On This Day in History December 9

December 9 – Events:

  • 536 – Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city, returning the old capital to its empire.
  • 1425 – The Catholic University of Leuven is founded.
  • 1793 – New York City’s first daily newspaper, the American Minerva, is established by Noah Webster.
  • 1824 – Patriot forces led by General Antonio José de Sucre defeat a Royalist army in the Battle of Ayacucho, putting an end to the Peruvian War of Independence.
  • 1835 – The Republic of Texas captures San Antonio, Texas.
  • 1851 – The first YMCA in North America is established in Montreal, Quebec.
  • 1856 – The Iranian city of Bushehr surrenders to occupying British forces.
  • 1861 – American Civil War: The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War is established by the U.S. Congress.
  • 1872 – In Louisiana, P. B. S. Pinchback becomes the first serving African-American governor of a U.S. state.
  • 1875 – Massachusetts Rifle Association “America’s Oldest Active Gun Club” is founded.
  • 1888 – Statistician Herman Hollerith installs his computing device at the United States War Department.
  • 1897 – Activist Marguerite Durand founds the feminist daily newspaper, La Fronde in Paris.
  • 1905 – In France, the law separating church and state is passed.
  • 1917 – In Palestine, Field Marshal Edmund Allenby captures Jerusalem.
  • 1922 – Gabriel Narutowicz is announced the first president of Poland.
  • 1931 – The Constituent Cortes approves the constitution which establishes the Second Spanish Republic.
  • 1935 – Walter Liggett American newspaper editor and muckraker killed in gangland murder.
  • 1937 – Second Sino-Japanese War: Battle of Nanjing – Japanese troops under the command of Lt. Gen. Asaka Yasuhiko launch an assault on the Chinese city of Nanjing.
  • 1940 – World War II: Operation Compass – British and Indian troops under the command of Major-General Richard O’Connor attack Italian forces near Sidi Barrani in Egypt.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Republic of China, Cuba, Guatemala, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and the Philippine Commonwealth, declare war on Germany and Japan.
  • 1941 – World War II: The 19th Bombardment Group attacks Japanese ships off the coast of Vigan, Luzon.
  • 1946 – The “Subsequent Nuremberg Trials” began with the “Doctors’ Trial”, prosecuting doctors alleged to be involved in human experimentation.
  • 1950 – Harry Gold is sentenced to thirty years in jail for helping Klaus Fuchs pass information about the Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union. His testimony is later instrumental in the prosecution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
  • 1953 – Red Scare: General Electric announces that all communist employees will be discharged from the company.
  • 1958 – Red Scare: The John Birch Society was founded in the United States.
  • 1961 – The trial of Nazi Adolf Eichmann in Israel ends with him being found guilty of 15 criminal charges, including charges of crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and membership of an outlawed organization.
  • 1961 – Tanganyika becomes independent from Britain.
  • 1968 – NLS (a system for which hypertext and the computer mouse were developed) is publicly demonstrated for the first time in San Francisco.
  • 1979 – The eradication of the smallpox virus is certified, making smallpox the first and to date only human disease driven to extinction.
  • 1987 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict: The First Intifada begins in the Gaza Strip and West Bank.
  • 1990 – Lech Walesa becomes the first directly elected president of Poland.
  • 2003 – A blast in the center of Moscow kills six people and wounds several more.
  • 2006 – Moscow suffers its worst fire since 1977, killing 45 women in a drug rehabilitation center.

December 9 – Birthdays:

  • 1447 – Chenghua, Emperor of China (d. 1487)
  • 1508 – Gemma Frisius, Dutch mathematician and cartographer (d. 1555)
  • 1561 – Sir Edwin Sandys, English-born Virginian colonist (d. 1629)
  • 1571 – Metius (Adriaan Adriaanszoon), Dutch mathematician and astronomer (d. 1635)
  • 1579 – Martin de Porres, Peruvian saint (d. 1639)
  • 1594 – Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (d. 1632)
  • 1608 – John Milton, English poet (d. 1674)
  • 1610 – Baldassare Ferri, Italian castrato (d. 1680)
  • 1652 – Augustus Quirinus Rivinus, German physician (d. 1723)
  • 1667 – William Whiston, English mathematician (d. 1752)
  • 1748 – Claude Louis Berthollet, French chemist (d. 1822)
  • 1751 – Maria Luisa of Parma, queen of Charles IV of Spain (d. 1819)
  • 1787 – John Dobson, English architect (d. 1865)
  • 1806 – Jean-Olivier Chénier, French Canadian physician and Patriote (d. 1838)
  • 1837 – Émile Waldteufel, French composer (d. 1915)
  • 1842 – Peter Kropotkin, Russian anarchist (d. 1921)
  • 1847 – George Grossmith, English actor (d. 1912)
  • 1850 – Emma Abbott, American soprano (d. 1891)
  • 1868 – Fritz Haber, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1934)
  • 1871 – Joe Kelley, American baseball player (d. 1943)
  • 1876 – Berton Churchill, American actor (d. 1940)
  • 1882 – Joaquín Turina, Spanish composer (d. 1949)
  • 1883 – Nikolai Luzin, Russian mathematician (d. 1950)
  • 1886 – Clarence Birdseye, American frozen food manufacturer (d. 1956)
  • 1887 – Tim Moore, American actor and vaudevillian (d. 1958)
  • 1889 – Hannes Kolehmainen, Finnish long-distance runner (d. 1966)
  • 1891 – Maksim Bahdanovic, Belarusian poet (d. 1917)
  • 1895 – Conchita Supervía, Spanish opera singer (d. 1936)
  • 1897 – Hermione Gingold, English actress (d. 1987)
  • 1898 – Emmett Kelly, American circus clown (d. 1979)
  • 1899 – Jean de Brunhoff, French author (d. 1937)
  • 1900 – Albert Weisbord, American labor organizer (d. 1977)
  • 1901 – Carol Dempster, American actress (d. 1991)
  • 1901 – Ödön von Horváth, Hungarian-born writer (d. 1938)
  • 1901 – Jean Mermoz, French pilot (d. 1936)
  • 1902 – Margaret Hamilton, American actress (d. 1985)
  • 1904 – Robert Livingston, American actor (d. 1988)
  • 1905 – Dalton Trumbo, American writer (d. 1976)
  • 1906 – Grace Hopper, American computer pioneer (d. 1992)
  • 1909 – Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., American actor (d. 2000)
  • 1911 – Broderick Crawford, American actor (d. 1986)
  • 1911 – Ryuzo Sejima, Japanese educator (d. 2007)
  • 1912 – Tip O’Neill, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (d. 1994)
  • 1914 – Frances Reid, American actress
  • 1915 – Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, German-born soprano (d. 2006)
  • 1916 – Kirk Douglas, American actor
  • 1917 – James Angleton, head of counterintelligence for the CIA (d. 1987)
  • 1917 – James Rainwater, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1986)
  • 1918 – Jerome Beatty Jr., American author
  • 1919 – William Lipscomb, American chemist, Nobel laureate
  • 1920 – Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, President of the Italian Republic
  • 1922 – Redd Foxx, American comedian (d. 1991)
  • 1925 – Dina Merrill, American actress
  • 1926 – Henry Way Kendall, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1999)
  • 1926 – Jan Kresadlo, Czech writer (d. 1995)
  • 1927 – Pierre Henry, French composer
  • 1928 – André Milhoux, Belgian racing driver
  • 1928 – Dick Van Patten, American actor
  • 1929 – John Cassavetes, American actor and director (d. 1989)
  • 1929 – Bob Hawke, 23rd Prime Minister of Australia
  • 1930 – Buck Henry, American actor
  • 1931 – William Reynolds, American actor
  • 1931 – Ladislav Smoljak, Czech actor
  • 1933 – Morton Downey Jr., American talk show host (d. 2001)
  • 1933 – Monique Miller, French Canadian actress
  • 1934 – Dame Judi Dench, English actress
  • 1934 – Junior Wells, American musician (d. 1998)
  • 1937 – Darwin Joston, American actor (d. 1998)
  • 1938 – David Houston, American country singer (d. 1993)
  • 1938 – Deacon Jones, American football player
  • 1941 – Beau Bridges, American actor
  • 1941 – Dan Hicks, American musician
  • 1942 – Billy Bremner, Scottish footballer (d. 1997)
  • 1942 – Dick Butkus, American football player
  • 1943 – Pit Martin, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1944 – Neil Innes, English singer (Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band, The Rutles)
  • 1944 – Ki Longfellow, American novelist
  • 1944 – Bob O’Connor, American politician
  • 1945 – Matti Mäntylä, Finnish actor
  • 1945 – Michael Nouri, American actor
  • 1946 – Sonia Gandhi, Italian-born Indian politician
  • 1946 – Shatrughan Sinha, Indian actor
  • 1947 – Tom Daschle, American politician
  • 1947 – Jaak Jõerüüt, Soviet-born Estonian politician
  • 1948 – Dennis Dunaway, American musician
  • 1948 – Marleen Gorris, Dutch film director
  • 1949 – Tom Kite, American golfer
  • 1949 – Nando Parrado, Uruguayan plane crash survivor
  • 1950 – Joan Armatrading, St. Kitts-born English singer
  • 1952 – Liaqat Baloch, Pakistani politician
  • 1952 – Michael Dorn, American actor
  • 1953 – World B. Free, American basketball player
  • 1953 – John Malkovich, American actor
  • 1954 – Herman Finkers, Dutch comedian
  • 1957 – Donny Osmond, American singer and actor
  • 1958 – Rikk Agnew, American guitarist (The Adolescents)
  • 1958 – Nick Seymour, Australian bassist (Crowded House)
  • 1960 – Terry Moran, American TV reporter
  • 1960 – Juan Samuel, Dominican baseball player
  • 1961 – David Anthony Higgins, American actor
  • 1961 – Joe Lando, American actor
  • 1962 – Felicity Huffman, American actress
  • 1963 – Dave Hilton, Jr., Canadian boxer
  • 1963 – Masako, Crown Princess of Japan
  • 1964 – Paul Landers, German guitarist (Rammstein)
  • 1965 – Joe Ausanio, American baseball player
  • 1965 – Vecepia Towery, American Survivor contestant
  • 1966 – Kirsten Gillibrand, American politician
  • 1966 – Toby Huss, American actor
  • 1967 – Joshua Bell, American violinist
  • 1967 – Jason Dozzell, English footballer
  • 1967 – Gheorghe Popescu, Romanian footballer
  • 1968 – Kurt Angle, American wrestler
  • 1968 – Brian Bell, American guitarist (Weezer)
  • 1968 – Dave Harold, English snooker player
  • 1969 – Jakob Dylan, American singer (The Wallflowers)
  • 1969 – Bixente Lizarazu, French footballer
  • 1969 – Sebastian Spence, Canadian actor
  • 1971 – Petr Nedved, Czech ice hockey player
  • 1972 – Reiko Aylesworth, American actress
  • 1972 – Tre Cool, German-born American drummer (Green Day)
  • 1972 – Fabrice Santoro, Tahitian-born French tennis player
  • 1974 – Canibus, American rapper
  • 1974 – Wendy Dillinger, American female soccer player and coach
  • 1976 – Chris Booker, American baseball player
  • 1977 – Saskia Garel, Canadian actress
  • 1977 – Shayne Graham, American football player
  • 1977 – Imogen Heap, English singer-songwriter
  • 1978 – Jesse Metcalfe, American actor
  • 1979 – Olivia Lufkin, Japanese singer
  • 1979 – Stephen McPhail, Irish footballer
  • 1980 – Ryder Hesjedal, Canadian cyclist
  • 1981 – Mardy Fish, American tennis player
  • 1981 – Diya Mirza, Indian actress
  • 1982 – Tamilla Abassova, Russian cyclist
  • 1982 – Vincent Accardi, American guitarist Brand New
  • 1983 – Dariusz Dudka, Polish footballer
  • 1983 – Jermaine Beckford, English footballer
  • 1990 – LaFee, German singer

December 9 – Deaths:

  • 1165 – King Malcolm IV of Scotland
  • 1437 – Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1368)
  • 1544 – Teofilo Folengo, Italian poet (b. 1491)
  • 1565 – Pope Pius IV (b. 1499)
  • 1603 – William Watson, English conspirator (b. 1559)
  • 1625 – Ubbo Emmius, Dutch historian and geographer (b. 1547)
  • 1636 – Fabian Birkowski, Polish writer (b. 1566)
  • 1641 – Anthony van Dyck, Flemish painter (b. 1599)
  • 1669 – Pope Clement IX (b. 1600)
  • 1674 – Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, English statesman and historian (b. 1609)
  • 1692 – William Mountfort, English actor and dramatist
  • 1706 – King Peter II of Portugal (b. 1648)
  • 1718 – Vincenzo Coronelli, Italian cartographer and encylopaedist (b. 1650)
  • 1793 – Gabrielle de Polastron, comtesse de Polignac, French aristocrat (b. 1749)
  • 1798 – Johann Reinhold Forster, German botanist (b. 1729)
  • 1830 – Heinrich Christian Friedrich Schumacher, Danish surgeon, botanist and professor of anatomy (b. 1757)
  • 1854 – Almeida Garrett, Portuguese writer (b. 1799)
  • 1858 – Robert Baldwin, Canadian politician (b. 1804)
  • 1887 – Mahmadu Lamine, Senegalese marabout and military leader
  • 1894 – Pafnuty Chebyshev, Russian mathematician (b. 1821)
  • 1916 – Natsume Soseki, Japanese novelist (b. 1867)
  • 1930 – Andrew “Rube” Foster, American baseball player and founder of the Negro National League (b. 1879)
  • 1935 – Walter Liggett, American crusading newspaper editor and muckraker (b. 1886)
  • 1937 – Nils Gustaf Dalén, Swedish physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1869)
  • 1941 – Dmitry Merezhkovsky, Russian writer and philosopher (b. 1865)
  • 1955 – Hermann Weyl, German mathematician (b. 1885)
  • 1964 – Dame Edith Sitwell, English poet and critic (b. 1887)
  • 1965 – Branch Rickey, American baseball executive (b. 1884)
  • 1970 – Artem Mikoyan, Soviet aircraft designer (b. 1905)
  • 1970 – Sir Feroz Khan Noon, Prime Minister of Pakistan
  • 1971 – Ralph Bunche, American diplomat, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1904)
  • 1971 – Sergey Konenkov, Russian sculptor (b. 1874)
  • 1972 – Louella Parsons, American gossip columnist (b. 1881)
  • 1975 – William A. Wellman, American movie director (b. 1896)
  • 1979 – Fulton J. Sheen, American archbishop and television preacher (Life is Worth Living) (b. 1895)
  • 1981 – Daniel Faulkner, Philadelphia police officer (b. 1955)
  • 1982 – Leon Jaworski, Watergate scandal special prosecutor (b. 1905)
  • 1984 – Razzle, English drummer (Hanoi Rocks) (b. 1960)
  • 1992 – Vincent Gardenia, American stage, film and television actor (b. 1922)
  • 1993 – Danny Blanchflower, Northern Irish footballer and manager (b. 1926)
  • 1994 – Garnett Silk, Jamaican reggae singer (b. 1966)
  • 1995 – Toni Cade Bambara, American author (b. 1939)
  • 1995 – Douglas Corrigan, American aviator (b. 1907)
  • 1996 – Patty Donahue, American singer (The Waitresses) (b. 1956)
  • 1996 – Mary Leakey, English archaeologist and anthropologist (b. 1913)
  • 1996 – Alain Poher, French politician (b. 1909)
  • 1998 – Shaughnessy Cohen, Canadian politician (b. 1948)
  • 1998 – Archie Moore, American boxer (b. 1913)
  • 2001 – Michael Carver, British soldier (b. 1915)
  • 2002 – Mary Hansen, Australian guitarist and singer (Stereolab) (b. 1966)
  • 2002 – Stan Rice, American painter, educator, and poet (b. 1942)
  • 2003 – Paul Simon, U.S. Senator from Illinois (b. 1928)
  • 2003 – Norm Sloan, American basketball coach (b. 1926)
  • 2004 – David Brudnoy, American radio personality (b. 1940)
  • 2004 – Lea De Mae, Czech actress (b. 1976)
  • 2005 – György Sándor, Hungarian pianist (b. 1912)
  • 2005 – Robert Sheckley, American author (b. 1928)
  • 2007 – Thore Skogman, Swedish entertainer (b. 1931)

