On This Day in History November 18

November 18 – Events:

  • 326 – The old St. Peter’s Basilica is consecrated.
  • 1095 – The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land, begins.
  • 1302 – Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Unam sanctam (The Holy One).
  • 1307 – According to legend, William Tell shoots an apple off of his son’s head.
  • 1421 – A seawall at the Zuiderzee dike breaks, flooding 72 villages and killing about 10,000 people in the Netherlands.
  • 1477 – William Caxton produces Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres, the first book printed on a printing press in England.
  • 1493 – Christopher Columbus first sights what is now Puerto Rico.
  • 1626 – St. Peter’s Basilica is consecrated.
  • 1686 – Charles Francois Felix operates on King Louis XIV of France’s anal fistula after practicing the surgery on several peasants.
  • 1803 – The Battle of Vertières, the last major battle of the Haitian Revolution, is fought, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Haiti, the first black republic in the Western Hemisphere.
  • 1852 – Rose Philippine Duchesne dies in St. Charles, Missouri. She would be canonized on July 3, 1988 by Pope John Paul II.
  • 1863 – King Christian IX of Denmark decided to sign the November Constitution, which declared Schleswig as part of Denmark, what was seen by the German Confederation as a violation of the London Protocol and lead to the German–Danish war of 1864.
  • 1865 – Mark Twain’s story The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County is published in the New York Saturday Press.
  • 1883 – American and Canadian railroads institute five standard continental time zones, ending the confusion of thousands of local times.
  • 1903 – The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty is signed by the United States and Panama, giving the Americans exclusive rights over the Panama Canal Zone.
  • 1904 – General Esteban Huertas steps down after the government of Panama fears he wants to stage a coup.
  • 1905 – Prince Carl of Denmark becomes King Haakon VII of Norway.
  • 1909 – Two United States warships are sent to Nicaragua after 500 revolutionaries (including two Americans) are executed by order of José Santos Zelaya.
  • 1916 – World War I: First Battle of the Somme ends – In France, British Expeditionary Force commander Douglas Haig calls off the battle which started on July 1, 1916.
  • 1917 – Sigma Alpha Rho, a Jewish high school fraternity, is founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • 1918 – Latvia declares its independence from Russia.
  • 1926 – George Bernard Shaw refuses to accept the money for his Nobel Prize, saying, “I can forgive Alfred Nobel for inventing dynamite, but only a fiend in human form could have invented the Nobel Prize.”
  • 1928 – Release of the animated short Steamboat Willie, the first fully synchronized sound cartoon, directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, featuring the second appearances of cartoon stars Mickey Mouse and Minnie Mouse. This is also considered by the Disney corporation to be Mickey’s birthday.
  • 1929 – 1929 Grand Banks earthquake: Off the south coast of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean, a Richter magnitude 7.2 submarine earthquake, centered on Grand Banks, breaks 12 submarine transatlantic telegraph cables and triggers a tsunami that destroys many south coast communities in the Burin Peninsula area.
  • 1938 – Trade union members elect John L. Lewis as the first president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations.
  • 1940 – World War II: German leader Adolf Hitler and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano meet to discuss Benito Mussolini’s disastrous invasion of Greece.
  • 1940 – New York City’s Mad Bomber places his first bomb at a Manhattan office building used by Consolidated Edison.
  • 1942 – Holocaust: German SS carry out selection of Jewish ghetto in Lviv, western Ukraine, arresting 5.000 “unproductive Jews.” All get deported to the Belzec death camp.
  • 1943 – World War II: Battle of Berlin (air), 440 Royal Air Force planes bomb Berlin causing only light damage and killing 131. The RAF lost nine aircraft and 53 air crew.
  • 1943 – Holocaust: Aktion Emtefest: Nazis liquidate Janowska concentration camp in Lviv, western Ukraine, murdering at least 6.000 surviving Jews.German SS leader Fritz Katzman declares Lviv (Lemberg) to be Judenfrei (free from the Jews).
  • 1970 – U.S. President Richard Nixon asks the Congress of the United States for $155 million USD in supplemental aid for the Cambodian government.
  • 1978 – Jonestown incident: In Guyana, Jim Jones leads his Peoples Temple cult in a mass murder-suicide that claims 918 lives in all, 909 of them at Jonestown itself, including over 270 children. Congressman Leo J. Ryan is assassinated by members of Peoples Temple shortly beforehand.
  • 1982 – Duk Koo Kim dies unexpectedly from injuries sustained during a 14-round match against Ray Mancini in Las Vegas, Nevada, prompting reforms in the sport of boxing.
  • 1987 – Iran-Contra Affair: The U.S. Congress issues its final report on the Iran-Contras Affair.
  • 1987 – King’s Cross fire: In London, 31 people die in a fire at the city’s busiest underground station at King’s Cross St Pancras.
  • 1988 – War on Drugs: U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs a bill into law allowing the death penalty for murder in regards to drug traffickers.
  • 1991 – Shiite Muslim kidnappers in Lebanon set Anglican Church envoys Terry Waite and Thomas Sutherland free.
  • 1991 – After the siege of Vukovar, the Croatian city of Vukovar capitulates to besieging Yugoslav People’s Army and allied Serb paramilitary forces.
  • 1993 – In South Africa, 21 political parties approve a new constitution.
  • 1999 – In College Station, Texas, 12 are killed and 27 injured at Texas A&M University when a massive bonfire under construction collapses.
  • 2002 – Iraq disarmament crisis: United Nations weapons inspectors led by Hans Blix arrive in Iraq.
  • 2003 – In the United Kingdom, the Local Government Act 2003, repealing controversial anti-gay amendment Section 28, becomes effective.
  • 2003 – The congress of the Communist Party of Indian Union (Marxist-Leninist) decides

