On This Day in History October 14

October 14 – Events:

  • 1066 – Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings – In England on Senlac Hill, seven miles from Hastings, the forces of William the Conqueror defeat the Saxon army and kill King Harold II of England.
  • 1322 – Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeats King Edward II of England at Byland, forcing Edward to accept Scotland’s independence.
  • 1582 – Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.
  • 1586 – Mary I of Scotland goes on trial for conspiracy against Elizabeth I of England.
  • 1656 – Massachusetts enacts the first punitive legislation against the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). The marriage of church-and-state in Puritanism makes them regard the ritual-free Quakers as spiritually apostate and politically subversive.
  • 1758 – Austria defeats Prussia at the Battle of Hochkirk
  • 1773 – The first recorded Ministry of Education, the Komisja Edukacji Narodowej (Polish for Commission of National Education), is formed in Poland.
  • 1773 – American Revolutionary War: The United Kingdom’s East India Company tea ships’ cargo are burned at Annapolis, Maryland.
  • 1789 – George Washington proclaims the first Thanksgiving Day.
  • 1805 – Battle of Elchingen, France defeats Austria
  • 1806 – Battle of Jena-Auerstädt France defeats Prussia
  • 1812 – Work on London’s Regent’s Canal starts.
  • 1834 – In Philadelphia, Whigs and Democrats stage a gun, stone and brick battle for control of a Moyamensing Township election, resulting in one death, several injuries, and the burning down of a block of buildings.
  • 1840 – Maronite leader Bashir II surrenders to the British forces and goes into exile in Malta.
  • 1843 – The British arrest Irish nationalist Daniel O’Connell for conspiracy.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Bristoe Station – Confederate General Robert E. Lee forces fail to drive the Union Army out of Virginia.
  • 1867 – The 15th and last Shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate resigns in Japan.
  • 1882 – University of the Punjab is founded in present day Pakistan.
  • 1884 – George Eastman patents paper-strip photographic film.
  • 1888 – Louis Le Prince films first motion picture: Roundhay Garden Scene.
  • 1910 – English aviator Claude Grahame-White lands his Farman biplane on Executive Avenue (now Pennsylvania Avenue) near the White House.
  • 1912 – While campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, former president Theodore Roosevelt is shot by saloonkeeper John Schrank. With a fresh flesh wound and the bullet still in him, Roosevelt still delivers his scheduled speech.
  • 1913 – Senghenydd Colliery Disaster, the United Kingdom’s worst coal mining accident, which claimed 439 lives.
  • 1916 – Sophomore tackle and guard Paul Robeson is excluded from the Rutgers football team when Washington and Lee University refused to play against a black person.
  • 1916 – The Perm State University was founded in Russia.
  • 1920 – Part of Petsamo province is ceded by Soviet Union to Finland.
  • 1925 – Anti-French uprising in Damascus (French inhabitants flee)
  • 1926 – The children’s book Winnie-the-Pooh, by A.A. Milne, is first published.
  • 1933 – Nazi Germany withdraws from The League of Nations.
  • 1939 – German U-Boat U-47 sinks British battleship HMS Royal Oak.
  • 1942 – A German U-boat sinks the ferry SS Caribou, killing 137.
  • 1943 – Prisoners at the Sobibor death camp in Poland revolt, resulting in the death of 11 SS.  About half of the camp’s 600 prisoners escape; about 50 survive the war.
  • 1943 – U.S. 8th Air Force loses 60 B-17 Flying Fortresses during an assault on Schweinfurt.
  • 1944 – Allied troops land in Corfu.
  • 1947 – Chuck Yeager flies a Bell X-1 faster than the speed of sound, the first man to do so in level flight.
  • 1949 – Eleven leaders of the U.S. Communist Party are convicted, after a nine-month trial, of conspiring to advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.
  • 1949 – Chinese Red Army occupies Canton (Guangzhou).
  • 1957 – Queen Elizabeth II becomes the first Canadian monarch to open the Parliament of Canada with the Speech from the Throne.
  • 1958 – The U.S. conducts an underground nuclear weapon test at the Nevada Test Site.
  • 1958 – The District of Columbia Bar Association votes to accept black Americans as members.
  • 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis begins: A U-2 flight over Cuba takes photos of Soviet nuclear weapons being installed.
  • 1964 – Leonid Brezhnev becomes general secretary of the CPSU and leader of the Soviet Union, ousting Nikita Khrushchev.
  • 1964 – American civil rights movement leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr becomes the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • 1966 – The city of Montreal inaugurates the Montreal Metro.
  • 1967 – Vietnam War: Folk singer Joan Baez is arrested in a blockade of the military induction center in Oakland, California.
  • 1968 – Vietnam War: 27 soldiers are arrested at the Presidio in San Francisco for their peaceful protest of stockade conditions and the Vietnam War.
  • 1968 – Vietnam War: The United States Department of Defense announces that the United States Army and United States Marines will be sending about 24,000 troops back to Vietnam for involuntary second tours.
  • 1968 – First live telecast from a manned U.S. spacecraft Apollo 7.
  • 1968 – A 6.8 earthquake wrecked the Australian town of Meckering, and also ruptured all major roads and railways nearby.
  • 1968 – Jim Hines of the USA becomes the first man ever to break the ten second barrier in the 100 metres Olympic final at Mexico City with a time of 9.95 sec. He would be the only man to do so until 1983.
  • 1968 – The rebuilt Euston station in London is opened.
  • 1969 – The United Kingdom introduces the 50p (fifty-pence) coin, replacing the ten shilling note, in anticipation of the decimalisation of the currency in 1971.
  • 1973 – Thailand’s University Students protest for a democratic government; 77 are killed and 857 injured.
  • 1979 – The first Gay Rights March on Washington, D.C. demands “an end to all social, economic, judicial, and legal oppression of lesbian and gay people,” draws 200,000 people.
  • 1981 – Citing official misconduct in the investigation and trial, Amnesty International charges the U.S. government with holding Richard Marshall of the American Indian Movement as a political prisoner.
  • 1981 – Vice President Hosni Mubarak is elected President of Egypt one week after Anwar Sadat was assassinated.
  • 1982 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.
  • 1994 – Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • 1996 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average gains 40.62 to 6,010.00, closing above 6,000 for the first time ever.  1998 – Eric Robert Rudolph is charged with 6 bombings including the 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing in Atlanta, Georgia.

