On This Day in History April 1

April 1 – Events:

  • 527 – Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne.
  • 1318 – Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English.
  • 1340 – Niels Ebbesen kills Gerhard III of Holstein in his bedroom, ending the 1332-1340 interregnum in Denmark.
  • 1572 – In the Eighty Years’ War, the Watergeuzen capture Brielle from the Spaniards, gaining the first foothold on land for what would become the Dutch Republic.
  • 1789 – In New York City, the United States House of Representatives holds its first quorum and elects Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania as its first House Speaker.
  • 1826 – Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine.
  • 1854 – Hard Times begins serialisation in Charles Dickens magazine, Household Words.
  • 1857 – Herman Melville publishes The Confidence-Man.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Battle of Five Forks – In Siege of Petersburg, Confederate General Robert E. Lee begins his final offensive.
  • 1867 – Singapore becomes a British crown colony.
  • 1873 – The British steamer SS Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, killing 547.
  • 1891 – The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago, Illinois.
  • 1912 – The Greek athlete Konstantinos Tsiklitiras breaks the world record in standing long jump jumping 3.47 meters.
  • 1918 – The Royal Flying Corps is replaced by the Royal Air Force.
  • 1924 – Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years in jail for his participation in the “Beer Hall Putsch.” However, he spends only nine months in jail, during which he writes the book Mein Kampf.
  • 1924 – First revenue flight for Belgium’s Sabena Airlines
  • 1924 – The Royal Canadian Air Force is formed.
  • 1933 – The recently elected Nazis under Julius Streicher organize a one-day boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses in Germany, ushering in the series of anti-Semitic acts that will be known as the Holocaust.
  • 1936 – Orissa Formation of the Indian state orissa(1936), formerly known as UTKAL.
  • 1937 – Aden becomes a British crown colony.
  • 1939 – Generalísimo Francisco Franco of the Spanish State announced the end of the Spanish Civil War, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered.
  • 1941 – The Blockade Runner Badge for German navy is instituted.
  • 1945 – World War II: Operation Iceberg – United States troops land on Okinawa in the last campaign of the war.
  • 1946 – Aleutian Island earthquake: A 7.8 magnitude earthquake near the Aleutian Islands creates a tsunami that strikes the Hawaiian Islands killing 159 (mostly in Hilo, Hawaii).
  • 1946 – Formation of the Malayan Union.
  • 1948 – Cold War: Berlin Airlift – Military forces, under direction of the Soviet-controlled government in East Germany, set-up a land blockade of West Berlin.
  • 1948 – Faroe Islands receive autonomy from Denmark.
  • 1949 – Chinese Civil War: Communist Party of China hold unsuccessful peace talks with the Kuomintang in Beijing, after three years of fighting.
  • 1949 – The twenty-six counties of the Irish Free State become the Republic of Ireland.
  • 1954 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes the creation of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado.
  • 1955 – The EOKA rebellion starts in Cyprus, aiming at the island’s independence from the United Kingdom.
  • 1963 – The Soap Opera General Hospital debuted
  • 1967 – The United States Department of Transportation begins operation.
  • 1969 – The Hawker Siddeley Harrier enters service with the RAF.
  • 1970 – President Richard Nixon signs the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, requiring surgeon general’s warnings on tobacco products and banning cigarette advertisements on television and radio in the United States starting on January 1, 1971.
  • 1973 – Project Tiger, a tiger conservation project, is launched in the Corbett National Park, India.
  • 1974 – In the United Kingdom, the Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties come into being.
  • 1976 – Apple Computer is formed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.
  • 1976 – Conrail takes over operations from six bankrupt railroads in the northeastern U.S..
  • 1978 – Philippine College of Commerce, through a presidential decree, was converted to Polytechnic University of the Philippines.
  • 1979 – Iran’s government becomes an Islamic Republic by a 98% vote, overthrowing the Shah officially.
  • 1980 – New York City’s Transit Worker Union 100 goes on strike, lasting 11 days.
  • 1981 – Daylight saving time is introduced in the USSR.
  • 1989 – A new local government tax, the Community Charge (commonly known as the ‘poll tax’), was introduced in Scotland.
  • 1996 – The Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia was created.
  • 1999 – Nunavut is established as a Canadian territory carved from the eastern part of the Northwest Territories.
  • 2001 – An EP-3E United States Navy plane collides with a Chinese People’s Liberation Army fighter jet. The Navy crew makes an emergency landing in Hainan, People’s Republic of China and is detained.
  • 2001 – Former president of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Miloševic surrenders to police special forces, to be tried on charges of war crimes.
  • 2001 – Same-sex marriage comes into force in the Netherlands, which is the first country to allow it.
  • 2002 – The Netherlands legalizes euthanasia, becoming the first nation in the world to do so.