December 9 – Holidays:

  • Peru: Army Day
  • Sweden and Finland: Anna’s Day. Recognizes everyone named Anna, and marks the day to start the preparation process of the lutefisk to be consumed on Christmas Eve.
  • Tanzania – Independence Day (of Tanganika from Britain, 1961)

 

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On This Day in History December 8

December 8 – Events:

  • 1609 – Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room, the second public library of Europe.
  • 1659 – Mexican border town Ciudad Juárez is founded by Fray García de San Francisco.
  • 1854 – Pope Pius IX proclaims the dogma of Immaculate Conception, which holds that the Virgin Mary was born free of original sin.
  • 1864 – The Clifton Suspension Bridge over the River Avon is officially opened.
  • 1869 – Timothy Eaton founds T. Eaton Co. Limited in Toronto, Canada.
  • 1886 – The American Federation of Labor is founded in Columbus, Ohio.
  • 1904 – Konservativ Ungdom (Young Conservatives) in Denmark is founded by Carl F. Herman von Rosen. Still existing today, it is the oldest political youth organization in Denmark and believed to be one of the oldest in the world.
  • 1907 – King Gustaf V of Sweden accedes to the Swedish throne.
  • 1912 – First Balkan War: The Greek army captures Korçë that had been under Ottoman rule.
  • 1914 – World War I: Battle of the Falkland Islands – The Kaiserliche Marine under the command of Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee is engaged by the Royal Navy.
  • 1935 – The Japanese military police launches a violent suppression of the religious sect Oomoto, beginning with a crackdown on the sect’s operational bases of Ayabe and Kameoka in Kyoto Prefecture and the arrest of its leader Onisaburo Deguchi.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Japanese invade the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong, Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. They also invade the portions of Shanghai administered by European powers and bomb American bases in the Philippines.  Because of the time difference, these events – which took place west of the International Date Line – happened while it was still December 7 to the east of this line.
  • 1941 – World War II: Pacific War – After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the U.S. Congress passes a declaration of war against Japan.
  • 1941 – World War II: Pacific War – the Republic of China officially declares war against Japan.
  • 1941 – World War II: Pacific War – The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in China issues a proclamation which declared war against Japan and Germany on behalf of Korean people, who were under Japanese occupation since 1910.
  • 1941 – World War II: First Japanese attack on Wake Island.
  • 1941 – Holocaust: Gas vans are first used as a means of execution, at the Chelmno extermination camp near Lódz in Poland.
  • 1942 – Holocaust: in Ternopil, Ukraine, the German SS organizes the deportation of the last 1,400 Ternopil Jews to the death camp in Belzec. The chief of the Gestapo,  SS Sturmbannführer Hermann Müller, bore overall responsibility for the mass murder of the Jews of Ternopil and Berezhany county.
  • 1949 – Chinese Civil War: The capital of the Republic of China is moved from Nanjing to Taipei, Taiwan.
  • 1953 – Dwight D. Eisenhower gives the Atoms for Peace speech.
  • 1966 – The Greek SS Heraklion sinks in a storm in the Aegean Sea, killing over 200.
  • 1969 – An Olympic Airways Douglas DC-6 crashes in Keratea during a storm, killing 93 people.
  • 1972 – United Airlines Flight 553 crashes near Chicago Midway Airport, killing 45 people.
  • 1974 – A plebiscite results in the abolition of monarchy in Greece.
  • 1980 – Mark David Chapman shoots and kills John Lennon in front of The Dakota apartment building with five bullets.
  • 1982 – Activist Norman Mayer threatens to blow up the Washington Monument, before being killed by United States Park Police.
  • 1982 – In Suriname several opponents of the military government are killed.
  • 1987 – The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty is signed.
  • 1987 – The Queen Street Massacre: Frank Vitkovic shoots and kills 8 people at the offices of Australia Post in Melbourne, Australia before being killed himself.
  • 1987 – The Alianza Lima air disaster.
  • 1991 – The leaders of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine sign an agreement dissolving the Soviet Union and establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States.
  • 1991 – The Romanian Constitution is adopted in a referendum.
  • 1993 – The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is signed into law by US President Bill Clinton.
  • 1998 – Tadjena massacre: 81 people are killed by armed groups in Algeria.
  • 2002 – The Caribbean Community Heads of Government meet with the Government of Cuba and declare the date to be “CARICOM-Cuba Day” – To celebrate diplomatic ties between the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and Cuba.
  • 2004 – The Cuzco Declaration is signed in Cuzco, Peru, establishing the South American Community of Nations.
  • 2005 – Ante Gotovina, Croatian army general accused of war crimes, is captured in the Playa de las Américas, Tenerife by the Spanish police.

December 8 – Birthdays:

  • 65 BC – Horace, Roman poet (d. 8 BC)
  • 1542 – Mary Queen of Scots (d. 1587)
  • 1574 – Maria Anna of Bavaria, Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire (d. 1616)
  • 1626 – Queen Christina of Sweden (d. 1689)
  • 1678 – Horatio Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole of Wolterton, English diplomat (d. 1757)
  • 1699 – Maria Josepha of Austria, queen of Poland (d. 1757)
  • 1708 – Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1765)
  • 1730 – Jan Ingenhousz, Dutch-born British physiologist and botanist (d. 1799)
  • 1765 – Eli Whitney, American inventor (d. 1825)
  • 1795 – Peter Andreas Hansen, Danish astronomer (d. 1874)
  • 1815 – Adolph Menzel, German painter and graphic artist (d. 1905)
  • 1816 – August Belmont, Sr., Prussian-born American financier (d. 1890)
  • 1817 – Christian Emil Krag-Juel-Vind-Frijs, Danish nobleman and politician (d. 1896)
  • 1832 – Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Norwegian author and Nobel laureate (d. 1910)
  • 1848 – Joel Chandler Harris, American author and folklorist (d. 1908)
  • 1861 – William C. Durant, American automobile pioneer (d. 1947)
  • 1861 – Aristide Maillol, French sculptor (d. 1944)
  • 1861 – Georges Méliès, French filmmaker (d. 1938)
  • 1862 – Georges Feydeau, French playwright (d. 1921)
  • 1864 – Camille Claudel, French graphic artist and sculptor (d. 1943)
  • 1865 – Jacques Hadamard, French mathematician (d. 1963)
  • 1865 – Jean Sibelius, Finnish composer (d. 1957)
  • 1874 – Ernst Moro, Austrian physician (d. 1951)
  • 1886 – Diego Rivera, Mexican painter (d. 1957)
  • 1890 – Bohuslav Martinu, Czech composer (d. 1959)
  • 1894 – E.C. Segar, American cartoonist (Popeye) (d. 1938)
  • 1894 – James Thurber, American humorist and cartoonist (d. 1961)
  • 1899 – John Qualen, Canadian actor (d. 1987)
  • 1900 – Sun Li-jen, Chinese general (d. 1990)
  • 1902 – Wifredo Lam, Cuban artist (d. 1982)
  • 1908 – John A. Volpe, 61 and 63 Governor of Massachusetts, 2 United States Secretary of Transportation (d. 1994)
  • 1909 – Gratien Gélinas, French Canadian playwright, actor, director and producer (d. 1999)
  • 1911 – Lee J. Cobb, American actor (d. 1976)
  • 1911 – Nikos Gatsos, Greek poet and lyricist (d. 1992)
  • 1913 – Delmore Schwartz, American poet (d. 1966)
  • 1915 – Ernest Lehman, American screenwriter (d. 2005)
  • 1916 – Richard Fleischer, American film director (d. 2006)
  • 1918 – Gérard Souzay, French baritone (d. 2004)
  • 1919 – Peter Tali Coleman, American politician (d. 1997)
  • 1922 – Lucian Freud, English painter
  • 1922 – Jean Ritchie, American folk singer
  • 1923 – Rudolph Pariser, Chinese-born American chemist
  • 1925 – Sammy Davis Jr., American actor and singer (d. 1990)
  • 1925 – Carmen Martín Gaite, Spanish author (d. 2000)
  • 1925 – Jimmy Smith, American jazz organist (d. 2005)
  • 1927 – Ferdie Pacheco, the “Fight Doctor”
  • 1927 – Vladimir Shatalov, Soviet cosmonaut
  • 1930 – Julian Critchley, British politician (d. 2000)
  • 1930 – Maximilian Schell, Austrian-born Swiss actor, film director, and author
  • 1931 – Bob Arum, American boxing promoter
  • 1933 – Flip Wilson, American comedian (d. 1998)
  • 1935 – Dharmendra, Indian actor
  • 1935 – Tatiana Zatulovskaya, Israeli chess player
  • 1936 – David Carradine, American actor
  • 1937 – James MacArthur, American actor
  • 1937 – Arne Næss Jr., Norwegian mountain climber and businessman (d. 2004)
  • 1939 – Red Berenson, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1939 – Jerry “The Iceman” Butler, American soul singer
  • 1939 – Sir James Galway, Northern Irish flautist
  • 1939 – Soko Richardson, American rhythm and blues drummer. (d. 2004)
  • 1940 – Brant Alyea, American baseball player
  • 1941 – Ed Brinkman, American baseball player
  • 1941 – Bob Brown, American football player
  • 1941 – Randall “Duke” Cunningham, US Navy fighter pilot and Congressman
  • 1941 – Sir Geoff Hurst, English footballer
  • 1943 – Jim Morrison, American singer (The Doors) (d. 1971)
  • 1943 – Mary Woronov, American actress
  • 1945 – John Banville, Irish novelist and journalist
  • 1946 – John Rubinstein, American actor, composer, director
  • 1946 – Sharmila Tagore, Indian Actress
  • 1947 – Gregg Allman, American musician
  • 1947 – Thomas R. Cech, American chemist, Nobel laureate
  • 1947 – Kati-Claudia Fofonoff, Skolt Sámi writer
  • 1949 – Mary Gordon, American writer
  • 1949 – Nancy Meyers, American film director, producer and screenwriter
  • 1949 – Ray Shulman, English musician
  • 1949 – Robert Sternberg, Proposed the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
  • 1950 – Rick Baker, American film makeup artist
  • 1950 – Tim Foli, American baseball player
  • 1950 – Dan Hartman, American musician (Edgar Winter Group) (d. 1994)
  • 1951 – Bill Bryson, American author
  • 1951 – Jan Eggum, Norwegian singer-songwriter
  • 1952 – Khaw Boon Wan, Singapore Health Minister
  • 1953 – Kim Basinger, American actress
  • 1953 – Roy Firestone, American sports announcer
  • 1953 – Sam Kinison, American comedian (d. 1992)
  • 1954 – Harold Hongju Koh, Korean-American Dean of Yale Law School
  • 1956 – Warren Cuccurullo, American musician
  • 1957 – Phil Collen, English guitarist (Def Leppard)
  • 1958 – Bird McIntyre, Thai pop singer, musician
  • 1961 – Ann Coulter, American author, political commentator, and attorney
  • 1962 – Marty Friedman, American guitarist
  • 1963 – Toshiaki Kawada, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1964 – James Blundell, Australian country singer
  • 1964 – Sandy Burnett, English record producer
  • 1964 – Teri Hatcher, American actress
  • 1965 – Carina Lau, Hong Kong actress
  • 1966 – Sinéad O’Connor, Irish musician
  • 1967 – Jeff George, American football player
  • 1967 – Kotono Mitsuishi, Japanese seiyu (voice actress)
  • 1968 – Michael Cole, American professional wrestling commentator
  • 1968 – Mike Mussina, American baseball player
  • 1969 – Jeff Tremaine, American television and film director
  • 1972 – Marco Abreu, Angolan footballer
  • 1972 – Frank Shamrock, American mixed martial artist
  • 1973 – Doron Bell Jr., Canadian actor
  • 1973 – Corey Taylor, American singer (Slipknot, Stone Sour)
  • 1974 – Cristian Castro, Mexican singer
  • 1974 – Tony Simmons, American football player
  • 1974 – Nick Zinner, American guitarist (Yeah Yeah Yeahs)
  • 1975 – Kevin Harvick, American NASCAR driver
  • 1976 – Naimee Coleman, Irish singer and songwriter
  • 1976 – Reed Johnson, American baseball player
  • 1976 – Dominic Monaghan, English actor
  • 1977 – Elsa Benítez, Mexican supermodel
  • 1977 – Sébastien Chabal, French rugby union footballer
  • 1977 – Ryan Newman, American NASCAR driver
  • 1978 – John Oster, Welsh footballer
  • 1978 – Anwar Siraj, Ethiopian footballer
  • 1978 – Ian Somerhalder, American actor
  • 1978 – Vernon Wells, American baseball player
  • 1979 – Daniel Fitzhenry, Australian rugby league footballer
  • 1979 – Johan Forssell, Swedish politician
  • 1979 – Adam Russell, American Musician
  • 1979 – Christian Wilhelmsson, Swedish footballer
  • 1981 – Jeremy Accardo, American baseball player
  • 1981 – Philip Rivers, American football player
  • 1982 – Noelle Pikus-Pace, American skeleton racer
  • 1982 – Dee Dee Trotter, American athlete
  • 1983 – Neel Jani, Swiss racing driver
  • 1983 – Liu Song, Chinese snooker player
  • 1984 – Greg Halford, English footballer
  • 1984 – Badr Hari, Dutch kickboxer, Niall Brennan, Irish Legend.
  • 1985 – Dwight Howard, American basketball player
  • 1986 – Amir Khan, English boxer
  • 1986 – Kate Voegele, American musician
  • 1989 – Drew Doughty, Canadian hockey player
  • 1993 – AnnaSophia Robb, American actress and singer