October 14 – Birthdays:

  • 1257 – King Przemysl II of Poland (d. 1296)
  • 1404 – Marie of Anjou, queen of France (d. 1463)
  • 1493 – Shimazu Tadayoshi, Japanese warlord (d. 1568)
  • 1499 – Claude of France, wife of Louis XII of France (d. 1524)
  • 1630 – Sophia of Hanover, Princess Palatine and Electress of Saxony (d. 1714)
  • 1633 – James II of England and VII of Scotland (d. 1701)
  • 1643 – Bahadur Shah I, Mughal Emperor of India (d. 1712)
  • 1644 – William Penn, English founder of Pennsylvania (d. 1718)
  • 1687 – Robert Simson, Scottish mathematician (d. 1768)
  • 1712 – George Grenville, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1770)
  • 1726 – Charles Middleton, 1st Baron Barham, English sailor and politician (d. 1813)
  • 1733 – François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt, Austrian field marshal (d. 1798)
  • 1784 – King Ferdinand VII of Spain (d. 1833)
  • 1801 – Joseph Plateau, Belgian physicist (d. 1883)
  • 1806 – Preston King, U.S. Senator from New York (d. 1865)
  • 1842 – Joe Start, American baseball player (d. 1927)
  • 1861 – Artur Gavazzi, Croatian geographer (d. 1944)
  • 1869 – Joseph Duveen, British art dealer (d. 1939)
  • 1873 – Ray Ewry, American athlete (d. 1937)
  • 1873 – Jules Rimet, president of FIFA (d. 1954)
  • 1882 – Eamon de Valera, Irish politician and patriot (d. 1975)
  • 1882 – Charlie Parker, English cricketer (d. 1959)
  • 1887 – Bernard Montgomery, British General. (d. 1976)
  • 1888 – Katherine Mansfield, New Zealand writer (d. 1923)
  • 1890 – Dwight D. Eisenhower, U.S. general and 34th President of the United States (d. 1969)
  • 1892 – Sumner Welles, American diplomat (d. 1961)
  • 1893 – Lillian Gish, American actress (d. 1993)
  • 1894 – E. E. Cummings, American poet (d. 1962)
  • 1900 – Agustín Lara, Mexican composer (d. 1970)
  • 1902 – Learco Guerra, Italian cyclist (d. 1963)
  • 1904 – Christian Pineau, French World War II resistance fighter (d. 1995)
  • 1906 – Hannah Arendt, German political theorist and writer (d. 1975)
  • 1906 – Imam Hassan al Banna, Egyptian founder of the Muslim Brotherhood (d. 1949)
  • 1908 – Ruth Hale, American playwright and actress (d. 2003)
  • 1908 – Allan Jones, American actor and singer (d. 1992)
  • 1909 – Bernd Rosemeyer, German racecar driver (d. 1938)
  • 1909 – Dorothy Kingsley, American screenwriter (d. 1996)
  • 1910 – John Wooden, American basketball player and coach
  • 1914 – Raymond Davis Jr., American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 2006)
  • 1914 – Dick Durrance, American skier (d. 2004)
  • 1914 – Harry Brecheen, American baseball player (d. 2004)
  • 1916 – C. Everett Koop, United States Surgeon General
  • 1918 – Marcel Chaput, French Canadian politician (d. 1991)
  • 1926 – Bill Justis, American saxophonist and composer (d. 1982)
  • 1927 – Roger Moore, English actor
  • 1928 – Frank E. Resnik, American business executive (d. 1995)
  • 1929 – Yvon Durelle, Canadian boxer (d. 2007)
  • 1930 – Mobutu Sese Seko, President of Zaire (d. 1997)
  • 1931 – Nikhil Banerjee, Indian classical musician (d. 1986)
  • 1932 – Anatoly Larkin, Russian-American physicist (d. 2005)
  • 1932 – Enrico di Giuseppe, American tenor (d. 2005)
  • 1935 – La Monte Young, American composer
  • 1938 – John W. Dean III, Watergate figure
  • 1938 – Empress Farah Diba of Iran
  • 1938 – Ron Lancaster, American-born Canadian football player and coach
  • 1939 – Ralph Lauren, American fashion designer
  • 1939 – Rocky Thompson, American golfer
  • 1940 – Perrie Mans, South African snooker player
  • 1940 – Cliff Richard, English singer
  • 1940 – Christopher Timothy, British actor
  • 1941 – Art Shamsky, American baseball player
  • 1942 – Evelio Javier, Filipino politician, lawyer, and civil servant (d. 1986)
