On This Day in History October 19

October 19 – Events:

  • 202 BCE – The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal.
  • 439 – The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa.
  • 1216 – King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year old son Henry.
  • 1453 – The French recapture of Bordeaux brings the Hundred Years’ War to a close, with the English retaining only Calais on French soil.
  • 1466 – The Thirteen Years’ War ends with the Second Treaty of Torun. Gdansk Pomerania and Prussia as a whole are incorporated into Poland; the Teutonic Knights are allowed to rule its eastern part as Polish vassals.
  • 1469 – Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella I of Castile, a marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain.
  • 1512 – Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia).
  • 1649 – New Ross town, Co. Wexford, Ireland, surrenders to Oliver Cromwell.
  • 1781 – At Yorktown, Virginia, British commander Lord Cornwallis surrendered to a Franco-American force led by George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau, paving the way for the end of the American Revolutionary War.
  • 1789 – Chief Justice John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.
  • 1812 – Napoleon I of France retreats from Moscow.
  • 1813 – The Battle of Leipzig concludes, giving Napoleon Bonaparte one of his worst defeats.
  • 1822 – In Parnaíba; Simplício Dias da Silva, João Cândido de Deus e Silva and Domingos Dias declare the independent state of Piauí.
  • 1864 – Battle of Cedar Creek – Union Army under Philip Sheridan destroys Confederate Army under Jubal Early.
  • 1864 – Confederate raiders launch an attack on Saint Albans, Vermont from Canada.
  • 1873 – Yale, Princeton, Columbia, and Rutgers universities draft the first code of American football rules.
  • 1904 – Polytechnic University of the Philippines founded as Manila Business School through the superintendence of the American C.A. O’Reilley.
  • 1912 – Italy takes possession of Tripoli, Libya from the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1914 – The First Battle of Ypres begins.
  • 1917 – Love Field in Dallas, Texas is opened.
  • 1921 – Portuguese Prime Minister António Granjo and other politicians are murdered in a Lisbon coup.
  • 1933 – Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.
  • 1935 – The League of Nations places economic sanctions on fascist Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia.
  • 1943 – Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
  • 1944 – United States forces land in the Philippines.
  • 1950 – The military of the People’s Republic of China takes control of the town of Chamdo in eastern Tibet.
  • 1954 – First ascent of Cho Oyu
  • 1960 – The United States government places an embargo on Communist Cuba.
  • 1969 – The first Prime Minister of Tunisia in twelve years, Bahi Ladgham, is appointed by President Habib Bourguiba.
  • 1973 – President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court demand to turn over the Watergate tapes.
  • 1974 – Niue becomes self-govering colony of New Zealand
  • 1976 – Battle of Aishiya in Lebanon. The same day, the Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is placed on the List of Endangered Species.
  • 1983 – Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada, is overthrown and executed in a military coup d’état led by Bernard Coard.
  • 1986 – Samora Machel, President of Mozambique and a prominent leader of FRELIMO, and 33 others died when their Tupolev 134 plane crashed into the Lebombo Mountains.
  • 1987 – In retaliation for Iranian attacks on ships in the Persian Gulf, the U.S. Navy disables three of Iran’s offshore oil platforms.
  • 1987 – (Black Monday) Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%, 508 points. This is considered a Stock Market Crash.
  • 1989 – Guildford Four convictions are quashed by the Court of Appeal – they had spent 15 years in prison through a miscarriage of justice.
  • 1991 – 7.0 Richter Scale earthquake in Northern Italy – 2000 dead
  • 1994 – The Goodnight Kiwi airs in New Zealand for the last time as TV2 moves to 24-hour television 7 days a week.
  • 1998 – The Earth Liberation Front sets fire to the Vail Mountain ski resort in Vail, Colorado, causing $12 million in damage.
  • 2001 – SIEV-X, an Indonesian fishing boat en-route to Christmas Island, carrying over 400 asylum seekers, sank in international waters with the loss of 353 people.
  • 2003 – Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.
  • 2004 – Myanmar prime minister Khin Nyunt is ousted and placed under house arrest by the Thai government on charges of corruption.
  • 2004 – Care International aid worker Margaret Hassan is kidnapped in Iraq.
  • 2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
  • 2005 – Hurricane Wilma becomes the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with a minimum pressure of 882 mb.
  • 2006 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the 12,000 mark for the first time.
  • 2007 – Philippines. Amidst corruption controversies hounding the Arroyo administration, a bomb explosion rocked Glorietta 2, a shopping mall in Makati, which killed 11 and injured more than 100 people.

