emmett Cardinal Carter, Canadian religious figure (b. 1912)
  • 2004 – Larisa Bogoraz, Soviet dissident (b. 1929)
  • 2004 – Niki Sullivan, American guitarist (The Crickets) (b. 1937)
  • 2005 – Rainier III, Prince of Monaco (b. 1923)
  • 2006 – Maggie Dixon, American college basketball coach (b. 1977)

April 6 – Holidays:

  • Tartan Day, the anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320, a day set aside for the celebration of Scottish influence
  • Chakri Day in Thailand, commemorating the reign of the Chakri Dynasty.
  • In the Roman Catholic Church:
    • Saint Marcellinus of Carthage (d. 413)
    • St. Sixtus

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