December 8 – Deaths:

  • 899 – Arnulf of Carinthia (b. 850)
  • 1626 – John Davies, English poet (b. 1569)
  • 1632 – Philippe van Lansberge, Flemish astronomer (b. 1561)
  • 1638 – Ivan Gundulic, Croatian poet (b. 1589)
  • 1643 – John Pym, English statesman (b. 1583)
  • 1649 – Noël Chabanel, French Jesuit missionary (b. 1613)
  • 1680 – Henry Pierrepont, 1st Marquess of Dorchester, English politician (b. 1606)
  • 1691 – Richard Baxter, English clergyman (b. 1615)
  • 1695 – Barthélemy d’Herbelot de Molainville, French orientalist (b. 1625)
  • 1709 – Thomas Corneille, French dramatist (b. 1625)
  • 1722 – Liselotte von der Pfalz, Duchess of Orléans (b. 1652)
  • 1744 – Marie-Anne de Mailly-Nesle duchess de Châteauroux, mistress of King Louis XV of France (b. 1717)
  • 1745 – Etienne Fourmont, French orientalist (b. 1683)
  • 1746 – Charles Radclyffe, British politician (b. 1693)
  • 1756 – William Stanhope, 1st Earl of Harrington, British statesman and diplomat
  • 1768 – Jean Denis Attiret, French Jesuit missionary (b. 1702)
  • 1779 – Nathan Alcock, English physician (b. 1707)
  • 1830 – Benjamin Constant, Swiss writer (b. 1767)
  • 1859 – Thomas de Quincey, English author (b. 1785)
  • 1864 – George Boole, British inventor of Boolean algebra (b. 1815)
  • 1885 – William Henry Vanderbilt, member of the Vanderbilt family (b. 1821)
  • 1894 – Pafnuty Chebyshev, Russian mathematician (b. 1821)
  • 1907 – Oscar II of Sweden (b. 1829)
  • 1914 – Maximilian von Spee, German naval officer (b. 1861)
  • 1917 – Mendele Moykher Sforim, Russian writer (b. 1836)
  • 1938 – Friedrich Glauser, German-language Swiss writer (b. 1896)
  • 1940 – George Exton Lloyd, Anglican Bishop and theologian (b. 1861)
  • 1952 – Charles Lightoller, English second officer on the Titanic (b. 1874)
  • 1958 – Tris Speaker, American baseball player (b. 1888)
  • 1963 – Field Marshal Sarit Dhanarajata, Prime Minister of Thailand (b. 1908)
  • 1966 – Ward Morehouse, American theater critic and newspaper columnist (b. 1899)
  • 1967 – John Mills, Sr., American singer (Mills Brothers) (b. 1889)
  • 1975 – Gary Thain, New Zealand bassist (Uriah Heep) (b. 1948)
  • 1978 – Golda Meir, Russian-born Prime Minister of Israel (b. 1898)
  • 1980 – John Lennon, English musician and peace activist (b. 1940)
  • 1982 – Bram Behr, Surinamese journalist (b. 1951)
  • 1982 – Marty Robbins, American singer (b. 1925)
  • 1983 – Slim Pickens, American actor (b. 1919)
  • 1984 – Luther Adler, American actor (b. 1903)
  • 1984 – Robert Jay Mathews, White Nationalist (b. 1953)
  • 1991 – Kimberly Bergalis, claimed to have contracted HIV from her dentist (b. 1968)
  • 1991 – Buck Clayton, American jazz trumpeter (b. 1911)
  • 1992 – William Shawn, American magazine editor (b. 1917)
  • 1994 – Antônio Carlos Jobim, Brazilian composer and arranger (b. 1927)
  • 1996 – Howard Rollins, American actor (b. 1950)
  • 1997 – Bob Bell, played Bozo the Clown (b. 1922)
  • 1999 – Péter Kuczka, Hungarian writer (b. 1923)
  • 2001 – Don Tennant, American advertising executive (b. 1922)
  • 2003 – Rubén González, Cuban pianist (Buena Vista Social Club) (b. 1919)
  • 2004 – Dimebag Darrell (Darrell Abbott), American guitarist (Pantera, Damageplan) (b. 1966)
  • 2005 – Georgiy Zhzhonov, Russian actor and author (b. 1915)
  • 2006 – Martha Tilton, American singer (b. 1915)
  • 2006 – José Uribe, Dominican baseball player (b. 1959)
  • 2007 – Gerardo García Pimentel, Mexican journalist

December 8 – Holidays:

  • R.C. Saints – The solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary (Holy Day of Obligation in Ireland, U.S.); Saint Eucharius, first bishop of Trier
  • Eastern Christianity – Conception of the Theotokos (Mother of God) by Anna – Major Feast Day
  • Buddhism – The Enlightenment of Gautama Buddha (Bodhi Day)
  • Bulgaria – Day of the Student
  • Italy – Public holiday
  • Austria – Public Holiday
  • Malta – Public Holiday
  • Romania – Constitution Day
  • Panama – Mother’s Day
  • Spain – Immaculate Conception – Day of the National Army
  • Portugal – Immaculate Conception – Day of the national Patron Saint
  • France – Fête des Lumières (Festival of Lights) held in Lyon to honor the Virgin Mary
  • Republic of Macedonia – St Kliment Day, National holiday

 

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On This Day in History December 7

December 7 – Events: 

  • 1696 – Connecticut Route 108, One of America’s oldest highways, completed to Trumbull.
  • 1724 – Tumult of Thorn - religious unrest was followed by the execution of nine Protestant citizens and the mayor of Thorn (Torun) by Polish authorities.
  • 1732 – The Royal Opera House opens at Covent Garden, London.
  • 1776 – Marquis de Lafayette attempts to enter the American military as a major general.
  • 1787 – Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the US Constitution.
  • 1826 – Malacca High School (SMK Tinggi Melaka) is established in Melaka (Malacca), Malaysia.
  • 1900 – Max Planck, in his house at Grunewald, on the outskirts of Berlin, discovers the law of black body emission.
  • 1917 – World War I: The US declares war on Austria-Hungary.
  • 1930 – W1XAV in Boston, Massachusetts broadcasts video from the CBS radio orchestra program, The Fox Trappers. The broadcast also includes the first television commercial in the United States, an advertisement for I.J. Fox Furriers, who sponsored the radio show.
  • 1941 – World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor – The Imperial Japanese Navy attacks the US Pacific Fleet and its defending Army Air Forces and Marine air forces at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
  • 1941 – Holocaust (Shoah): Extermination of Jewish people at the death camp of Chelmno begins.
  • 1946 – A fire at the Winecoff Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia kills 119 people, the deadliest hotel fire in U.S. history.
  • 1949 – Chinese Civil War: The government of Republic of China moves from Nanking to Taipei.
  • 1962 – Prince Rainier III of Monaco revises the principality’s constitution, devolving some of his power to advisory and legislative councils.
  • 1963 – Instant replay is used for the first time in a Army-Navy game.
  • 1965 – Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras simultaneously lift mutual excommunications that had been in place since 1054.
  • 1966 – A fire at an army barracks in Erzurum, Turkey kills 68 people.
  • 1970 – The first ever general election on the basis of direct adult franchise is held in Pakistan for 313 National Assembly seats.
  • 1971 – Pakistan President Yahya Khan announces formation of a Coalition Government at Centre with Nurul Amin as Prime Minister and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto as Vice-Prime Minister.
  • 1972 – Apollo 17, the last Apollo moon mission, is launched. The crew takes the photograph known as “The Blue Marble” as they leave the Earth.
  • 1975 – Indonesia invades East Timor.
  • 1982 – In Texas, Charles Brooks, Jr. becomes the first person to be executed by lethal injection in the US.
  • 1983 – An Iberia Airlines Boeing 727 collides with an Aviaco DC-9 in dense fog while the two airliners are taxiing down the runway at Madrid Barajas International Airport, killing 93 people.
  • 1987 – Pacific Southwest Airlines Flight 1771 crashes near Paso Robles, California, killing all 43 on board, after a disgruntled passenger shoots his ex-boss traveling on the flight, then shoots both pilots and himself.
  • 1988 – Spitak Earthquake: In Armenia an earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale kills nearly 25,000, injures 15,000 and leaves 400,000 homeless.
  • 1988 – Yasser Arafat recognizes the right of Israel to exist.
  • 1993 – The Long Island Rail Road massacre: Passenger Colin Ferguson murders six people and injures 19 others on the LIRR in Nassau County, New York.
  • 1995 – The Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter, a little more than six years after it was launched by Space Shuttle Atlantis during Mission STS-34.
  • 1999 – The RIAA files a lawsuit against the Napster file-sharing client, on charges of copyright infringement.
  • 2001 – John P. Walters is sworn in as the Director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP).
  • 2003 – The Conservative Party of Canada is officially recognized after the merger of the Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative Party of Canada.
  • 2005 – Rigoberto Alpizar, a passenger on American Airlines Flight 924 who allegedly claimed to have a bomb, is shot and killed by a team of US federal air marshals at Miami International Airport.
  • 2006 – A tornado struck Kensal Green, North West London, seriously damaging around 150 properties.
  • 2007 – The Hebei Spirit oil spill began in South Korea after a crane barge being towed by tug collided with the very large crude carrier, Hebei Spirit.

December 7 – Birthdays:

  • 521 – Saint Columba, Irish Christian missionary to Scotland (d. 597)
  • 903 – Abd Al-Rahman Al Sufi, Persian astronomer (d. 986)
  • 1302 – Azzone Visconti lord of Milan (d. 1339)
  • 1545 – Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, consort of Mary I of Scotland (d. 1567)
  • 1561 – Kikkawa Hiroie, Japanese politician (d. 1625)
  • 1598 – Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Italian artist (d. 1680)
  • 1637 – Bernardo Pasquini, Italian composer (d. 1710)
  • 1670 – John Aislabie, English director of the South Sea Company (d. 1742)
  • 1724 – Louise of Great Britain, queen of Denmark and Norway (d. 1751)
  • 1764 – Claude Victor-Perrin, duc de Belluno, French marshal (d. 1841)
  • 1784 – Allan Cunningham, British poet (d. 1842)
  • 1801 – Johann Nestroy, Austrian dramatist and actor (d. 1862)
  • 1803 – Maria Josepha of Saxony, queen consort of Spain (d. 1829)
  • 1810 – Josef Hyrtl, Austrian anatomist (d. 1894)
  • 1810 – Theodor Schwann, German physiologist (d. 1882)
  • 1823 – Leopold Kronecker, German mathematician (d. 1891)
  • 1847 – George Grossmith, British actor and writer (d. 1912)
  • 1860 – Joseph Cook, 6th Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1947)
  • 1862 – Paul Adam, French novelist (d. 1920)
  • 1863 – Pietro Mascagni, Italian composer (d. 1945)
  • 1863 – Richard Sears, American department store founder (d. 1914)
  • 1873 – Willa Cather, American novelist (d. 1947)
  • 1879 – Rudolf Friml, American composer (d. 1972)
  • 1887 – Ernst Toch, Austrian composer (d. 1964)
  • 1888 – Joyce Cary, Irish author (d. 1957)
  • 1888 – Hamilton Fish III, American politician (d. 1991)
  • 1891 – Fay Bainter, Academy Award-winning American actress (d. 1968)
  • 1903 – Danilo Blanuša, Croatian mathematician (d. 1987)
  • 1904 – Konstantin Sokolsky, Russian singer (d. 1991)
  • 1905 – Gerard Kuiper, Dutch-born American astronomer (d. 1973)
  • 1907 – Fred Rose, Canadian communist politician (d. 1983)
  • 1910 – Louis Prima, American musician (d. 1978)
  • 1910 – Edmundo Ros, Trinidadian musician
  • 1912 – Daniel Jones, British composer (d. 1993)
  • 1915 – Eli Wallach, American actor
  • 1916 – Jean Carignan, French Canadian fiddler (d. 1988)
  • 1920 – Fiorenzo Magni, Italian cyclist
  • 1920 – Walter Nowotny, Austrian fighter pilot (d. 1944)
  • 1920 – Tatamkulu Afrika, South African poet and writer (d. 2002)
  • 1921 – Pramukh Swami Maharaj, Indian spiritual leader
  • 1923 – Ted Knight, American actor
  • 1924 – John Love, Zimbabwean Formula One driver (d. 2005)
  • 1924 – Mário Soares, President of Portugal
  • 1925 – Hernando da Silva Ramos, Brazilian racing driver
  • 1927 – Helen Watts, British contralto
  • 1928 – Noam Chomsky, American linguist and political writer
  • 1930 – Hal Smith, American baseball player
  • 1932 – Ellen Burstyn, American actress
  • 1932 – Paul Caponigro, American photographer
  • 1940 – Stan Boardman, English comedian
  • 1940 – Gerry Cheevers, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1942 – Harry Chapin, American singer and songwriter (d. 1981)
  • 1942 – Alex Johnson, American baseball player
  • 1942 – Peter Tomarken, American game show host (d. 2006)
  • 1943 – Göran Lennmarker, Swedish politician
  • 1943 – Bernard C. Parks, Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department
  • 1944 – Jamiel Chagra, American drug trafficker
  • 1944 – Daniel Chorzempa, American organist
  • 1945 – Marion Rung, Finnish singer
  • 1947 – Johnny Bench, American baseball player
  • 1947 – Tony Thomas, American TV and film producer
  • 1947 – Garry Unger, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1948 – Gary Morris, American singer and actor
  • 1948 – Mads Vinding, Danish bassist
  • 1949 – Tom Waits, American singer, composer, and actor
  • 1952 – Georges Corraface, Greek actor, president of the Thessaloniki International Film Festival
  • 1954 – Mark Hofmann, American forger and bomber
  • 1954 – Mike Nolan, Irish singer (Bucks Fizz)
  • 1955 – Priscilla Barnes, American actress
  • 1955 – John Watkins, Australian politician
  • 1956 – Larry Bird, American basketball player
  • 1957 – Tom Winsor, British lawyer and economic regulator
  • 1958 – Tim Butler, English musician (Psychedelic Furs)
  • 1958 – Rick Rude, American professional wrestler (d. 1999)
  • 1960 – Craig Scanlon, English guitarist (The Fall)
  • 1962 – Grecia Colmenares, Venezuelan actress
  • 1963 – Theo Snelders, former Dutch footballer
  • 1964 – Roberta Close, Brazilian model
  • 1964 – Tadao Uematsu, Japanese racing driver
  • 1964 – Peter Laviolette, head coach Carolina Hurricanes
  • 1965 – Colin Hendry, Scottish footballer
  • 1965 – Jeffrey Wright, American actor
  • 1966 – C. Thomas Howell, American actor
  • 1966 – Shinichi Itoh, Japanese motorcycle racer
  • 1967 – Tino Martinez, American baseball player
  • 1968 – Mark Geyer, Australian rugby league footballer
  • 1970 – Carmen Campuzano, Mexican actress and fashion model
  • 1971 – Vladimir Akopian, Armenian chess player
  • 1971 – Chasey Lain, American pornographic actress
  • 1972 – Hermann Maier, Austrian skier
  • 1972 – Tammy Lynn Sytch, American professional wrestler
  • 1973 – Terrell Owens, American football player
  • 1973 – Fabien Pelous, French international rugby player
  • 1973 – Damien Rice, Irish musician
  • 1974 – Nicole Appleton, Canadian-born singer
  • 1975 – Jamie Clapham, English footballer
  • 1976 – Alan Faneca, American football player
  • 1976 – Brent Johnson, Canadian football player
  • 1976 – Georges Laraque, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Vanessa Lorenzo, Spanish fashion model
  • 1977 – Dominic Howard, English drummer (Muse)
  • 1977 – Eric Chavez, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Shiri Appleby, American actress
  • 1978 – Frankie J, Mexican-born American singer
  • 1978 – Chad Dukes, Radio Personality
  • 1979 – Ayako Fujitani, Japanese actress
  • 1979 – Derek Ramsay, Filipino actor and model
  • 1979 – Lampros Choutos, Greek footballer
  • 1979 – Sara Bareilles, American singer
  • 1979 – Jennifer Carpenter, American actress
  • 1980 – John Terry, English footballer
  • 1983 – Fausto Carmona, Dominican baseball player
  • 1984 – Robert Kubica, the first Polish Formula One racing driver
  • 1984 – Aaron Gray, American basketball player
  • 1984 – Luca Rigoni, Italian footballer
  • 1987 – Aaron Carter, American singer and actor
  • 1988 – Emily Browning, Australian actress
  • 1989 – Nicholas Hoult, English actor
  • 2003 – Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands

December 7 – Deaths:

  • 43 BC – Cicero, Roman politician and author (b. 106 BC)
  • 283 – Pope Eutychian
  • 983 – Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor
  • 1254 – Pope Innocent IV
  • 1279 – King Boleslaus V of Poland (b. 1226)
  • 1295 – Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford, English politician (b. 1243)
  • 1498 – Alexander Hegius von Heek, German humanist
  • 1562 – Adrian Willaert, Flemish composer
  • 1649 – Charles Garnier, French Jesuit missionary (b. 1606)
  • 1672 – Richard Bellingham, English-born Massachusetts colonial magistrate (b. 1592)
  • 1683 – John Oldham, English poet (smallpox) (b. 1653)
  • 1683 – Algernon Sydney, English politician (b. 1623)
  • 1723 – Jan Santini Aichel, Bohemian architect (b. 1677)
  • 1725 – Florent Carton Dancourt, French dramatist and actor (b. 1661)
  • 1775 – Charles Saunders, British admiral
  • 1793 – Joseph Bara, French revolutionary (b. 1780)
  • 1815 – Michel Ney, French marshall (executed) (b. 1769)
  • 1817 – William Bligh, British naval officer (b. 1745)
  • 1842 – Thomas Hamilton, Scottish writer (b. 1789)
  • 1874 – Constantin von Tischendorf, German biblical scholar (b. 1815)
  • 1894 – Ferdinand de Lesseps, French diplomat and entrepreneur (Suez Canal) (b. 1805)
  • 1902 – Thomas Nast, German-born American cartoonist (b. 1840)
  • 1906 – Élie Ducommun, Swiss journalist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1833)
  • 1913 – Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano, Italian Catholic churchman and last surviving cardinal of Pius IX (b. 1828)
  • 1917 – Léon Minkus, German/Czech Composer and violinist (b. March 23, 1826)
  • 1941 – Notable Casualties of the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor: Mervyn S. Bennion, United States Navy Captain, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1887),  Herbert C. Jones, United States Navy, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1918), Isaac C. Kidd, United States Navy Rear Admiral, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1884), Thomas J. Reeves, United States Navy, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1895), Franklin Van Valkenburgh, United States Navy, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1888)
  • 1947 – Nicholas M. Butler, American university president, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1862)
  • 1947 – Tristan Bernard, French playwright and novelist (b. 1866)
  • 1956 – Huntley Gordon, Canadian actor (b. 1887)
  • 1960 – Clara Haskil, Swiss pianist (b. 1895)
  • 1969 – Lefty O’Doul, American baseball player (b. 1897)
  • 1969 – Eric Portman, English actor (b. 1903)
  • 1970 – Rube Goldberg, American cartoonist (b. 1883)
  • 1975 – Thornton Wilder, American playwright (b. 1897)
  • 1977 – Peter Carl Goldmark, Hungarian-born American engineer (b. 1906)
  • 1978 – Alexander Wetmore, American ornithologist (b. 1886)
  • 1980 – Darby Crash, American punk-rock lengend (b. 1958)
  • 1983 – Fanny Cano, Mexican actress (b. 1944)
  • 1984 – Lee Roy Yarbrough, American race car (Nascar) driver (b. 1938)
  • 1985 – Robert Graves, British author (b. 1895)
  • 1985 – Potter Stewart, US Supreme Court Justice (b. 1915)
  • 1989 – William Calhoun, professional wrestler (b. 1934)
  • 1990 – Joan Bennett, American actress (b. 1910)
  • 1990 – Jean Duceppe, Quebec stage, television and film actor (b. 1923)
  • 1990 – Jean Paul Lemieux, Quebec painter (b. 1904)
  • 1991 – Michael Taylor, Male Model (b. 1913)
  • 1993 – Félix Houphouët-Boigny, President of Côte d’Ivoire (b. 1905)
  • 1993 – Wolfgang Paul, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1913)
  • 1994 – J.C. Tremblay, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1939)
  • 1997 – Billy Bremner, Scottish former footballer (b. 1942)
  • 1998 – Martin Rodbell, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1925)
  • 1998 – John Addison, British composer (b. 1920)
  • 2000 – Vladimir Gotovac, Croatian poet and politician (b. 1930)
  • 2001 – Charles McClendon, LSU Tigers head football coach (b. 1923)
  • 2003 – Carl F. H. Henry American theologian and publisher (b. 1913)
  • 2003 – Azie Taylor Morton, Treasurer of the United States (b. 1936)
  • 2004 – Frederick Fennell, American conductor (b. 1914)
  • 2004 – Jerry Scoggins, American singer (b. 1913)
  • 2004 – Jay Van Andel, co-founder and former chairman of Amway (b. 1924)
  • 2005 – Bud Carson, American football player and coach (b. 1931)
  • 2005 – Lucy d’Abreu, was the oldest living person in the United Kingdom from April 2004 until her death (b. 1892)
  • 2005 – Rigoberto Alpizar, airplane passenger fatally shot by U.S. Air Marshals after allegedly claiming he had placed a bomb aboard (b. 1961)
  • 2006 – Jeane Kirkpatrick, American ambassador (b. 1926)
  • 2006 – Jay McShann, American musician (b. 1910)

December 7 – Holidays:

  • Eastern Orthodox Saints:
    • Julian Calendar (November 24): Great Martyr Catherine of Alexandria
    • Revised Julian Calendar: Saint Aemilianus
  • US – Pearl Harbor Day (observance)
  • Colombia – Día de las Velitas (Day of the Candles): Festivity
  • India – The Armed Forces Flag Day

 

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On This Day in History December 6

December 6 – Events:

  • 1060 – Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary
  • 1240 – Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev under Danylo of Halych and Voivode Dmytro falls to the Mongols under Batu Khan.
  • 1534 – The city of Quito in Ecuador is founded by Spanish settlers led by Sebastián de Belalcázar.
  • 1648 – Colonel Pride of the New Model army purges the Long Parliament of MPs sympathetic to King Charles I, in order for the King’s trial to go ahead; came to be known as “Pride’s Purge.”
  • 1768 – The first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica is published.
  • 1790 – The U.S. Congress moves from New York City to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • 1845 – Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity is founded at Yale College.
  • 1849 – American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery.
  • 1865 – The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, banning slavery.
  • 1877 – The first edition of the Washington Post is published.
  • 1884 – The Washington Monument in Washington D.C. is completed.
  • 1897 – London becomes the world’s first city to host licenced taxicabs.
  • 1907 – A coal mine explosion at Monongah, West Virginia kills 362 workers.
  • 1916 – World War I: The Central Powers capture Bucharest.
  • 1917 – Finland declares independence from Russia.
  • 1917 – Halifax Explosion: In Canada, a munitions explosion kills more than 1900 people and destroys part of the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • 1921 – The Anglo-Irish Treaty is signed in London by British and Irish representatives.
  • 1922 – One year to the day after the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State comes into existence.
  • 1933 – U.S. federal judge John M. Woolsey rules that the James Joyce’s novel Ulysses is not obscene.
  • 1947 – The Everglades National Park in Florida is dedicated.
  • 1956 – A water polo match between Hungary and the USSR takes place during the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, against the backdrop of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution.
  • 1957 – Project Vanguard: A launchpad explosion of Vanguard TV3 thwarts the first United States attempt to launch a satellite into Earth orbit.
  • 1965 – Pakistan’s Islamic Ideology Advisory Committee recommends that Islamic Studies be made a compulsory subject for Muslim students from primary to graduate level.
  • 1969 – Meredith Hunter is killed by the Hells Angels during a The Rolling Stones’ concert at the Altamont Speedway in California.
  • 1971 – Pakistan severs diplomatic relations with India following New Delhi’s recognition of Bangladesh.
  • 1973 – The Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States House of Representatives votes 387 to 35 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States (on November 27, the Senate confirmed him 92 to 3).
  • 1975 – Balcombe Street Siege: An IRA Active Service Unit takes a couple hostage in Balcombe Street, London.
  • 1977 – South Africa grants independence to Bophuthatswana, although it is not recognized by any other country.
  • 1978 – Spain approves its latest constitution in a referendum.
  • 1989 – The École Polytechnique Massacre (or Montreal Massacre): Marc Lépine, an  antifeminist gunman, murders 14 young women at the École Polytechnique in Montreal.
  • 1991 – In Croatia, forces of the Yugoslav People’s Army bombard Dubrovnik after laying siege to the city since May.
  • 1992 – Extremist Hindu activists demolish Babri Masjid – a 16th century mosque in Ayodhya, India which had been used as temple since 1949. Hindus believe this structure was built on the site of the birthplace of Lord Rama.
  • 1997 – A Russian Antonov An-124 transport cargo plane crashes into an apartment complex near Irkutsk, Siberia, killing 67.
  • 1998 – Hugo Chávez Frías, Venezuelan military and politician, is elected President of Venezuela.
  • 2001 – The Canadian province of Newfoundland is renamed Newfoundland and Labrador.
  • 2005 – Several villagers are shot dead during protests in Dongzhou, China.
  • 2006 – NASA reveals photographs taken by Mars Global Surveyor suggesting the presence of liquid water on Mars.

December 6 – Birthdays:

  • 846 – Hasan al-Askari, Shia Imam (d. 874)
  • 1285 – King Ferdinand IV of Castile (d. 1312)
  • 1421 – King Henry VI of England (d. 1471)
  • 1478 – Baldassare Castiglione, Italian diplomat and author (d. 1529)
  • 1550 – Orazio Vecchi, Italian composer (baptism) (d. 1605)
  • 1586 – Niccolò Zucchi, Italian astronomer (d. 1670)
  • 1608 – George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, English soldier (d. 1670)
  • 1637 – Sir Edmund Andros, English governor in North America (d. 1714)
  • 1640 – Claude Fleury, French historian (d. 1723)
  • 1642 – Johann Christoph Bach, German composer (d. 1703)
  • 1685 – Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy, mother of Louis XV of France d. 1712
  • 1721 – James Elphinston, British philologist (d. 1809)
  • 1721 – Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, French statesman (d. 1794)
  • 1752 – Gabriel Duvall, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1844)
  • 1778 – Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, French physicist and chemist (d. 1850)
  • 1792 – King William II of the Netherlands (d. 1849)
  • 1805 – Adolf Reubke, German organ builder (d. 1875)
  • 1805 – Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, French magician (d. 1861)
  • 1812 – Robert Spear Hudson, English businessman (d. 1884)
  • 1823 – Friedrich Max Müller, German orientalist (d. 1900)
  • 1833 – John Singleton Mosby, American Confederate guerrilla leader (d. 1916)
  • 1841 – Frédéric Bazille, French painter (d. 1870)
  • 1849 – August von Mackensen, German field marshal (d. 1945)
  • 1863 – Charles Martin Hall, American chemist (d. 1914)
  • 1872 – William S. Hart, American actor (d. 1946)
  • 1875 – Evelyn Underhill, British poet (d. 1941)
  • 1876 – Fred Duesenberg, German-born automobile pioneer (d. 1932)
  • 1886 – Joyce Kilmer, American poet (d. 1918)
  • 1887 – Joseph Lamb, American ragtime composer (d. 1960)
  • 1890 – Rudolf Schlichter, German artist and writer (d. 1955)
  • 1890 – Yoshio Nishina, Japanese physicist (d. 1951)
  • 1890 – Dion Fortune, British occultist (d. 1946)
  • 1892 – Sir Osbert Sitwell, British author (d. 1969)
  • 1896 – Ira Gershwin, American lyricist (d. 1983)
  • 1898 – Alfred Eisenstaedt, German-born photojournalist (d. 1995)
  • 1898 – Gunnar Myrdal, Swedish economist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics (d. 1987)
  • 1900 – Agnes Moorehead, American actress (d. 1974)
  • 1903 – Tony Lazzeri, American baseball player (d. 1946)
  • 1904 – Ève Curie French writer (d. 2007)
  • 1905 – James J. Braddock, American boxer (d. 1974)
  • 1908 – Pierre Graber, Swiss Federal Councilor (d. 2003)
  • 1908 – Baby Face Nelson, American bank robber (d. 1934)
  • 1913 – Karl Haas, German-American music educator (d. 2005)
  • 1913 – Eleanor Holm, American swimmer (d. 2004)
  • 1916 – Hugo Peretti, American songwriter and record producer (d. 1986)
  • 1916 – Kristján Eldjárn, Curator at the National Museum of Iceland and 3rd president of Iceland (d. 1982)
  • 1917 – Kamal Jumblatt, leader of the Lebanese Druze (d. 1977)
  • 1919 – Paul de Man, Belgian-born literary critic (d. 1983)
  • 1920 – Dave Brubeck, American pianist and composer
  • 1920 – George Porter, British chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 2002)
  • 1921 – Otto Graham, American football player (d. 2003)
  • 1921 – Piero Piccioni, Italian musician and composer (d. 2004)
  • 1922 – John Henry Cound Brunt, Victoria Cross holder (d. 1944)
  • 1924 – Wally Cox, American actor (d. 1973)
  • 1928 – Bobby Van, American singer (d. 1980)
  • 1929 – Alain Tanner, Swiss filmmaker
  • 1929 – Nikolaus Harnoncourt, German conductor
  • 1929 – Frank Springer, American comics artist
  • 1930 – Daniel Lisulo, Prime Minister of Zambia
  • 1931 – Don King, American Boxing Promoter
  • 1931 – Zeki Müren, Turkish actor, singer, and composer (d. 1996)
  • 1933 – Henryk Górecki, Polish composer
  • 1935 – Jean Lapointe, Quebec comedian, singer and senator
  • 1936 – Kenneth Copeland, American televangelist
  • 1936 – David Ossman, American comedian
  • 1937 – Alberto Spencer, Ecuadorian footballer (d. 2006)
  • 1938 – Patrick Bauchau, Belgian actor
  • 1940 – Lawrence Bergman, Quebec politician
  • 1940 – Richard Edlund, American special effects photographer
  • 1941 – Richard Speck, American mass murderer (d. 1991)
  • 1942 – Peter Handke, Austrian writer
  • 1945 – Shekhar Kapur, Indian filmmaker
  • 1945 – Larry Bowa, baseball player and Major League manager
  • 1945 – Dan Harrington, American poker player
  • 1947 – Lawrence Cannon, Canadian politician
  • 1947 – Miroslav Vitous, Czech jazz musician
  • 1948 – JoBeth Williams, American actress
  • 1948 – Keke Rosberg, Finnish race car driver and one-time F1 world champion
  • 1948 – Marius Müller-Westernhagen, German actor and musician
  • 1949 – Linda Creed, American songwriter (d. 1986)
  • 1949 – Doug Marlette, American editorial cartoonist
  • 1950 – Joe Hisaishi, Japanese composer
  • 1951 – Gerry Francis, English footballer and manager
  • 1952 – Rick Charlesworth, Australian hockey player
  • 1952 – Craig Newmark, founder of craigslist
  • 1953 – Tom Hulce, American actor
  • 1953 – Gary Ward, baseball player
  • 1955 – Steven Wright, American comedian
  • 1955 – Rick Buckler, British drummer (The Jam)
  • 1956 – Peter Buck, American guitarist (R.E.M.)
  • 1956 – Randy Rhoads, American guitarist (d. 1982)
  • 1957 – Adrian Borland, English musician (The Sound) (d. 1999)
  • 1958 – Nick Park, British filmmaker and animator
  • 1959 – Satoru Iwata, president and CEO of Nintendo
  • 1961 – David Lovering, American drummer (Pixies)
  • 1962 – Janine Turner, American actress
  • 1963 – Ulrich Thomsen, Danish actor
  • 1965 – Gordon Durie, Scottish footballer
  • 1966 – Natascha Badmann, Swiss triathlete
  • 1967 – Hacken Lee, Hong Kong singer
  • 1970 – Ulf Ekberg, Swedish musician (Ace of Base)
  • 1970 – Éric Lemieux, Quebec keyboardist (a/k/a “La Chicane”)
  • 1971 – José Contreras, Cuban baseball player
  • 1971 – Richard Krajicek, Dutch tennis player
  • 1971 – Ryan White, American AIDS activist (d. 1990)
  • 1971 – Naozumi Takahashi, seiyuu
  • 1972 – Rick Short, baseball player
  • 1974 – Nick Stajduhar, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1975 – Noel Clarke, English actor and writer
  • 1976 – Colleen Haskell, American television personality
  • 1976 – Alicia Machado, Venezuelan actress and Miss Universe
  • 1976 – Lindsay Price, American actress
  • 1977 – Kevin Cash, baseball player
  • 1977 – Andrew Flintoff, English cricketer
  • 1977 – Paul McVeigh, Irish footballer
  • 1978 – Darrell Jackson, American football player
  • 1978 – Chris Basak, American baseball player
  • 1979 – Tim Cahill, Australia footballer
  • 1980 – Steve Lovell, British footballer
  • 1980 – Ehren Wassermann, American baseball player
  • 1982 – Sean Ervine, Zimbabwean cricketer
  • 1982 – Ryan Carnes, American actor
  • 1982 – Robbie Gould, American football player
  • 1982 – Alberto Contador, Spanish cyclist and 2007 Tour de France winner
  • 1985 – Dulce María, Mexican actress and singer
  • 1986 – Cintia Dicker, Brazilian model
  • 1993 – Elián González, Cuban subject of international child custody battle
  • 1995 – Joy Gruttmann, German singer
  • 2000 – Pablo Nicolás Urdangarín y de Borbón, Spanish royal

December 6 – Deaths:

  • 343 – Saint Nicholas
  • 1185 – King Afonso I of Portugal (b. 1109)
  • 1352 – Pope Clement VI (b. 1291)
  • 1562 – Jan van Scorel Dutch painter and architect
  • 1618 – Jacques-Davy Duperron, French cardinal (b. 1556)
  • 1658 – Baltasar Gracián y Morales, Spanish writer (b. 1601)
  • 1672 – King John II Casimir of Poland (b. 1609)
  • 1675 – John Lightfoot, English churchman (b. 1602)
  • 1718 – Nicholas Rowe, English poet and dramatist (b. 1674)
  • 1746 – Lady Grizel Baillie, Scottish songwriter (b. 1665)
  • 1771 – Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Italian anatomist (b. 1682)
  • 1779 – Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, French painter (b. 1699)
  • 1788 – Jonathan Shipley, British bishop and politician (b. 1714)
  • 1855 – William John Swainson, English naturalist and artist (b. 1789)
  • 1867 – Jean Pierre Flourens, French physician (b. 1794)
  • 1868 – August Schleicher, German linguist (b. 1821)
  • 1879 – Erastus Brigham Bigelow, American industrialist (b. 1814)
  • 1882 – Anthony Trollope, British author (b. 1815)
  • 1882 – Alfred Escher, Swiss politician and railroad entrepreneur (b. 1819)
  • 1889 – Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (b. 1808)
  • 1892 – Ernst Werner von Siemens, German inventor and industrialist (b. 1816)
  • 1924 – Gene Stratton-Porter, American author, screenwriter and naturalist (b. 1863)
  • 1949 – Leadbelly, American musician (b. 1888)
  • 1951 – Harold Ross, American magazine editor (b. 1892)
  • 1955 – Honus Wagner, baseball player (b. 1874)
  • 1956 – Dr. Bhimji Ramji Ambedkar, Indian Minister of Law and architect of The Constitution of India (b. 1891)
  • 1961 – Frantz Fanon, West Indian psychiatrist and writer (b. 1925)
  • 1964 – Consuelo Vanderbilt (b. 1877)
  • 1972 – Janet Munro, British actress (b. 1934)
  • 1976 – João Goulart, President of Brazil (b. 1918)
  • 1983 – Lucienne Boyer, French singer (b. 1903)
  • 1985 – Burr Tillstrom, American puppeteer (b. 1917)
  • 1988 – Roy Orbison, American singer, guitarist, and songwriter (b. 1936)
  • 1989 – Frances Bavier, American actress (b. 1902)
  • 1989 – Sammy Fain, American popular music composer (b. 1902)
  • 1989 – John Payne, American movie actor (b. 1912)
  • 1990 – Pavlos Sidiropoulos, Greek singer and songwriter (b. 1948)
  • 1991 – Sir Richard Stone, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1913)
  • 1992 – Mimi Smith, maternal aunt and guardian of John Lennon (b. 1914)
  • 1993 – Don Ameche, American actor (b. 1908)
  • 1996 – Pete Rozelle, commissioner of the National Football League (b. 1926)
  • 1997 – Billy Bremner, Scottish footballer (b. 1942)
  • 2000 – Werner Klemperer, German-born actor (b. 1920)
  • 2001 – Sir Peter Blake, New Zealand sailor and environmentalist (b. 1948)
  • 2001 – Charles McClendon, Hall of Fame college football coach (b. 1923)
  • 2002 – Philip Berrigan, American civil rights activist (b. 1923)
  • 2003 – Hans Hotter, German bass-baritone (b. 1909)
  • 2003 – Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio, President of Guatemala (b. 1918)
  • 2003 – Jerry Tuite, American professional wrestler (b. 1966)
  • 2004 – Raymond Goethals, Belgian football coach (b. 1921)
  • 2005 – Charly Gaul, Luxembourg cyclist (b. 1932)
  • 2005 – Devan Nair, 3rd President of Singapore (b. 1923)
  • 2005 – Danny Williams, South African-born singer (b. 1942)
  • 2006 – John Feeney, Documentary film-director (b. 1922)
  • 2007 – Katy French, Irish Supermodel and Socialite (b. 1983)

December 6 – Holidays:

  • International – Saint Nicholas Day, where St. Nicholas/Santa Claus leaves little presents in children’s shoes (“Sinterklaas” in Belgium and the Netherlands, “Swiety Mikolaj” in Poland).
  • Roman Catholic saints: Saint Aemilianus
  • Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholicism – St. Nicholas, Bishop of Myra – Patron of the Byzantine Catholic Church
  • Canada – National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women
  • Finland – Independence Day (from Russia, 1917)
  • Spain – Constitution Day

 

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On This Day in History December 5

December 5 – Events:

  • 63 BC – Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations.
  • 663 – Fourth Council of Toledo takes place.
  • 771 – Charlemagne becomes the sole King of the Franks after the death of his brother Carloman.
  • 1082 – Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona is assassinated.
  • 1360 – The French Franc is created.
  • 1408 – Emir Edigu of Golden Horde reaches Moscow.
  • 1484 – Pope Innocent VIII issues the Summis desiderantes, a papal bull that deputizes Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger as inquisitors to root out alleged witchcraft in Germany and leads to one of the severest witch hunts in European history.
  • 1492 – Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to set foot on the island of Hispaniola.
  • 1496 – King Manuel I of Portugal issues a decree of expulsion of “heretics” from the country.
  • 1590 – Niccolò Sfondrati becomes Pope Gregory XIV.
  • 1746 – Revolt in Genoa against the Spanish rule.
  • 1757 – Seven Years’ War: Battle of Leuthen – Frederick II of Prussia leads Prussian forces to a decisive victory over Austrian forces under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine.
  • 1766 – In London, James Christie holds his first sale.
  • 1775 – At Fort Ticonderoga, Henry Knox begins his historic transport of artillery to Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  • 1776 – In the Apollo Room of the Raleigh Tavern in Williamsburg, Virginia, students from the College of William and Mary meet for the first time founding Phi Beta Kappa, the first scholastic fraternity in the United States.
  • 1815 – Foundation of Maceió in Brazil.
  • 1831 – Former US President John Quincy Adams takes his seat in the House of Representatives.
  • 1847 – Jefferson Davis is elected to the US senate, his first political post.
  • 1848 – California Gold Rush: In a message before the U.S. Congress, US President James K. Polk confirms that large amounts of gold had been discovered in California.
  • 1865 – Chincha Islands War: Peru allies with Chile against Spain.
  • 1892 – Sir John Thompson becomes the fourth Prime Minister of Canada.
  • 1893 – First appearance of an electric car.
  • 1914 – The Italian Parliament proclaims the neutrality of the country.
  • 1920 – Dimitrios Rallis forms a government in Greece.
  • 1926 – Sergei Eisenstein’s The Battleship Potemkin premieres.
  • 1932 – German-born Swiss physicist Albert Einstein is granted an American visa.
  • 1933 – Prohibition in the United States ends: Utah becomes the 36th U.S. state to ratify the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution, thus establishing the required 75% of states needed to enact the amendment (this overturned the 18th Amendment which had outlawed alcohol in the United States).
  • 1934 – Abyssinia Crisis: Italian troops attack Wal Wal in Abyssinia, taking four days to capture the city.
  • 1936 – The Soviet Union adopts a new constitution and the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic is established as a full Union Republic of the USSR.
  • 1941 – World War II: In the Battle of Moscow Georgy Zhukov launches a massive Soviet counter-attack against the German army, with the biggest offensive launched against Army Group Centre.
  • 1941 – World War II: Great Britain declares war on Finland, Hungary and Romania.
  • 1943 – World War II: U.S. Army Air Force begin attacking Germany’s secret weapons bases in Operation Crossbow .
  • 1944 – World War II: Allied troops occupy Ravenna.
  • 1945 – Flight 19 is lost in the Bermuda Triangle.
  • 1952 – Great Smog of 1952: A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.
  • 1955 – The American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations merge and form the AFL-CIO.
  • 1955 – E.D. Nixon and Rosa Parks lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
  • 1957 – Sukarno expels all Dutch people from Indonesia.
  • 1958 – Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) is inaugurated in the UK by Queen Elizabeth II when she speaks to the Lord Provost in a call from Bristol to Edinburgh.
  • 1958 – The Preston bypass, the UK’s first stretch of motorway, opens to traffic for the first time. It is now part of the M6 and M55 motorways.
  • 1964 – Vietnam War: For his heroism in battle earlier in the year, Captain Roger Donlon is  awarded the first Medal of Honor of the war.
  • 1969 – Life Magazine reports the My Lai Massacre .
  • 1970 – Premiere of Dario Fo’s Morte accidentale di un anarchico.
  • 1976 – The United Nations General Assembly adopts Pakistan’s resolution on security of non-Nuclear States.
  • 1977 – Egypt breaks diplomatic relations with Syria, Libya, Algeria, Iraq and South Yemen. The move is in retaliation for the Declaration of Tripoli against Egypt.
  • 1978 – The Soviet Union signs a “friendship treaty” with the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
  • 1979 – Sonia Johnson is formally excommunicated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for her outspoken criticism of the church concerning the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.
  • 1983 – Dissolution of the Military Junta in Argentina.
  • 1983 – ICIMOD established and inaugurated with its headquarters in Kathmandu, Nepal, and legitimized through an Act of Parliament in Nepal in the same year.
  • 1993 – The mayor of Wien (Vienna), Helmut Zilk, is wounded by a letter bomb.
  • 1995 – The Sri Lankan government announces the conquest of Tamil stronghold of Jaffna.
  • 2005 – The Lake Tanganyika earthquake causes significant damage, mostly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • 2005 – The Civil Partnership Act comes into effect in the United Kingdom, and the first civil partnership is registered there.
  • 2006 – Commodore Frank Bainimarama overthrows the government in Fiji.
  • 2007 – Westroads Mall massacre: A gunman opens fire with a semi-automatic rifle at an Omaha, Nebraska mall, killing eight people before taking his own life.