October 19 – Birthdays:

  • 1276 – Prince Hisaaki, Japanese shogun (d. 1328)
  • 1433 – Marsilio Ficino, Italian philosopher (d. 1499)
  • 1562 – Archbishop George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1633)
  • 1582 – Dmitry Ivanovich, Tsarevich (d. 1591)
  • 1605 – Thomas Browne, English writer (d. 1682)
  • 1610 – James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, English statesman and soldier (d. 1688)
  • 1658 – Adolf Friedrich II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1704)
  • 1680 – John Abernethy, Irish Protestant minister (d. 1740)
  • 1688 – William Cheselden, English surgeon and anatomist (d. 1752)
  • 1718 – Victor-François, 2nd duc de Broglie, Marshal of France (d. 1804)
  • 1720 – John Woolman, American Quaker preacher and abolitionist (d. 1772)
  • 1721 – Joseph de Guignes, French orientalist (d. 1800)
  • 1784 – John McLoughlin, Canadian fur trader (d. 1857)
  • 1810 – Cassius Marcellus Clay, American abolitionist (d. 1903)
  • 1851 – Empress Myeongseong, Empress of Korea (d. 1895)
  • 1858 – George Albert Boulenger, Belgian naturalist (d. 1937)
  • 1862 – Auguste Lumière, French inventor (d. 1954)
  • 1873 – Jaap Eden, Dutch skater and cyclist (d. 1925)
  • 1873 – John Barton King, American cricketer (d. 1965)
  • 1876 – Mordecai Brown, baseball player (d. 1945)
  • 1882 – Umberto Boccioni, futurist painter (d. 1916)
  • 1885 – Charles Merrill, American investment banker (d. 1956)
  • 1895 – Lewis Mumford, American historian (d. 1990)
  • 1895 – Frank Durbin Last U.S veteran of the Battle of Verdun (d.1999)
  • 1896 – Bob O’Farrell, baseball player (d. 1988)
  • 1897 – Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Pakistani scientist and scholar (d. 1994)
  • 1899 – Miguel Ángel Asturias, Guatemalan writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1974)
  • 1900 – Bill Ponsford, Australian cricketer (d. 1991)
  • 1900 – Roy Worters, Canadian ice hockey goaltender (d. 1957)
  • 1900 – Erna Berger, German soprano (d. 1990)
  • 1901 – Arleigh Burke, Naval commander (d. 1996)
  • 1903 – Tor Johnson, Swedish wrestler and actor (d. 1971)
  • 1907 – Roger Wolfe Kahn, American bandleader (d. 1962)
  • 1908 – Geirr Tveitt, Norwegian composer (d. 1981)
  • 1909 – Cozy Cole, American jazz drummer (d. 1981)
  • 1909 – Marguerite Perey, French physicist (d. 1975)
  • 1910 – Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Indian-born physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1995)
  • 1910 – Paul Robert, French lexicographer and publisher (d. 1980)
  • 1913 – Vinicius de Moraes, Brazilian poet and songwriter (d. 1980)
  • 1916 – Jean Dausset, French immunologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 1916 – Emil Gilels, Ukrainian pianist (d. 1985)
  • 1920 – Pandurang Shastri Athavale, Indian philosopher (d. 2003)
  • 1922 – Jack Anderson, American journalist (d. 2005)
  • 1926 – Joel Feinberg, American moral philosopher (d. 2004)
  • 1926 – Arne Bendiksen, Norwegian singer and songwriter
  • 1931 – John le Carré, English novelist
  • 1932 – Robert Reed, American actor (d. 1992)
  • 1936 – Tony Lo Bianco, American actor
  • 1937 – Peter Max, American artist
  • 1937 – Marilyn Bell, Canadian long distance swimmer