to merge the party into Kanu Sanyal’s CPI(ML).

  • 2004 – Russia officially ratifies the Kyoto Protocol.

November 18 – Birthdays:

  • 1522 – Lamoral, Count of Egmont, Flemish general and statesman (d. 1568)
  • 1630 – Eleanor Gonzaga, Empress of the Holy Roman Empire (d. 1686)
  • 1647 – Pierre Bayle, French philosopher (d. 1706)
  • 1727 – Philibert Commerçon, French naturalist (d. 1773)
  • 1772 – Louis Ferdinand of Prussia, German prince (d. 1806)
  • 1774 – Wilhelmine of Prussia, queen of the Netherlands (d. 1837)
  • 1785 – David Wilkie, British artist (d. 1841)
  • 1786 – Carl Maria von Weber, German composer (d. 1826)
  • 1787 – Louis-Jacques Daguerre, French inventor and photographer (d. 1851)
  • 1804 – Alfonso Ferrero la Marmora, Italian general and statesman (d. 1878)
  • 1832 – Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, Swedish explorer (d. 1901)
  • 1836 – Sir William S. Gilbert, British dramatist (d. 1911)
  • 1836 – Cesare Lombroso, Italian psychiatrist and founder of criminology (d. 1909)
  • 1839 – August Kundt, German physicist (d. 1894)
  • 1856 – Nikolai Nikolaevich Romanov, Grand Duke of Russia (d. 1929)
  • 1861 – Dorothy Dix, pseudonym of US journalist Elizabeth Meriwether Gilmer (d. 1951)
  • 1874 – Clarence Day, American author (d. 1935)
  • 1882 – Amelita Galli-Curci, Italian soprano (d. 1963)
  • 1882 – Jacques Maritain, French philosopher (d. 1973)
  • 1883 – Carl Vinson, U.S. Congressman (d. 1981)
  • 1897 – Patrick Blackett, British physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1974)
  • 1898 – Joris Ivens, Dutch filmmaker (d. 1989)
  • 1899 – Eugene Ormandy, Hungarian-born conductor (d. 1985)
  • 1901 – George Gallup, American statistician and opinion pollster (d. 1984)
  • 1904 – Jean Paul Lemieux, Quebec painter (d. 1990)
  • 1906 – Klaus Mann, German writer (d. 1949)
  • 1906 – George Wald, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or
  • Medicine (d. 1997)
  • 1906 – Alec Issigonis, Greek-British car designer, developer of the Mini (d. 1988)
  • 1907 – Compay Segundo, Cuban musician (Buena Vista Social Club) (d. 2003)
  • 1908 – Imogene Coca, American actress and comedian (d. 2001)
  • 1909 – Johnny Mercer, American lyricist (d. 1976)
  • 1911 – Attilio Bertolucci, Italian poet and writer (d. 2000)
  • 1915 – Ken Burkhart, American baseball player and umpire (d. 2004)
  • 1917 – Pedro Infante, Mexican actor and singer (d. 1957)
  • 1918 – Tasker Watkins, Welsh World War II hero (d. 2007)
  • 1919 – Jocelyn Brando, American actress (d. 2005)
  • 1922 – Luis Somoza Debayle, Nicaraguan president (d. 1967)
  • 1923 – Alan Shepard, American astronaut (d. 1998)
  • 1923 – Ted Stevens, American politician
  • 1924 – Alexander Mackenzie Stuart, Baron Mackenzie-Stuart, president of the European