December 5 – Birthdays:

  • 1377 – Jianwen Emperor of China (d. 1402)
  • 1443 – Pope Julius II (d. 1513)
  • 1495 – Nicolas Cleynaerts, Flemish grammarian (d. 1542)
  • 1537 – Ashikaga Yoshiaki, Japanese shogun (d. 1597)
  • 1539 – Fausto Paolo Sozzini, Italian theologian (d. 1604)
  • 1547 – Ubbo Emmius, Dutch historian and geographer (d. 1625)
  • 1595 – Henry Lawes, English composer (d. 1662)
  • 1661 – Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, English statesman (d. 1724)
  • 1687 – Francesco Geminiani, Italian violinist and composer (d. 1762)
  • 1782 – Martin Van Buren, 8th President of the United States (d. 1862)
  • 1803 – Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev, Russian poet (d. 1873)
  • 1820 – Afanasy Fet, Russian poet (d. 1892)
  • 1822 – Elizabeth Cabot Agassiz, American college president (d. 1907)
  • 1829 – Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, French Canadian politician (d. 1908)
  • 1830 – Christina Rossetti, English poet (d. 1894)
  • 1839 – George Armstrong Custer, American general (d. 1876)
  • 1841 – Marcus Daly, American mining tycoon (d. 1900)
  • 1855 – Clinton Hart Merriam, American ornithologist (d. 1942)
  • 1859 – John Jellicoe, British admiral (d. 1935)
  • 1863 – Paul Painlevé, French mathematician (d. 1933)
  • 1867 – Józef Pilsudski, Polish revolutionary and statesman (d. 1935)
  • 1867 – Antti Aarne, Finnish folklorist (d. February 2, 1925)
  • 1868 – Arnold Sommerfeld, German physicist (d. 1951)
  • 1869 – Ellis Parker Butler, American author (d. 1937)
  • 1870 – Vítezslav Novák, Czech composer (d. 1949)
  • 1871 – Bill Pickett, American rodeo performer (d. 1932)
  • 1872 – Harry Nelson Pillsbury, American chess player (d. 1906)
  • 1875 – Sir Arthur Currie, Canadian soldier (d. 1933)
  • 1879 – Clyde Cessna, American airplane manufacturer (d. 1954)
  • 1886 – Rose Wilder Lane, American writer and reporter, daughter of ‘Little House’ books writer Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1968)
  • 1890 – David Bomberg, English painter (d. 1957)
  • 1890 – Fritz Lang, Austrian-born film director (d. 1976)
  • 1892 – Ferdinand Schörner, German field marshal (d. 1973)
  • 1895 – Elbert Frank Cox, American mathematician (d. 1969)
  • 1896 – Carl Ferdinand Cori, Austrian-born biochemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1984)
  • 1897 – Nunnally Johnson, American screenwriter and producer (d. 1977)
  • 1898 – Josh Malihabadi, Urdu poet of India and Pakistan (d. 1982)
  • 1898 – Grace Moore, American soprano (d. 1947)
  • 1899 – Sonny Boy Williamson II, American blues musician (d. 1965)
  • 1901 – Walt Disney, American animated film producer (d. 1966)
  • 1901 – Milton H. Erickson, American psychiatrist (d. 1980)
  • 1901 – Werner Heisenberg, German physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1976)
  • 1902 – Strom Thurmond, American politician (d. 2003)
  • 1903 – Johannes Heesters, Dutch singer and actor
  • 1903 – Cecil Frank Powell, English physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1969)
  • 1905 – Gus Mancuso, American baseball player (d. 1984)
  • 1906 – Otto Preminger, Austrian-born film director, producer, and actor (d. 1986)
  • 1907 – Giuseppe Occhialini, Italian physicist (d. 1993)
  • 1910 – Abraham Polonsky, American screenwriter (d. 1999)
  • 1911 – Wladyslaw Szpilman, Polish pianist (d. 2000)
  • 1914 – Hans Hellmut Kirst, German author (d. 1989)
  • 1917 – Ken Downing, English racing driver (d. 2004)
  • 1921 – Alvy Moore, American actor (d. 1997)
  • 1925 – Anastasio Somoza, President of Nicaragua (d. 1980)
  • 1927 – Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand
  • 1932 – Sheldon Lee Glashow, American physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1932 – Little Richard, American singer and pianist
  • 1934 – Joan Didion, American writer
  • 1934 – Nikos Kourkoulos, Greek actor, artistic director of the National Theatre of Greece (d. 2007)
  • 1935 – Calvin Trillin, American writer
  • 1935 – Yury Vlasov, Soviet weightlifter
  • 1936 – James Lee Burke, American writer
  • 1938 – J. J. Cale, American songwriter
  • 1940 – Boris Ignatyev, Russian footballer and manager
  • 1940 – Peter Pohl, Swedish writer
  • 1940 – Adrian Street, Welsh professional wrestler
  • 1943 – Eva Joly, Norwegian-born French magistrate
  • 1944 – Jeroen Krabbé, Dutch actor
  • 1945 – Serge Chapleau, French Canadian caricaturist
  • 1946 – José Carreras, Spanish tenor
  • 1947 – Bruce Golding, Jamaican politician
  • 1947 – Tony Gregory, Irish politician
  • 1947 – Jim Messina, American musician (Buffalo Springfield, Loggins and Messina)
  • 1947 – Jim Plunkett, former National Football League quarterback
  • 1949 – Ray Comfort, New Zealand evangelist
  • 1950 – Camarón de la Isla, Spanish flamenco singer (d. 1992)
  • 1950 – Osvaldo Golijov, Argentine-born composer
  • 1951 – Morgan Brittany, American actress
  • 1951 – Anne-Mie van Kerckhoven, Belgian artist
  • 1952 – Andy Kim, Canadian singer, songwriter
  • 1953 – Larry Zbyszko, American professional wrestler
  • 1956 – Klaus Allofs, German footballer
  • 1956 – Brian Backer, American actor
  • 1956 – Krystian Zimerman, Polish pianist
  • 1957 – Art Monk, American football player
  • 1958 – Dean Erickson, American actor
  • 1960 – Jack Russell, American singer (Great White)
  • 1962 – José Cura, Argentine tenor
  • 1963 – Doctor Dre, American radio personality
  • 1963 – Eddie “the Eagle” Edwards, English ski jumper
  • 1963 – Carrie Hamilton, American actress (d. 2002)
  • 1965 – Johnny Rzeznik, American singer, songwriter and guitarist (Goo Goo Dolls)
  • 1965 – Wayne Smith, Jamaican reggae musician
  • 1966 – Patricia Kaas, French singer
  • 1967 – Gary Allan, American country musician
  • 1967 – Konstantin-Assen, Prince of Vidin, titular Bulgarian royal family
  • 1968 – Margaret Cho, American comedian and actress
  • 1968 – Lisa Marie, American model and actress
  • 1969 – Morgan J. Freeman, American film director
  • 1969 – Lewis Gordon Pugh, English swimmer, polar explorer and motivational speaker
  • 1970 – Kevin Haller, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1971 – Kali Rocha, American actress
  • 1972 – Cliff Floyd, American baseball player
  • 1972 – Mike Mahoney, American baseball player
  • 1972 – Angela Shelton, American actress & writer
  • 1973 – Shalom Harlow, Canadian supermodel and actress
  • 1973 – Luboš Motl, Czech physicist
  • 1973 – Danielle Winits, Brazilian Actress
  • 1974 – Charlie Batch, National Football League quarterback
  • 1975 – Ronnie O’Sullivan, English snooker player
  • 1975 – Paula Patton, American actress
  • 1976 – Amy Acker, American actress
  • 1976 – Xavier Garbajosa, French rugby union footballer
  • 1978 – Olli Jokinen, Finnish ice hockey player
  • 1978 – Marcelo Zalayeta, Uruguayan footballer
  • 1979 – Matteo Ferrari, Italian footballer
  • 1979 – Niklas Hagman, Finnish ice hockey player
  • 1979 – Evonne Hsu, Taiwanese singer
  • 1979 – Gareth McAuley, Northern Irish footballer
  • 1979 – Nick Stahl, American actor
  • 1980 – Shizuka Ito, Japanese voice actress (seiyu)
  • 1980 – Ibrahim Maalouf, Lebanese-born French trumpeter
  • 1981 – Leila Tong, Hong Kong actress
  • 1982 – Eddy Curry, American basketball player
  • 1982 – Trai Essex, National Football League defensive lineman
  • 1984 – Chris Solinsky, American distance runner
  • 1985 – Frankie Muniz, American actor
  • 1985 – Josh Smith, American basketball player
  • 1985 – Nico Verdonck, Belgian racing driver
  • 1988 – Ross Bagley, American actor
  • 1992 – Giorgio Cantarini, Italian actor

December 5 – Deaths:

  • 749 – Saint John of Damascus, theologian
  • 1082 – Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona
  • 1355 – John III, Duke of Brabant (b. 1300)
  • 1560 – King Francis II of France (b. 1544)
  • 1570 – Johan Friis, Danish statesman (b. 1494)
  • 1624 – Gaspard Bauhin, Swiss botanist (b. 1560)
  • 1654 – Jean François Sarrazin, French writer
  • 1663 – Severo Bonini, Italian composer (b. 1582)
  • 1749 – Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de la Vérendrye, New French explorer and trader   (b. 1685)
  • 1758 – Johann Friedrich Fasch, German composer (b. 1688)
  • 1770 – James Stirling, Scottish mathematician (b. 1692)
  • 1784 – Phillis Wheatley, African-American poet (b. 1753)
  • 1791 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer (b. 1756)
  • 1819 – Friedrich Leopold Graf zu Stolberg, German poet (b. 1750)
  • 1870 – Alexandre Dumas, père, French writer (b. 1802)
  • 1887 – Eliza Roxcy Snow, American poet (b. 1804)
  • 1891 – Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (b. 1825)
  • 1895 – Chief Gall, Sioux chief (b. 1840)
  • 1925 – Wladyslaw Reymont, Polish writer and Nobel laureate (b. 1867)
  • 1926 – Claude Monet, French impressionist painter (b. 1840)
  • 1931 – Vachel Lindsay, American poet (b. 1879)
  • 1940 – Mordechai Frizis, Jewish Greek military officer (b. 1893)
  • 1940 – Jan Kubelík, Austro-Hungarian-born Czechoslovak violinist (b. 1880)
  • 1950 – Shri Aurobindo, Indian guru (b. 1872)
  • 1951 – “Shoeless” Joe Jackson, American baseball player (b. 1889)
  • 1951 – Abanindranath Tagore, Indian writer (b. 1871)
  • 1953 – Jorge Negrete, Mexican singer and actor (b. 1911)
  • 1955 – Glenn L. Martin, American aviation pioneer (b. 1886)
  • 1963 – Karl Amadeus Hartmann, German composer (b. 1905)
  • 1963 – Sri Deep Narayan Mahaprabhuji, Indian Hindu mystic
  • 1963 – Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Prime Minister of Pakistan (b. 1892)
  • 1965 – Joseph Erlanger, American physiologist, Nobel laureate (b. 1874)
  • 1966 – Sylvère Maes, Belgian cyclist (b. 1909)
  • 1968 – Fred Clark, American actor (b. 1914)
  • 1969 – Claudius Dornier, German aircraft designer (b. 1884)
  • 1973 – Robert Watson-Watt, Scottish engineer, inventor of radar (b. 1892)
  • 1977 – Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Soviet military commander (b. 1895)
  • 1983 – Robert Aldrich, American film director (b. 1918)
  • 1984 – Adam Malik, Third Vice President of Indonesia (b. 1917)
  • 1986 – Sir Edward Youde, Governor of Hong Kong (b. 1924)
  • 1989 – Sir John Pritchard, English conductor (b. 1921)
  • 1991 – Robert Karvelas, American actor (b. 1921)
  • 1991 – Richard Speck, American mass murderer (b. 1941)
  • 1993 – Doug Hopkins, American guitarist and songwriter (Gin Blossoms) (b. 1961)
  • 1994 – Harry Horner, American art director (b. 1910)
  • 1995 – Lisa McPherson, Former Scientologist (b. 1959)
  • 1998 – Al Gore, Sr., American politician (b. 1907)
  • 2001 – Franco Rasetti, Italian physicist (b. 1901)
  • 2002 – Roone Arledge, American sports broadcasting pioneer (b. 1931)
  • 2002 – Ne Win, Burmese leader (b. 1911)
  • 2005 – Ed Masry, American lawyer (b. 1932)
  • 2005 – Kevin “Big Kev” McQuay, Australian businessman (b. 1949)
  • 2005 – Frits Philips, Dutch businessman (b. 1905)
  • 2006 – David Bronstein, Ukrainian-born chess grandmaster (b. 1924)
  • 2007 – Karlheinz Stockhausen, German composer (b. 1928)
  • 2007 – Andrew Imbrie, American composer (b. 1921)

December 5 – Holidays:

  • Roman festivals – Faunalia celebrated in honor of Faunus (according to Horace, Odes 3.18)
  • Austria – Krampus
  • Belgium, Czech Republic, Slovakia, the Netherlands and the UK – Saint Nicholas Eve (whom Dutch speakers call Sinterklaas, which became in other languages Santa Claus)
  • Thailand – The King’s Birthday, National Day, Father’s Day
  • Saint Abercius
  • Day of the Ninja

 

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On This Day in History December 4

December 4 – Events:

  • 771 – Austrasian King Carloman dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne King of the now complete Frankish Kingdom.
  • 1110 – First Crusade: The Crusaders conquer Sidon.
  • 1259 – Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agree to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounces his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.
  • 1563 – The final session of the Council of Trent is held (it opened on December 13, 1545).
  • 1619 – 38 colonists from Berkeley Parish in England disembark in Virginia and give thanks to God (this is considered by many to be the first Thanksgiving in the Americas).
  • 1674 – Father Jacques Marquette founds a mission on the shores of Lake Michigan to minister to the Illiniwek (the mission would later grow into the city of Chicago, Illinois).
  • 1676 – Battle of Lund: A Danish army under the command of King Christian V of Denmark  engages the Swedish army commanded by Field Marshal Simon Grundel-Helmfelt.
  • 1783 – At Fraunces Tavern in New York City, US General George Washington formally bids his officers farewell.
  • 1791 – The first issue of The Observer, the world’s first Sunday newspaper, is published.
  • 1829 – In the face of fierce opposition, British governor Lord William Bentinck issues a regulation declaring that all who abetted suttee in India were guilty of culpable homicide.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea – At Waynesboro, Georgia, forces under Union General Judson Kilpatrick prevent troops led by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler from interfering with Union General William T. Sherman’s campaign destroying a wide swath of the South on his march to the Atlantic Ocean from Atlanta, Georgia. Union forces did suffer more than three times the Confederate casualties, however.
  • 1867 – Former Minnesota farmer Oliver Hudson Kelley founds the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry (better known today as the Grange).
  • 1872 – The crewless American ship Mary Celeste is found by the British brig Dei Gratia (the ship was abandoned for 9 days but was only slightly damaged).
  • 1875 – Notorious New York City politician Boss Tweed escapes from prison and flees to Cuba, then Spain.
  • 1881 – The first edition of the Los Angeles Times is published.
  • 1906 – Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc., the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity in the United States established for men of African descent, is founded at Cornell University.
  • 1918 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson sails for the World War I peace talks in Versailles,  becoming the first US president to travel to Europe while in office.
  • 1921 – The Virginia Rappe manslaughter trial against Roscoe ‘Fatty’ Arbuckle ends in a hung jury.
  • 1942 – Holocaust: In Warsaw, Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Filipowicz set up the Zegota organization.
  • 1943 – World War II: In Yugoslavia, resistance leader Marshal Tito proclaims a provisional democratic Yugoslav government in-exile.
  • 1943 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt closes down the Works Progress Administration, because of the high levels of wartime employment in the United States.
  • 1945 – By a vote of 65 to 7, the United States Senate approves United States participation in the United Nations (the UN was established on October 24, 1945).
  • 1951 – Mir Waiz Maulvi Muhammad Yusouf is appointed President of Azad Kashmir Government.
  • 1952 – Great Smog of 1952: A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.
  • 1957 – Lewisham Rail Crash in south-east London kills 90 people and injured 167, when two trains collide in thick fog.
  • 1958 – Dahomey (present-day Benin) becomes a self-governing country within the French Community.
  • 1967 – Vietnam War: US and South Vietnamese forces engage Viet Cong troops in the Mekong Delta.
  • 1969 – Black Panther Party members Fred Hampton and Mark Clark are shot and killed in  their sleep during a raid by 14 Chicago police officers.
  • 1971 – The UN Security Council calls an emergency session to consider the deteriorating situation between India and Pakistan.
  • 1971 – The Indian Navy attacks the Pakistan Navy and Karachi.
  • 1971 – The Montreux Casino in Switzerland is set ablaze by someone wielding a flare gun during a Frank Zappa concert; the incident would be noted in the Deep Purple song “Smoke on the Water.”
  • 1977 – Jean-Bédel Bokassa, president of the Central African Republic, crowns himself Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire.
  • 1977 – Malaysia Airlines Flight 653 is hijacked and crashes in Tanjong Kupang, Johor, killing 100.
  • 1978 – Following the murder of Mayor George Moscone, Dianne Feinstein becomes San Francisco, California’s first female mayor (she served until January 8, 1988).
  • 1979 – The Hastie fire in Hull, kills three schoolboys and eventually leads police to arrest Bruce George Peter Lee.
  • 1981 – South Africa grants independence to the Ciskei “homeland” (not recognized by any government outside South Africa).
  • 1982 – The People’s Republic of China adopts its current constitution.
  • 1984 – Hezbollah militants hijack a Kuwait Airlines plane, killing four passengers.
  • 1991 – Journalist Terry A. Anderson is released after 7 years in captivity as a hostage in Beirut. He was the last and longest-held American hostage in Lebanon.
  • 1991 – Captain Mark Pyle pilots Clipper Goodwill, a Pan American World Airways Boeing 727-221ADV, to Miami International Airport ending 64 years of Pan Am operations.
  • 1992 – Somali Civil War: President George H. W. Bush orders 28,000 US troops to Somalia, east Africa.
  • 1993 – A truce is concluded between the government of Angola and UNITA rebels.
  • 1998 – The Unity Module, the second module of the International Space Station, is launched.
  • 2005 – Tens of thousands of people in Hong Kong protest for democracy and call on the Government to allow universal and equal suffrage.
  • 2006 – An adult giant squid is caught on video by Kubodera near the Ogasawara Islands, 1,000 km (620 miles) south of Tokyo.

December 4 – Birthdays:

  • 1555 – Heinrich Meibom, German historian and poet (d. 1625)
  • 1580 – Samuel Argall, English adventurer and naval officer (d. 1626)
  • 1585 – John Cotton, American Puritan leader (d. 1652)
  • 1595 – Jean Chapelain, French writer (d. 1674)
  • 1612 – Samuel Butler, English poet (d. 1680)
  • 1646 – Alain Emmanuel de Coëtlogon, Marshal of France (d. 1730)
  • 1660 – André Campra, French composer (d. 1744)
  • 1670 – John Aislabie, English politician (d. 1742)
  • 1711 – Barbara of Portugal, queen of Spain (d. 1758)
  • 1713 – Gasparo Gozzi, Italian critic and dramatist (d. 1786)
  • 1777 – Juliette Récamier, French socialite (d. 1849)
  • 1795 – Thomas Carlyle, Scottish writer and historian (d. 1881)
  • 1798 – Jules Armand Dufaure, French statesman (d. 1881)
  • 1835 – Samuel Butler, English writer (d. 1902)
  • 1840 – Crazy Horse, Oglala Sioux chief (d. 1877)
  • 1844 – Franz Xavier Wernz, German Superior General of the Society of Jesus (d. 1914)
  • 1852 – Orest Khvolson, Russian physicist (d. 1934)
  • 1861 – Lillian Russell, American singer and actress (d. 1922)
  • 1866 (O.S.) – Wassily Kandinsky, Russian-born painter (d. 1944)
  • 1868 – Jesse Burkett, American baseball player (d. 1953)
  • 1875 – Joe Corbett, American baseball player (d. 1945)
  • 1875 – Rainer Maria Rilke, Austrian poet (d. 1926)
  • 1881 – Erwin von Witzleben, German field marshal (d. 1944)
  • 1889 – Lloyd Bacon, American actor and film director (d. 1955)
  • 1892 – Francisco Franco, dictator of Spain (d. 1975)
  • 1895 – Fung Yu-lan, Chinese philosopher (d. 1990)
  • 1899 – Charles William (Charlie) Spencer Newcastle and England football player (d. 1953)
  • 1903 – Cornell Woolrich, American writer (d. 1968)
  • 1908 – Alfred Hershey, American bacteriologist, Nobel laureate (d. 1997)
  • 1909 – Jimmy Jewel, English actor (d. 1995)
  • 1910 – Alex North, American film music composer (d. 1991)
  • 1912 – Pappy Boyington, American pilot (d. 1988)
  • 1913 – Mark Robson, Canadian-born film director and producer (d. 1978)
  • 1914 – Rudolf Hausner, Austrian artist (d. 1995)
  • 1914 – Claude Renoir, French cinematographer (d. 1993)
  • 1915 – Eddie Heywood, American jazz musician (d. 1989)
  • 1916 – Ely Jacques Kahn, Jr., American writer (d. 1994)
  • 1921 – Deanna Durbin, Canadian actress
  • 1922 – Gérard Philipe, French actor (d. 1959)
  • 1922 – Charles Keating, American lawyer
  • 1924 – John Portman, American architect
  • 1928 – Dena Dietrich, American actress
  • 1930 – Ronnie Corbett, Scottish actor
  • 1930 – Jim Hall, American jazz guitarist
  • 1931 – Alex Delvecchio, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1931 – Wally George, American TV commentator (d. 2003)
  • 1932 – Roh Tae-woo, President of South Korea
  • 1933 – Horst Buchholz, German-born actor (d. 2003)
  • 1934 – Victor French, American actor (d. 1989)
  • 1934 – Wink Martindale, American game show host
  • 1935 – Robert Vesco, American financier and fugitive
  • 1937 – Max Baer, Jr., American actor
  • 1938 – Yvonne Minton, Australian soprano
  • 1939 – Freddy Cannon, American musician
  • 1940 – Gary Gilmore, American murderer (d. 1977)
  • 1942 – Chris Hillman, American singer (The Byrds)
  • 1942 – Gemma Jones, English actress
  • 1944 – Anna McGarrigle, Canadian folk music singer and songwriter
  • 1944 – François Migault, French racing driver
  • 1944 – Dennis Wilson, American musician (The Beach Boys) (d. 1983)
  • 1945 – Roberta Bondar, Canadian astronaut
  • 1947 – Terry Woods, Irish musician (The Pogues, Steeleye Span)
  • 1948 – Southside Johnny, American singer
  • 1949 – Jeff Bridges, American actor
  • 1949 – Pamela Stephenson, New Zealand-born actress
  • 1951 – Gary Rossington, American musician (Lynyrd Skynyrd)
  • 1951 – Patricia Wettig, American actress
  • 1953 – Rick Middleton, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1954 – Tony Todd, American actor and producer
  • 1955 – Dave Taylor, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1956 – Bernard King, American basketball player
  • 1957 – Raul Boesel, Brazilian racing driver
  • 1957 – Eric S. Raymond, American open source advocate
  • 1959 – Susan W Krebs, American politician
  • 1959 – Paul McGrath, Irish footballer
  • 1959 – Christa Rothenburger, German speed skater and cyclist
  • 1960 – David Green, American baseball player
  • 1960 – Glynis Nunn, Australian athlete
  • 1961 – Frank Reich, American football player
  • 1962 – Kevin Richardson, English footballest
  • 1963 – Sergei Bubka, Ukrainian pole vaulter
  • 1964 – Marisa Tomei, American actress
  • 1964 – Jonathan Goldstein, American actor
  • 1964 – Sertab Erener, Turkish singer
  • 1964 – Chelsea Noble, American actress
  • 1965 – Álex de la Iglesia, Spanish film director
  • 1966 – Fred Armisen, American actor and musician
  • 1966 – Chris Shepherd, English film director
  • 1969 – Jay-Z, American rapper
  • 1970 – Kevin Sussman, American actor
  • 1970 – Sylvester Terkay, American professional wrestler
  • 1971 – Shannon Briggs, American boxer
  • 1972 – Jassen Cullimore, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1972 – Nikki Tyler, American actress
  • 1973 – Tyra Banks, American supermodel
  • 1973 – Ferry Corsten, Dutch musician and DJ
  • 1973 – Steven Menzies, Australian rugby league footballer
  • 1973 – Kate Rusby, English folk singer
  • 1974 – Tadahito Iguchi, Japanese baseball player
  • 1976 – Amie Comeaux, American singer (d. 1997)
  • 1976 – Kristina Groves, Canadian speed skater
  • 1977 – Big Pokey, American rapper
  • 1978 – Michele Di Piedi, Italian footballer
  • 1978 – Jaclyn Victor, Malaysian singer
  • 1979 – Jay DeMerit, American soccer player
  • 1982 – Ho-Pin Tung, Dutch-Chinese racing driver
  • 1983 – Jimmy Bartel, Australian rules footballer
  • 1984 – Brooke Adams, American model
  • 1984 – Lindsay Felton, American actress
  • 1984 – Lauren London, American actress
  • 1985 – Andrew Brackman, American baseball player
  • 1985 – Carlos Gómez, Dominican baseball player
  • 1986 – Martell Webster, American basketball player

December 4 – Deaths:

  • 765 – Jafar Sadiq, Shia Imam (b. 702)
  • 771 – Carloman, King of the Franks (b. 751)
  • 1075 – Archbishop Anno II of Cologne
  • 1123 – Omar Khayyám, Persian poet, astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher (b.
  • 1048)
  • 1214 – William I of Scotland
  • 1270 – Theobald V of Champagne, King of Navarre
  • 1334 – Pope John XXII (b. 1249)
  • 1340 – Henry Burghersh, English bishop and chancellor (b. 1292)
  • 1459 – Adolf VIII, Duke of Southern Jutland (b. 1401)
  • 1576 – Rheticus, Austrian mathematician (b. 1514)
  • 1585 – John Willock, Scottish reformer
  • 1609 – Alexander Hume, Scottish poet
  • 1642 – Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, French statesman (b. 1585)
  • 1649 – William Drummond of Hawthornden, Scottish poet (b. 1585)
  • 1679 – Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (b. 1588)
  • 1680 – Thomas Bartholin, Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian (b. 1616)
  • 1696 – Empress Meisho, Japan (b. 1624)
  • 1732 – John Gay, English poet and dramatist (b. 1685)
  • 1798 – Luigi Galvani, Italian physicist (b. 1737)
  • 1828 – Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1770)
  • 1902 – Charles Dow, American journalist (Dow Jones & Company – Wall Street Journal) (b. 1851)
  • 1926 – Ivana Kobilca, Slovenian-born painter (b. 1861)
  • 1933 – Stefan George, German poet (b. 1868)
  • 1935 – Johan Halvorsen, Norwegian composer (b. 1864)
  • 1935 – Charles Robert Richet, French physiologist, Nobel laureate (b. 1850)
  • 1944 – Roger Bresnahan, American baseball player (b. 1879)
  • 1945 – Thomas Hunt Morgan, American geneticist, Nobel laureate (b. 1866)
  • 1956 – Alexandr Rodchenko, Russian painter and photographer (b. 1891)
  • 1967 – Bert Lahr, American actor (b. 1895)
  • 1969 – Fred Hampton, American activist (b. 1948)
  • 1975 – Hannah Arendt, German political theorist (b. 1906)
  • 1976 – Tommy Bolin, American guitarist (b. 1951)
  • 1976 – Benjamin Britten, English composer (b. 1913)
  • 1976 – W. F. McCoy, Northern Irish politician (b. 1886)
  • 1980 – Francisco Sá Carneiro, Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1934)
  • 1980 – Stanislawa Walasiewicz (Stella Walsh), Polish-born athlete (b. 1911)
  • 1987 – Rouben Mamoulian, Armenian-American film director (b. 1897)
  • 1993 – Frank Zappa, American musician and composer (b. 1940)
  • 1995 – Lionel Giroux (Little Beaver), Canadian midget wrestler (b. 1935)
  • 1997 – Richard Vernon, English actor (b. 1925)
  • 1999 – Rose Bird, American judge (b. 1936)
  • 2003 – Iggy Katona, American race car driver (b. 1916)
  • 2004 – Elena Souliotis, Greek soprano (b. 1943)
  • 2005 – Errol Brathwaite, New Zealand author (b. 1924)
  • 2005 – Gregg Hoffman, American film producer (b.1963)
  • 2005 – Gloria Lasso, French-Spanish singer (b. 1922)
  • 2006 – James Kim, American television personality (b. 1971)
  • 2007 – Norval Morrisseau, Canadian artist (b. 1932)
  • 2007 – Pimp C, American rapper (UGK) (b. 1973)
  • 2007 – Chip Reese, American professional poker player (b. 1951)

December 4 – Holidays:

  • Roman festivals – secret ceremonies in honor of Bona Dea
  • Calendar of Saints – Saint John of Damascus: optional memorial; also the Great Martyr Saint Barbara, St. Ada (feast day)
  • Barbórka – Miners’ Day in Poland
  • First day that rain is prayed for in the Diaspora in Judaism. It is notably the only Jewish day which is tied to the civil calendar.
  • Santería, Lukumí – Day of Shango
  • Navy Day in India