  • 1940 – Michael Gambon, Irish actor
  • 1941 – Simon Ward, British actor
  • 1942 – Andrew Vachss, American author and attorney
  • 1943 – Robin Holloway, British composer
  • 1943 – Takis Ikonomopoulos, Greek footballer
  • 1944 – Peter Tosh, Jamaican musician, political activist (d. 1987)
  • 1944 – George McCrae, American soul singer
  • 1945 – Divine, American actor (d. 1988)
  • 1945 – Patricia Ireland, President of the NOW
  • 1945 – John Lithgow, American actor
  • 1945 – Jeannie C. Riley American country and gospel singer
  • 1946 – Philip Pullman, English writer
  • 1947 – Giorgio Cavazzano, comics artist and illustrator
  • 1948 – Patrick Simmons, American musician (The Doobie Brothers)
  • 1949 – Lynn Dickey, American football player
  • 1949 – Jamie McGrigor, British politician
  • 1951 – Demetrios Christodoulou, Greek mathematical physicist, recipient of the Bôcher Memorial Prize
  • 1952 – Verónica Castro, Mexican actress and singer
  • 1954 – Joe Bryant, American former professional basketball player
  • 1954 – Sam Allardyce, English football manager
  • 1954 – Deborah Blum, American writer
  • 1955 – Melpo Kosti, Greek actress
  • 1956 – Carlo Urbani, Italian physician (d. 1993)
  • 1956 – Sunny Deol, Indian actor
  • 1956 – Didier Theys, Belgian racing driver
  • 1957 – Ray Richmond, entertainment/media columnist
  • 1957 – Karl Wallinger, Welsh musician (The Waterboys, World Party)
  • 1957 – Doug Kirby, American author and travel guide
  • 1958 – Tiriel Mora, Australian actor
  • 1958 – Lou Briel, Puerto Rican singer and actor
  • 1960 – Jonathan FeBland, English musician and artist
  • 1962 – Tracy Chevalier, American author
  • 1962 – Evander Holyfield, American boxer
  • 1963 – Prince Laurent of Belgium
  • 1964 – Jorge Luis Gonzales, Cuban-born American boxer
  • 1965 – Brad Daugherty, American basketball player
  • 1965 – Ty Pennington, American television carpenter
  • 1966 – Roger R. Cross, Jamaican-born actor
  • 1966 – Jon Favreau, American actor, writer and director
  • 1967 – Yoko Shimomura, Japanese composer
  • 1969 – Trey Parker, American cartoonist and actor
  • 1969 – Erwin Sánchez, Bolivian footballer
  • 1969 – DJ Sammy, Spanish DJ from Majorca
  • 1970 – Chris Kattan, American comedian and actor
  • 1972 – Keith Foulke, American baseball pitcher
  • 1972 – Pras, American musician
  • 1973 – Hicham Arazi, Moroccan tennis player
  • 1973 – Joaquin Gage, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Joy Bryant, American actress
  • 1976 – Omar Gooding, American actor
  • 1976 – Desmond Harrington, American actor
  • 1976 – Dan Smith, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Michael Young, baseball player
  • 1977 – Louis-José Houde, Québec stand-up comic
  • 1977 – Jason Reitman, Canadian filmmaker
  • 1977 – Raúl Tamudo, Spanish footballer
  • 1978 – Enrique Bernoldi, Brazilian Formula One driver
  • 1978 – Zakhar Dubenskiy, Russian footballer
  • 1978 – Henri Sorvali, Finnish musician
  • 1979 – Brian Robertson, American trombonist (Suburban Legends)
  • 1979 – José Luis “Parejita” López, Mexican footballer
  • 1980 – Benjamin Salisbury, American actor
  • 1981 – Heikki Kovalainen, Finnish Formula One driver
  • 1982 – Gonzalo Pineda, Mexican footballer