  • 1944 – Udo Kier, German actor
  • 1945 – Colin Hodgkinson, English musician (Whitesnake)
  • 1946 – Justin Hayward, English musician (Moody Blues)
  • 1946 – James Robert “Radio” Kennedy, American football coach
  • 1946 – Craig Venter, American biologist
  • 1946 – Al Oliver, American baseball player
  • 1946 – Dan McCafferty, Scottish musician (Nazareth)
  • 1947 – Lukas Resetarits, Austrian cabaret artist
  • 1948 – Harry Anderson, American actor
  • 1948 – David Ruprecht, American game show host
  • 1948 – Engin Arik, Turkish nuclear physicist (d. 2007)
  • 1949 – Katy Manning, English/Australian actress
  • 1949 – Katha Pollitt, American writer
  • 1952 – Nikolai Andrianov, Soviet gymnast
  • 1953 – Shelley Ackerman, American astrologer, writer, singer
  • 1954 – Carole Malone, English newspaper columnist
  • 1957 – Michel Després, Quebec politician
  • 1958 – Thomas Dolby, English musician
  • 1960 – Steve Cram, English athlete
  • 1961 – Isaac Mizrahi American fashion designer
  • 1962 – Jaan Ehlvest, Estonian chess player
  • 1963 – Yim Jae-beom, South Korean singer
  • 1963 – Lori Petty, American actress
  • 1964 – Olu Oguibe, American artist
  • 1964 – Joe Girardi, American baseball player
  • 1964 – Jim Rome, American sport talk show host
  • 1965 – Jüri Jaanson, Estonian rower
  • 1965 – Constantine Koukias, Australian composer
  • 1965 – Steve Coogan, English actor
  • 1965 – Karyn White, American singer
  • 1967 – Pat Kelly, American baseball player
  • 1967 – Sylvain Lefebvre, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1967 – Stephen A. Smith, American sports journalist
  • 1968 – Matthew Le Tissier, English footballer
  • 1968 – Johnny Goudie, American musician
  • 1969 – David Strickland, American actor (d. 1999)
  • 1969 – P. J. Brown, American basketball player
  • 1970 – Jim Jackson, American basketball player
  • 1970 – Daniela Peštová, Czech supermodel
  • 1970 – Jon Seda, Puerto Rican actor
  • 1971 – Jorge Costa, Portuguese footballer
  • 1971 – Antonios Nikopolidis, Greek footballer
  • 1974 – Natalie Maines, American musician (Dixie Chicks)
  • 1974 – Jessica Drake, American porn star
  • 1974 – Joseph Utsler, American musician
  • 1975 – Floyd Landis, American cyclist
  • 1975 – Shaznay Lewis, English singer (All Saints)
  • 1976 – Nataša Kejžar, Slovenian swimmer
  • 1976 – Henry Mateo, Dominican baseball player
  • 1976 – Ben Pridmore, World Memory Champion
  • 1977 – Kelly Schumacher, Canadian basketball player
  • 1977 – Bianca Beauchamp, adult model
  • 1977 – Jonathan Kerrigan, English actor
  • 1977 – Tina Dico, Danish singer-songwriter
  • 1978 – Justin Brannan, American musician, writer
  • 1978 – Ryan Church, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Paul Hunter, English snooker player (d. 2006)
  • 1978 – Steven Thompson, Scottish footballer
  • 1978 – Usher, American singer and actor
  • 1978 – Javon Walker, American football player
  • 1979 – Stacy Keibler, American actress / ex-professional wrestler
  • 1980 – Terrence McGee, American football player
  • 1980 – Paul Ambrosi, Ecuadorian footballer
  • 1980 – Daniela Peštová , Czech model
  • 1980 – Niels Lodberg, Danish footballer
  • 1981 – Boof Bonser, American baseball player
  • 1983 – Vanessa Lane, American porn star
  • 1983 – Lin Dan, Chinese badminton player
  • 1984 – LaRon Landry, American football player
  • 1985 – Digão, Brazilian footballer
  • 1985 – Daniel Clark, Canadian actor
  • 1985 – Sherlyn González, Mexican actress
  • 1985 – Alexandre Sarnes Negrão, Brazilian racing driver
  • 1986 – Tom Craddock, English footballer
  • 1986 – Skyler Shaye, American actress
  • 1988 – MacKenzie Mauzy, American actress
  • 1988 – Max Thieriot, American actor
  • 1992 – Aaron Hughes, Australian Pornstar