Court of Justice (d. 2000)

  • 1925 – Gene Mauch, American baseball manager (d. 2005)
  • 1927 – Hank Ballard, American musician (d. 2003)
  • 1928 – Otar Gordeli, Georgian composer
  • 1932 – Nasif Estéfano, Argentine racing driver (d. 1973)
  • 1934 – Vassilis Vassilikos, Greek writer, Greece’s ambassador to UNESCO
  • 1935 – Rudolf Bahro, German dissident (d. 1997)
  • 1936 – Don Cherry, American jazz trumpeter (d. 1995)
  • 1939 – Margaret Atwood, Canadian writer
  • 1939 – Brenda Vaccaro, American actress
  • 1940 – Qaboos ibn Sa’id, Sultan of Oman
  • 1941 – David Hemmings, British actor (d. 2003)
  • 1942 – Linda Evans, American actress
  • 1942 – Susan Sullivan, American actress
  • 1944 – Wolfgang Joop, German artist, fashion designer and art collector
  • 1946 – Alan Dean Foster, American author
  • 1947 – Jameson Parker, American actor
  • 1948 – Andrea Marcovicci, American singer and actress
  • 1948 – Jack Tatum, American football player
  • 1950 – Graham Parker, English singer
  • 1950 – Eric Pierpoint, American actor
  • 1951 – Justin Raimondo, American author
  • 1952 – Delroy Lindo, British actor
  • 1952 – Peter Beattie, 36th Premier of Queensland
  • 1953 – Alan Moore, British comic book writer and novelist
  • 1953 – Kevin Nealon, American comedian and actor
  • 1954 – John Parr, British pop singer
  • 1954 – Evan Gray, New Zealand cricketer
  • 1956 – Noel Brotherston, Northern Irish footballer (d. 1995)
  • 1956 – Warren Moon, American football player
  • 1957 – Seán Mac Falls, Irish-born poet
  • 1958 – Daniel Brailovsky, Argentine football manager
  • 1958 – Oscar Nunez, Cuban American actor
  • 1959 – Jimmy Quinn, Northern Irish footballer and football manager
  • 1960 – Kim Wilde, British singer
  • 1960 – Elizabeth Perkins, American actress
  • 1962 – Kirk Hammett, American guitarist (Metallica)
  • 1962 – Jamie Moyer, American baseball player
  • 1963 – Dante Bichette, American baseball player
  • 1963 – Peter Schmeichel, Danish footballer
  • 1963 – Len Bias, American basketball player (d. 1986)
  • 1966 – Jorge Camacho, Spanish poet
  • 1967 – Jocelyn Lemieux, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1968 – Barry Hunter, Northern Irish footballer and manager
  • 1968 – Romany Malco, American actor and music producer
  • 1968 – Gary Sheffield, American baseball player
  • 1968 – Owen Wilson, American actor
  • 1969 – Sam Cassell, American basketball player
  • 1969 – Duncan Sheik, American Singer/Songwriter
  • 1969 – Ahmed Helmi, Egyptian Actor
  • 1970 – Mike Epps, American actor
  • 1970 – Megyn Kelly, American television news anchor
  • 1970 – Johan Liiva, Sweden vocalist (Arch Enemy)
  • 1970 – Peta Wilson, Australian actress
  • 1972 – Jessi Alexander, American country music singer/songwriter
  • 1972 – Robert Shapiro, American politician/humorist
  • 1973 – Nic Pothas, South African/English wicket-keeper
  • 1974 – Chloë Sevigny, American actress
  • 1975 – David Ortiz, Dominican baseball player
  • 1975 – Jason Williams, American basketball player
  • 1975 – Anthony McPartlin, British actor and television presenter
  • 1975 – Shawn Camp, American baseball player
  • 1976 – Shagrath, Norwegian singer (Dimmu Borgir)
  • 1976 – Mona Zaki, Egyptian Actress
  • 1977 – Trent Barrett, Australian rugby league footballer
  • 1977 – Fabolous, American rapper
  • 1978 – Damien Johnson, Northern Irish footballer
  • 1979 – Elizabeth Anne Allen, American Actress
  • 1980 – Okada Junichi, singer and actor (member of V6)
  • 1980 – Dustin Kensrue, American Singer/Songwriter (Thrice)
  • 1980 – François Duval, Belgian rally driver
  • 1981 – Christina Vidal, American actress
  • 1981 – Gian Magdangal, Filipino singer and actor
  • 1983 – Jon Johansen, Norwegian software developer
  • 1983 – Travis Buck, American baseball player
  • 1984 – Johnny Christ, American musician (Avenged Sevenfold)
  • 1984 – Ryohei Chiba, member of Japanese boy band w-inds.
  • 1985 – Christian Siriano, Winner of Project Runway, Season 4
  • 1988 – Jeffrey Jordan, son of Michael Jordan
  • 1988 – Montanna Thompson, English actress
  • 1992 – Nathan Kress, child actor