 

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On This Day in History December 3

December 3 – Events:

  • 1800 – War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French General Moreau defeats the Austrian Archduke John near Munich decisively, coupled with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte’s victory at Marengo effectively forcing the Austrians to sign an armistice and ending the war.
  • 1805 – Lewis and Clark Expedition mark their explorations from the Missouri River overland to the Columbia River on a pine tree.
  • 1818 – Illinois becomes the 21st U.S. state.
  • 1854 – Eureka Stockade: In what is claimed by many to be the birth of Australian democracy, more than 20 goldminers at Ballarat, Victoria, Australia are killed by state troopers in an uprising over mining licenses.
  • 1901 – US President Theodore Roosevelt delivers a 20,000-word speech to the House of Representatives asking the Congress to curb the power of trusts “within reasonable limits.”
  • 1904 – The Jovian moon Himalia is discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine at California’s Lick Observatory.
  • 1912 – Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia (the Balkan League) sign an armistice with Turkey, ending the two-month long First Balkan War.
  • 1912 – First Balkan War: The Naval Battle of Elli takes place.
  • 1917 – After nearly 20 years of planning and construction, the Quebec Bridge opens to traffic.
  • 1929 – Great Depression: US President Herbert Hoover announces to the U.S. Congress the worst effects of the recent stock market crash are behind the nation and the American people have regained faith in the economy.
  • 1944 – The Greek Civil War breaks out in a newly-liberated Greece, between communists and royalists.
  • 1964 – Berkeley Free Speech Movement: Police arrest over 800 students at the University of California, Berkeley, following their takeover and sit-in at the administration building in protest at the UC Regents’ decision to forbid protests on UC property.
  • 1967 – At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, a transplant team headed by Christiaan Barnard carries out the first heart transplant on a human (53-year-old Louis Washkansky).
  • 1967 – The luxury train 20th Century Limited completes its last run from New York City to Chicago (the train was inaugurated on June 15, 1902).
  • 1970 – October Crisis: In Montreal, Quebec, kidnapped British Trade Commissioner James Cross is released by the Front de Libération du Québec terrorist group after being held hostage for 60 days. Police negotiate his release and in return the Canadian government grants five terrorists from the FLQ’s Chenier Cell their request for safe passage to Cuba.
  • 1971 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: India invades East Pakistan and a full scale war begins claiming hundreds of lives.
  • 1973 – Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter.
  • 1978 – The Southern Crescent passenger train derails at Shipman, Virginia, killing six, injuring 60.
  • 1979 – In Cincinnati, Ohio, eleven fans are killed during a stampede for seats before a Who concert at Riverfront Coliseum.
  • 1979 – Shadow Traffic begins broadcasting in the New York City metropolitan area.
  • 1982 – A soil sample is taken from Times Beach, Missouri that will be found to contain 300 times the safe level of dioxin.
  • 1984 – Bhopal Disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, kills more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000-600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.
  • 1989 – Cold War: In a meeting off the coast of Malta, US President George H. W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev release statements indicating that the cold war between their nations may be coming to an end (some commentators from both nations exaggerated the wording and independently declared the Cold War over).
  • 1990 – At Detroit Metropolitan Airport, Northwest Airlines Flight 1482 collides with Northwest Airlines Flight 299 on the runway, killing 8 passengers and 4 crew members aboard flight 1482.
  • 1992 – UN Security Council Resolution 794 is unanimously passed, approving a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States to form UNITAF, with the task of establishing peace and ensuring that humanitarian aid is distributed in Somalia.
  • 1992 – The Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, carrying 80,000 tonnes of crude oil, runs aground in a storm while approaching La Coruña, Spain, and spills much of its cargo.
  • 1997 – In Ottawa, Canada, representatives from 121 countries sign a treaty prohibiting manufacture and deployment of anti-personnel landmines. The United States, People’s Republic of China, and Russia do not sign the treaty, however.
  • 1999 – NASA loses radio contact with the Mars Polar Lander moments before the spacecraft enters the Martian atmosphere.
  • 2005 – XCOR Aerospace makes first manned rocket aircraft delivery of US Mail in Mojave, California.
  • 2007 – Devastating winter storms caused the Chehalis River to flood many cities in Lewis County, also closing a 20-mile portion of Interstate 5 for several days. At least eight deaths and billions of dollars of damaged are blamed on the floods.

December 3 – Birthdays:

  • 1368 – King Charles VI of France (d. 1422)
  • 1560 – Jan Gruter, Dutch critic (d. 1627)
  • 1596 – Nicolo Amati, Italian violin maker (d. 1684)
  • 1684 – Ludvig Holberg, Norwegian historian and writer (d. 1754)
  • 1729 – Antonio Soler, Spanish composer (d. 1783)
  • 1755 – Gilbert Stuart, American painter (d. 1828)
  • 1776 – Johann Spurzheim, German neuroscientist (d. 1832)
  • 1800 – France Prešeren, Slovenian poet (d. 1849)
  • 1826 – George B. McClellan, American Civil War general (d. 1885)
  • 1838 – Cleveland Abbe, American meteorologist (d. 1916)
  • 1838 – Octavia Hill, British housing and open-space activist (d. 1912)
  • 1842 – Phoebe Hearst, American socialite (d. 1919)
  • 1842 – Charles Alfred Pillsbury, American industrialist (d. 1899)
  • 1842 – Ellen Swallow Richards, American scientist (d. 1911)
  • 1857 – Joseph Conrad, Polish-born British writer (d. 1924)
  • 1875 – Max Meldrum, Scottish-born Australian painter (d. 1955)
  • 1880 – Fedor von Bock, German field marshal (d. 1945)
  • 1883 – Anton Webern, Austrian composer (d. 1945)
  • 1884 – Rajendra Prasad, first President of India (d. 1963)
  • 1884 – Walther Stampfli, Member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1965)
  • 1886 – Manne Siegbahn, Nobel laureate (d. 1978)
  • 1887 – Naruhiko, Prince Higashikuni of Japan (d. 1990)
  • 1895 – Anna Freud, Austrian-born British psychoanalyst (d. 1982)
  • 1899 – Ikeda Hayato, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1965)
  • 1900 – Ulrich Inderbinen, Swiss mountain guide (d. 2004)
  • 1900 – Richard Kuhn, Austrian-German biochemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1967)
  • 1908 – Edward Underdown, English actor (d. 1989)
  • 1911 – Nino Rota, Italian composer (d. 1979)
  • 1918 – Abdul Haris Nasution, Indonesian general (d. 2000)
  • 1921 – Phyllis Curtin, American soprano
  • 1922 – Sven Nykvist, Swedish cinematographer (d. 2006)
  • 1924 – Roberto Mières, Argentine racing driver
  • 1924 – John Winter, Australian high jumper (d. 2007)
  • 1925 – Ferlin Husky, American singer
  • 1925 – Kim Dae Jung, South Korean President, Nobel laureate
  • 1927 – Andy Williams, American singer
  • 1930 – Jean-Luc Godard, French film director
  • 1931 – Franz Josef Degenhardt, German author
  • 1931 – Jaye P. Morgan, American singer
  • 1932 – Corry Brokken, Dutch singer
  • 1933 – Paul J. Crutzen, Dutch chemist, Nobel laureate
  • 1934 – Viktor Gorbatko, Soviet cosmonaut
  • 1937 – Bobby Allison, American race car driver
  • 1937 – Binod Bihari Verma, Indian linguist
  • 1938 – Jean-Claude Malépart, Quebec politician (d. 1989)
  • 1942 – Alice Schwarzer, German journalist
  • 1946 – Joop Zoetemelk, Dutch cyclist
  • 1948 – Ozzy Osbourne, English singer
  • 1949 – John Akii-Bua, Ugandan athlete (d. 1997)
  • 1949 – Heather Menzies, American actress
  • 1949 – Mickey Thomas, American singer (Jefferson Starship)
  • 1951 – Ray Candy, American professional wrestler (d. 1994)
  • 1951 – Riki Choshu, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1951 – Rick Mears, American race car driver
  • 1951 – John and Greg Rice, American twin dwarves and commercial and infomercial actors
  • 1952 – Mel Smith, English comedian
  • 1953 – Franz Klammer, Austrian skier
  • 1955 – Steven Culp, American actor
  • 1955 – Warren Jeffs, American convicted polygamist
  • 1959 – Eamonn Holmes, Northern Irish TV presenter
  • 1960 – Daryl Hannah, American actress
  • 1960 – Igor Larionov, Russian ice hockey player
  • 1960 – Julianne Moore, American actress
  • 1960 – Mike Ramsey, American ice hockey player
  • 1961 – Adal Ramones, Mexican television host
  • 1963 – Joe Lally, American musician (Fugazi)
  • 1963 – Terri Schiavo, center of right to die case (d. 2005)
  • 1965 – Steve Harris, American actor
  • 1965 – Andrew Stanton, American animator
  • 1965 – Katarina Witt, German figure skater
  • 1968 – Brendan Fraser, American actor
  • 1969 – Bill Steer, British guitarist
  • 1970 – Paul Byrd, American baseball player
  • 1970 – Lindsey Hunter, American basketball player
  • 1970 – Christian Karembeu, French footballer
  • 1971 – Frank Sinclair, Jamaican footballer
  • 1971 – Keegan Connor Tracy, Canadian actress
  • 1972 – Bucky Lasek, American skateboarder
  • 1973 – Holly Marie Combs, American actress
  • 1973 – Super Crazy, Mexican professional wrestler
  • 1973 – Sammy Leung, Hong Kong disc jockey
  • 1975 – Csaba Czébely, Hungarian heavy metal drummer (Pokolgép)
  • 1975 – Mickey Avalon, American rapper
  • 1976 – Gary Glover, American baseball player
  • 1976 – Byron Kelleher, New Zealand rugby union footballer
  • 1976 – Mark Boucher, South African cricketer
  • 1976 – Cornelius Griffin, American football player
  • 1977 – Chad Durbin, American baseball player
  • 1977 – Adam Malysz, Polish ski-jumper
  • 1977 – Troy Evans, American football player
  • 1978 – Trina, American rapper
  • 1979 – Daniel Bedingfield, English singer
  • 1979 – Rainbow Sun Francks, Canadian actor
  • 1979 – Rock Cartwright, American football player
  • 1980 – Anna Chlumsky, American actress
  • 1980 – Jenna Dewan, American actress
  • 1980 – Jim Sorgi, American football player
  • 1981 – Ioannis Amanatidis, Greek footballer
  • 1981 – David Villa, Spanish footballer
  • 1981 – Tyjuan Hagler, American football player
  • 1982 – Michael Essien, Ghanaian footballer
  • 1982 – Jaycee Chan, Hong Kong singer and actor
  • 1983 – Sherri DuPree, American vocalist
  • 1984 – Avraam Papadopoulos, Greek footballer
  • 1985 – Amanda Seyfried, American actress
  • 1985 – Marcus Darrell Williams, American basketball player
  • 1987 – Michael Angarano, American actor
  • 1992 – Joseph McManners, English actor
  • 1994 – Jake T. Austin American actor
  • 2005 – Prince Sverre Magnus of Norway

December 3 – Deaths:

  • 1154 – Pope Anastasius IV
  • 1265 – Odofredus, Italian jurist
  • 1533 – Vasili III, Grand Prince of Moscow (b. 1479)
  • 1552 – St Francis Xavier, Jesuit missionary to the East (b. 1506)
  • 1610 – Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general (b. 1548)
  • 1706 – Emilie Juliane of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, German countess and hymn writer (b. 1637)
  • 1765 – Lord John Philip Sackville, British cricketer (b. 1713)
  • 1789 – Claude Joseph Vernet, French painter (b. 1714)
  • 1815 – John Carroll (priest), first Roman Catholic archbishop in the U.S. (b. 1735)
  • 1845 – Gregor MacGregor, Scottish con-man (b. 1786)
  • 1882 – Archibald Campbell Tait, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1811)
  • 1888 – Carl Zeiss, German lens maker (b. 1816)
  • 1890 – Billy Midwinter, Australian cricketer (b. 1851)
  • 1892 – Afanasy Fet, Russian poet (b. 1820)
  • 1894 – Robert Louis Stevenson, British writer (b. 1850)
  • 1902 – Robert Lawson, New Zealand architect (b. 1833)
  • 1910 – Mary Baker Eddy, Founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist (b. 1821)
  • 1912 – Prudente José de Morais Barros, President of Brazil (b. 1841)
  • 1919 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French impressionist painter (b. 1841)
  • 1934 – Charles James O’Donnell, Irish politician (b. 1849)
  • 1941 – Pavel Filonov, Russian painter (b. 1883)
  • 1949 – Maria Ouspenskaya, Russian-born American actress (b. 1876)
  • 1955 – Cow Cow Davenport, American pianist (b. 1894)
  • 1967 – Harry Wismer, American original owner of the New York Jets (b. 1913)
  • 1969 – Mathias Wieman, German actor (b. 1902)
  • 1972 – Bill Johnson, American musician (b. 1872)
  • 1973 – Emile Christian, American musician (b. 1895)
  • 1979 – Dhyan Chand, Indian field hockey player (b. 1905)
  • 1980 – Oswald Mosley, British politician (b. 1896)
  • 1981 – Walter Knott, American farmer (b. 1889)
  • 1984 – Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin, Russian mathematician (b. 1919)
  • 1993 – Lewis Thomas, American physician and essayist (b. 1913)
  • 1994 – Elizabeth Glaser, AIDS activist (b. 1947)
  • 1995 – Jimmy Jewel, English actor (b. 1909)
  • 1995 – Gerard John Schaefer, American serial killer (b. 1946)
  • 1996 – Georges Duby, French historian (b. 1919)
  • 1998 – Pierre Hétu, Quebec conductor and pianist (b. 1936)
  • 1999 – Scatman John, American singer (b. 1942)
  • 1999 – Madeline Kahn, American actress (b. 1942)
  • 1999 – Jarl Wahlström, 12th General of The Salvation Army (b. 1918)
  • 2000 – Gwendolyn Brooks, American poet (b. 1917)
  • 2000 – Hoyt Curtin, American songwriter (b. 1922)
  • 2002 – Glenn Quinn, Irish actor (b. 1970)
  • 2003 – David Hemmings, English actor (b. 1941)
  • 2004 – Shiing-Shen Chern, Chinese mathematician (b. 1911)
  • 2005 – Herb Moford, American baseball player (b. 1928)
  • 2006 – Logan Whitehurst, American musician (b. 1977)
  • 2007 – James Kemsley, Australian cartoonist and actor (b. 1948)

December 3 – Holidays:

  • International Day of Disabled Persons
  • International Day of the Basque language
  • Feast day of St. Francis Xavier in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints.
  • Advocate’s Day in India, in memory of Rajendra Prasad, first President and an eminent lawyer

 

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