October 19 – Deaths:

  • 727 – Saint Frideswide
  • 1187 – Pope Urban III
  • 1216 – King John
  • 1432 – John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, English politician (b. 1392)
  • 1587 – Francesco I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1541)
  • 1608 – Martin Delrio, Flemish theologian and occultist (b. 1551)
  • 1636 – Marcin Kazanowski, Polish politician
  • 1682 – Thomas Browne, English writer (b. 1605)
  • 1723 – Godfrey Kneller, German-born painter (b. 1646)
  • 1745 – Jonathan Swift, Irish author (b. 1667)
  • 1790 – Lyman Hall, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1724)
  • 1813 – Józef Antoni Poniatowski, Polish prince and Marshal of France (friendly fire) (b. 1763)
  • 1842 – Aleksey Koltsov, Russian poet (b. 1808)
  • 1851 – Marie Thérèse Charlotte (b. 1778)
  • 1856 – William Sprague III, American politician from Rhode Island (b. 1799)
  • 1889 – King Louis of Portugal (b. 1838)
  • 1897 – George Pullman, American inventor and industrialist (b. 1831)
  • 1901 – Carl Frederik Tietgen, Danish financier and industrialist (b. 1829)
  • 1918 – Harold Lockwood, American actor (b. 1887)
  • 1936 – Lu Xun, Chinese writer (b. 1881)
  • 1937 – Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, New Zealand physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (b. 1871)
  • 1943 – Camille Claudel, French sculptor (b. 1864)
  • 1950 – Edna St. Vincent Millay, American poet (b. 1892)
  • 1956 – Isham Jones, American musician (b. 1894)
  • 1960 – George Wallace, Australian vaudevillian and film comedian (b. 1895)
  • 1973 – Walt Kelly, American cartoonist (b. 1913)
  • 1978 – Gig Young, American actor (b. 1913)
  • 1983 – Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada (b. 1944)
  • 1985 – Alfred Rouleau, French Canadian businessman (b. 1915)
  • 1986 – Dele Giwa, Nigerian journalist
  • 1986 – Samora Machel, President of Mozambique (b. 1933)
  • 1987 – Jacqueline Du Pré, English cellist (b. 1945)
  • 1987 – Hermann Lang, German race car driver (b. 1909)
  • 1988 – Son House, American musician (b. 1902)
  • 1994 – Martha Raye, American comedian and actress (b. 1916)
  • 1995 – Don Cherry, American jazz trumpet player (b. 1936)
  • 1997 – Glen Buxton, American guitarist (b. 1947)
  • 1999 – Nathalie Sarraute, Russian-born French writer (b. 1900)
  • 1999 – James C. Murray, American politician (b. 1917)
  • 2000 – Hortense Ellis, Jamaican reggae singer (b. 1941)
  • 2003 – Alija Izetbegovic, President of Bosnia-Herzegovina (b. 1925)
  • 2003 – Margaret Murie, American conservationist (b. 1902)
  • 2003 – Michael Hegstrand, American professional wrestler (b. 1960)
  • 2004 – Kenneth E. Iverson, Canadian computer scientist (b. 1920)
  • 2005 – Dallas Cook, American musician (Suburban Legends) (b. 1982)
  • 2005 – Corinne Lévesque, wife of Quebec premier René Lévesque (b. 1943)
  • 2006 – James Glennon, American cinematographer (b. 1942)
  • 2007 – LaLa Brown, American singer and protégé of Lyfe Jennings (b. 1986)
  • 2007 – Dr. Randall Forsberg, American nuclear freeze advocate (b. 1943)
  • 2007 – Michael Maidens, English footballer with Hartlepool United (b. 1987)
  • 2007 – Jan Wolkers, Dutch writer (b. 1925)

October 19 – Holidays:

  • Roman festivals – Armilustrium in honor of Mars
  • Roman Catholic Saints – Saints Jean de Brébeuf, Isaac Jogues, and Companions; Saint Frideswide
  • Albania – Mother Teresa Day.
  • Brazil – Independence Day of State of Piauí
  • Niue – Constitution Day in honour of the country’s independence (self-governing in free association with New Zealand) in 1974.
  • French Republican Calendar – Tomate (Tomato) Day, twenty-eighth day in the Month of Vendémiaire
  • Aaron, a saint of the Coptic Church
  • Hindu Festivals, Concluding of Navratri Festival of India. It is a nine day festival attributed to the Goddess Durga, the Supreme-Divine manifested in form of Mother. The 10th day, Hindus celebrate Dasara, the mark of Lord Rama’s victory over demon Ravana – Goddess Durga Day.
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