April 1 – Birthdays:

  • 1220 – Emperor Go-Saga of Japan (d. 1272)
  • 1543 – François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières, Constable of France (d. 1626)
  • 1578 – William Harvey, English physician (d. 1657)
  • 1610 – Charles de Saint-Évremond, French soldier (d. 1703)
  • 1640 – Georg Mohr, Danish mathematician (d. 1697)
  • 1647 – John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, English poet (d. 1680)
  • 1697 – Antoine François Prévost, French author and novelist (d. 1763)
  • 1753 – Joseph de Maistre, French diplomat and writer (d. 1821)
  • 1765 – Luigi Schiavonetti, Italian engraver (d. 1810)
  • 1776 – Sophie Germain, French mathematician (d. 1831)
  • 1809 – Nikolai Gogol, Russian writer (d. 1852)
  • 1815 – Otto von Bismarck, 1st Chancellor of Germany (d. 1898)
  • 1815 – Edward Clark, Governor of Texas (d. 1880)
  • 1834 – Big Jim Fisk, American entrepreneur (d. 1872)
  • 1854 – Bill Traylor, American artist (d. 1949)
  • 1856 – Acacio Gabriel Viegas, Indian physician (d. 1933)
  • 1865 – Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, Austrian-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1929)
  • 1866 – Ferruccio Busoni, Italian pianist and composer (d. 1924)
  • 1868 – Edmond Rostand, French dramatist (d. 1918)
  • 1873 – Sergei Rachmaninoff, Russian composer, pianist, and conductor (d. 1943)
  • 1875 – Edgar Wallace, English writer (d. 1932)
  • 1880 – Agha Petros, Assyrian general (d. 1932)
  • 1882 – Paul Anspach, Belgian Olympic champion fencer (d. 1991)
  • 1883 – Lon Chaney, Sr., American actor (d. 1930)
  • 1885 – Wallace Beery, American actor (d. 1949)
  • 1893 – Cicely Courtneidge, English actress and comedian (d. 1980)
  • 1895 – Alberta Hunter, American singer (d. 1984)
  • 1897 – Nita Naldi, American actress (d. 1961)
  • 1898 – William James Sidis, American genius (d. 1944)
  • 1899 – Gustavs Celmins, Latvian politician (d. 1968)
  • 1900 – Robert McDowell, Mayor of Maryborough, Queensland (d. 1988)
  • 1901 – Whittaker Chambers, American writer, editor, and defector (d. 1961)
  • 1902 – Maria Polydouri, Greek poet (d. 1930)
  • 1906 – Aleksandr Yakovlev, Russian engineer and airplane designer (d. 1989)
  • 1908 – Abraham Maslow, American psychologist (d. 1970)
  • 1909 – Eddy Duchin, American popular pianist & bandleader (d. 1951)
  • 1914 – Lor Tok, Thai comedian and actor (d. 2002)
  • 1915 – Otto Wilhelm Fischer, Austrian actor (d. 2004)
  • 1917 – Melville Shavelson, American film director, producer and screenwriter (d. 2007)
  • 1919 – Joseph Murray, American surgeon, Nobel laureate
  • 1920 – Toshiro Mifune, Japanese actor (d. 1997)
  • 1921 – Ken Reardon, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1922 – William Manchester, American historian (d. 2004)
  • 1924 – Brendan Byrne, Governor of New Jersey
  • 1924 – Miodrag Petrovic, Serbian actor (d. 2003)
  • 1926 – Charles Bressler, American tenor
  • 1926 – Anne McCaffrey, American author
  • 1928 – George Grizzard, American actor (d. 2007)
  • 1929 – Milan Kundera, Czech-born writer
  • 1929 – Payut Ngaokrachang, Thai animator
  • 1929 – Jane Powell, American dancer, actress, and singer
  • 1929 – Bo Schembechler, American football coach (d. 2006)
  • 1930 – Grace Lee Whitney, American actress
  • 1931 – Rolf Hochhuth, German writer
  • 1931 – Ita Ever, Estonian actress
  • 1932 – Gordon Jump, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1932 – Debbie Reynolds, American actress
  • 1933 – Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, French physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1933 – Dan Flavin, American artist (d. 1996)
  • 1934 – Don Hastings, American actor
  • 1934 – Rod Kanehl, American baseball player (d. 2004)
  • 1934 – Vladimir Posner, Russian journalist