October 14 – Deaths:

  • 1066 – Harold Godwinson, King of England
  • 1092 – Nizam al-Mulk, Persian vizier (b. 1018)
  • 1256 – Kujo Yoritsugu, Japanese shogun (b. 1239)
  • 1318 – Edward Bruce, High King of Ireland
  • 1552 – Oswald Myconius, Swiss Protestant reformer (b. 1488)
  • 1565 – Thomas Chaloner, English statesman and poet (b. 1521)
  • 1568 – Jacques Arcadelt, Flemish composer
  • 1610 – Amago Yoshihisa, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1540)
  • 1619 – Samuel Daniel, English poet (b. 1562)
  • 1637 – Gabriello Chiabrera, Italian poet (b. 1552)
  • 1660 – Thomas Harrison, English Puritan soldier (b. 1606)
  • 1669 – Antonio Cesti, Italian composer (b. 1623)
  • 1703 – Thomas Hansen Kingo, Danish poet (b. 1634)
  • 1711 – Tewoflos, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1708)
  • 1758 – Francis Edward James Keith, Scottish soldier and Prussian field marshal (b. 1696)
  • 1831 – Jean-Louis Pons, French astronomer (b. 1761)
  • 1911 – John Marshall Harlan, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (b. 1833)
  • 1944 – Erwin Rommel, German field marshall (b. 1891)
  • 1958 – Douglas Mawson, Australian Antarctic explorer (b. 1882)
  • 1959 – Errol Flynn, Australian actor (b. 1909)
  • 1960 – Abram Ioffe, Russian physicist (b. 1880)
  • 1961 – Paul Ramadier, French politician (b. 1888)
  • 1961 – Harriet Shaw Weaver, English political activist (b. 1876)
  • 1967 – Marcel Aymé, French novelist and playwright (b. 1902)
  • 1973 – Edmund A. Chester, American broadcaster and journalist (b. 1897)
  • 1976 – Dame Edith Evans, English actress (b. 1888)
  • 1977 – Bing Crosby, American singer and actor (b. 1903)
  • 1983 – Willard Price, Canadian author and naturalist
  • 1984 – Martin Ryle, English radio astronomer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (b. 1918)
  • 1985 – Emil Gilels, Ukrainian pianist (b. 1916)
  • 1986 – Keenan Wynn, American actor (b. 1916)
  • 1990 – Leonard Bernstein, American composer and conductor (b. 1918)
  • 1997 – Harold Robbins, American novelist (b. 1915)
  • 1998 – Cleveland Amory, American writer and animal rights activist (b. 1917)
  • 1998 – Frankie Yankovic, American musician (b. 1916)
  • 1999 – Julius Nyerere, Tanzanian politician (b. 1922)
  • 2002 – Norbert Schultze, American composer and songwriter (Lili Marleen) (b. 1911)
  • 2003 – Patrick Dalzel-Job, English soldier and inspiration for James Bond (b. 1913)
  • 2004 – Vlassis Bonatsos, Greek singer, actor and entertainer (b. 1949)
  • 2005 – Jody Dobrowski, English murder victim (b. 1981)
  • 2006 – Freddy Fender, American musician (b. 1937)
  • 2006 – Jared Anderson, American death metal bassist (b. 1975)
  • 2006 – Gerry Studds, Democratic Congressman from Massachusetts (b. 1937)
  • 2006 – Maurice Grosse, British paranormal investigator (b. 1919)
  • 2007 – Big Moe, Houston Rapper (b. 1974)

October 14 – Holidays:

  • Teachers’ Day, or National Education Day in Poland
  • French Republican Calendar – Navet (Turnip) Day, twenty-third day in the Month of Vendémiaire
  • Chisinau’s (Republic of Moldova’s capital) – national holiday (known as “Hramul Orasului” by locals).
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