November 18 – Deaths:

  • 1154 – Adélaide de Maurienne, wife of Louis VI of France (b. 1092)
  • 1305 – John II, Duke of Brittany (b. 1239)
  • 1559 – Cuthbert Tunstall, English churchman (b. 1474)
  • 1590 – George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, English statesman (b. 1528)
  • 1724 – Bartolomeu de Gusmão, Portuguese naturalist (b. 1685)
  • 1785 – Louis Philip I, Duke of Orléans, French soldier and writer (b. 1725)
  • 1797 – Jacques-Alexandre Laffon de Ladebat, French shipbuilder and merchant (b. 1719)
  • 1814 – William Jessop, British civil engineer (b. 1745)
  • 1886 – Chester A. Arthur, 21st President of the United States (b. 1829)
  • 1889 – William Allingham, Irish author
  • 1922 – Marcel Proust, French novelist (b. 1871)
  • 1941 – Walther Nernst, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1864)
  • 1941 – Chris Watson, third Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1867)
  • 1941 – Émile Nelligan, Quebec poet (b. 1879)
  • 1952 – Paul Eluard, French poet (b. 1895)
  • 1962 – Niels Bohr, Danish physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1885)
  • 1965 – Henry A. Wallace, Vice President of the United States (b. 1888)
  • 1969 – Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., American bootlegger (b. 1888)
  • 1969 – Ted Heath, British musician and bandleader (b. 1902)
  • 1972 – Danny Whitten, American musician and songwriter (b. 1943)
  • 1976 – Man Ray, American artist (b. 1890)
  • 1977 – Kurt Schuschnigg, Austrian politician (b. 1897)
  • 1977 – Victor Francen, Belgian actor (b. 1888)
  • 1978 – Jim Jones, American cult leader (suicide) (b. 1931)
  • 1978 – Leo Ryan, U.S. Congressman (b. 1925)
  • 1979 – Freddie Fitzsimmons, baseball player (b. 1901)
  • 1980 – Conn Smythe, NHL coach 1927-1931 (b. 1895)
  • 1982 – Duk Koo Kim, Korean boxer (b. 1959)
  • 1984 – Mary Hamman, American writer and editor (b. 1907)
  • 1986 – Gia Carangi, American model (AIDS) (b. 1960)
  • 1987 – Jacques Anquetil, French cyclist (cancer) (b. 1934)
  • 1991 – Gustáv Husák, President of Czechoslovakia (b. 1913)
  • 1994 – Cab Calloway, American bandleader (b. 1907)
  • 1999 – Paul Bowles, American novelist (b. 1910)
  • 2002 – James Coburn, American actor (b. 1928)
  • 2003 – Michael Kamen, American composer (b. 1948)
  • 2004 – Cy Coleman, American composer, songwriter and pianist (b. 1929)
  • 2005 – Harold J. Stone, American actor (b. 1911)

November 18 – Holidays:

  • United Nations World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims.
  • Roman festivals – day 1 Dios dedicated to the sun god by emperor Licinius
  • Latvia – Independence Day (1918)
  • Oman – National holiday
  • Venezuela – Feast of the Virgen de Chiquinquirá, also known as la Chinita, in the western state of Zulia
  • Roman Catholic Saints:
    • Dedication of the Basilicas of Saints Peter and Paul; Saint Rose Philippine Duchesne; St Mawes, St Odo of Cluny, St Romanus of Antioch
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