  • 1935 – Larry McDonald, American politician (d. 1983)
  • 1936 – Jean-Pascal Delamuraz, Swiss politician, president of the Confederation in 1989 and 1996 (d. 1998)
  • 1938 – Ali MacGraw, American actress
  • 1938 – John Quade, American actor
  • 1939 – Phil Niekro, American baseball player
  • 1939 – Rudolph Isley, American singer
  • 1940 – Wangari Maathai, Kenyan environmentalist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1942 – Samuel R. Delany, American author
  • 1942 – Annie Nightingale, British disc jockey
  • 1944 – Rusty Staub, American baseball player
  • 1945 – John Barbata, American drummer
  • 1946 – Ronnie Lane, English musician (d. 1997)
  • 1946 – Arrigo Sacchi, Italian football coach
  • 1947 – Alain Connes, French mathematician
  • 1947 – M, English singer
  • 1947 – Norm Van Lier, American basketball player
  • 1948 – Jimmy Cliff, Jamaican musician
  • 1949 – Gérard Mestrallet, French businessman
  • 1949 – Sammy Nelson, Northern Irish footballer
  • 1949 – Gil Scott-Heron, American musician and composer
  • 1950 – Samuel Alito, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
  • 1952 – Annette O’Toole, American actress
  • 1952 – Bernard Stiegler, French philosopher
  • 1953 – Barry Sonnenfeld, producer and director
  • 1954 – Jeff Porcaro, American drummer (d. 1992)
  • 1955 – Gregg Jarrett, American television anchor
  • 1955 – Humayun Akhtar Khan, Pakistani statesman
  • 1957 – David Gower, English cricketer
  • 1958 – D. Boon, American musician d. 1985)
  • 1960 – Michael Praed, British actor
  • 1962 – Dave Ulliott, English poker player
  • 1964 – Erik Breukink, Dutch cyclist and manager
  • 1964 – Scott Stevens, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1965 – Mark Jackson, American basketball player
  • 1965 – Robert Steadman, English composer
  • 1966 – Chris Evans, English disc jockey
  • 1967 – Phil Demmel, American musician
  • 1970 – Sung Hi Lee, Korean-born model
  • 1971 – Method Man, American rapper
  • 1971 – Shinji Nakano, Japanese race car driver
  • 1972 – Allen and Albert Hughes, American film directors
  • 1972 – Darren McCarty, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1972 – Jesse Tobias, American musician
  • 1973 – Christian Finnegan, American comedian
  • 1973 – Stephen Fleming, New Zealand cricketer
  • 1973 – Joe Francis, American adult video producer
  • 1974 – Richard Christy, American drummer
  • 1974 – Hugo Benjamín Ibarra, Argentine footballer
  • 1974 – Sandra Völker, German swimmer
  • 1975 – George Bastl, Swiss tennis player
  • 1975 – John Butler, Australian singer and musician
  • 1977 – Haimar Zubeldia, Spanish cyclist
  • 1978 – Jean-Pierre Dumont, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1978 – Miroslava Vavrinec, Swiss tennis player
  • 1979 – Ivano Balic, Croatian handballer
  • 1980 – Randy Orton, American professional wrestler
  • 1980 – Bijou Phillips, American actress
  • 1980 – Yuko Takeuchi, Japanese actress
  • 1981 – Antonis Fotsis, Greek basketball player
  • 1981 – Hannah Spearritt, British singer
  • 1981 – Pieter Weening, Dutch cyclist
  • 1981 – Aimee Chan, Miss Hong Kong 2006
  • 1982 – Sam Huntington, American actor
  • 1982 – Gemma Hunt, British children’s television presenter
  • 1982 – Taran Killam, American comedian and actor
  • 1983 – Ólafur Ingi Skúlason, Icelandic footballer
  • 1983 – Sean Taylor, American football player (d. 2007)
  • 1984 – Gilberto Macena, Brazilian footballer
  • 1984 – Olga Rei, Russian television personality
  • 1985 – Josh Zuckerman, American actor
  • 1985 – Shay Doron, Israeli basketball player
  • 1986 – Ireen Wüst, Dutch speed skater
  • 1987 – Ding Junhui, Chinese snooker player
  • 1987 – Li Ting, Chinese diver
  • 1988 – Courtney McCool, American gymnast
  • 1989 – Vietoris Krisztián, German racecar driver

April 1 – Deaths:

  • 1085 – Emperor Shenzong of China (b. 1048)
  • 1132 – St-Hugues, Bishop of Grenoble (b. 1053)
  • 1204 – Eleanor of Aquitaine, mother of Richard I of England and John of England
  • 1205 – King Amalric II of Jerusalem (b. 1145)
  • 1528 – Francisco de Peñalosa, Spanish composer
  • 1580 – Alonso Mudarra, Spanish composer
  • 1621 – Cristofano Allori, Italian painter (b. 1577)
  • 1637 – Niwa Nagashige, Japanese warlord (b. 1571)
  • 1682 – Franz Egon of Fürstenberg, Bishop of Strassburg (b. 1625)
  • 1787 – Floyer Sydenham, English classical scholar (b. 1710)
  • 1791 – Richard Butler American soldier (b. 1743)
  • 1839 – Benjamin Pierce, Governor of New Hampshire (b. 1757)
  • 1865 – Giuditta Pasta, Italian soprano (b. 1797)
  • 1872 – Frederick Maurice, English theologian (b. 1805)
  • 1872 – William Frederick Horry, executed by William Marwood (b. 1843)
  • 1878 – John Corry Wilson Daly, Canadian politician (b. 1796)
  • 1890 – David Wilber, American politician (b. 1820)
  • 1914 – Rube Waddell, American baseball player (b. 1876)
  • 1917 – Scott Joplin, American musician and composer (b. 1868)
  • 1922 – Emperor Karl I of Austria (b. 1887)
  • 1930 – Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner (b. 1837)
  • 1946 – Noah Beery, American actor (b. 1882)
  • 1947 – King George II of Greece (b. 1890)
  • 1950 – Charles R. Drew, American physician (b. 1904)
  • 1965 – Helena Rubinstein, cosmetic manufacturer (b. 1870)
  • 1966 – Flann O’Brien, Irish humorist (b. 1911)
  • 1968 – Lev Davidovich Landau, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1908)
  • 1976 – Max Ernst, German artist (b. 1891)
  • 1979 – Bruno Coquatrix, French music impresario (b. 1910)
  • 1979 – Barbara Luddy, American actress (b. 1908)
  • 1981 – Eua Sunthornsanan, Thai composer and bandleader (b. 1910)
  • 1984 – Marvin Gaye, American singer (b. 1939)
  • 1986 – Erik Bruhn, Danish ballet dancer, choreographer (b. 1928)
  • 1988 – Jim Jordan, American actor (Fibber McGee) (b. 1896)
  • 1991 – Martha Graham, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1894)
  • 1993 – Alan Kulwicki, American race car driver (b. 1954)
  • 1994 – Robert Doisneau, French photographer (b. 1912)
  • 1996 – Florence Buchsbaum, theater director and musician (b. 1926)
  • 1996 – John McSherry, American baseball umpire (b. 1944)
  • 1997 – Norman Carr, British conservationist (b. 1912)
  • 1998 – Gene Evans, American actor (b. 1922)
  • 1998 – Rozz Williams, American musician (Christian Death) (b. 1963)
  • 1999 – Jesse Stone, American record producer (b. 1901)
  • 2000 – Alexander Mackenzie Stuart, Baron Mackenzie-Stuart, president of the European Court of Justice (b. 1924)
  • 2001 – Olivia Barclay, British astrologer (b. 1919)
  • 2001 – Jo-Jo Moore, American baseball player (b. 1908)
  • 2001 – Trinh Cong Son, Vietnamese composer (b. 1939)
  • 2002 – Simo Hayha, Finnish marksman (b. 1905)
  • 2003 – Leslie Cheung, Hong Kong actor and singer (b. 1956)
  • 2004 – Carrie Snodgress, American actress (b. 1946)
  • 2005 – Alexander Brott, Canadian violinist, conductor and composer (b. 1915)
  • 2005 – Harald Juhnke, German entertainer (b. 1929)
  • 2005 – Jack Keller, American songwriter (b. 1936)
  • 2005 – Ioannis Kyrastas, Greek footballer and manager (b. 1952)
  • 2005 – Robert Coldwell Wood, American university president and political appointee (b. 1923)
  • 2006 – In Tam, Cambodian politician (b. 1916)
  • 2007 – Herb Carneal, Major League Baseball radio broadcaster (b. 1923)

April 1 – Holidays:

  • April 1is known as April Fool’s Day or All Fools’ Day in many countries.
  • Last day of the Assyrian New Year Celebration.
  • Roman Empire – Veneralia celebrated to honor Venus.
  • Brielle celebrates the victory of 1572 over the Spaniards.
  • In San Marino, two Captains Regent, elected by Parliament, take office for six months.
  • Užupis – Residents celebrate their independence on Užupis Day.
  • In the Roman Catholic Church calendar:

o    Saint Hugh of Grenoble

o    Saint Waleric

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