On This Day in History April 13

April 13 – Events:

  • 1111 – Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1180 – Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter.
  • 1204 – The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople.
  • 1250 – The Seventh Crusade is defeated in Egypt, Louis IX of France is captured.
  • 1256 – The Grand Union of the Augustinian order formed when Pope Alexander IV issues a papal bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae.
  • 1598 – Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots.
  • 1742 – George Frideric Handel’s oratorio Messiah makes its world-premiere in Dublin, Ireland.
  • 1829 – The British Parliament grants freedom of religion to Roman Catholics.
  • 1849 – Hungary becomes a republic.
  • 1861 – American Civil War: Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederate forces.
  • 1868 – Abyssinian War ends as British and Indian troops capture Magdala.
  • 1873 – Colfax Massacre.
  • 1883 – Alferd Packer is convicted of murder.
  • 1902 – James C. Penney opens his first store in Kemmerer, Wyoming.
  • 1919 – The Establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
  • 1919 – Amritsar massacre: British troops massacre at least 379 unarmed demonstrators in Amritsar, India.
  • 1921 – Foundation of the Spanish Communist Workers’ Party.
  • 1939 – In India, the Hindustani Lal Sena (Indian Red Army) is formed and vows to engage in armed struggle against the British.
  • 1941 – Pact of neutrality between the USSR and Japan is signed.
  • 1943 – World War II: The discovery of a mass grave of Polish prisoners of war executed by Soviet forces in the Katyn Forest Massacre was announced, alienating the Western Allies, the Polish government-in-exile in London, from the Soviet Union.
  • 1943 – James Boarman, Fred Hunter, Harold Brest and Floyd G. Hamilton take part in an Alcatraz escape attempt.
  • 1943 – The Jefferson Memorial is dedicated in Washington, DC, on the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson’s birth.
  • 1944 – The diplomatic relations between New Zealand and the Soviet Union were established.
  • 1945 – German troops massacre more than 1,000 political and military prisoners in Gardelegen Germany.
  • 1969 – Closure of the Brisbane tramway network.
  • 1970 – An oxygen tank aboard Apollo 13 explodes, putting the crew into deadly peril.
  • 1972 – The Universal Postal Union decides to recognize the People’s Republic of China as the only legitimate Chinese representative, effectively expelling the Republic of China administering Taiwan.
  • 1974 – Western Union (in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft) launches the USA’s first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1.
  • 1975 – Bus Massacre in Lebanon : Attack by Phalangist militia gunmen kills 27 Palestinian civilians and marks the start of the 15-year Lebanese civil war.
  • 1983 – Harold Washington is elected as the first African-American mayor in Chicago’s history.
  • 1984 – India moves into Siachen Glacier thus annexed more territory from the Line of Control.
  • 1985 – Enver Hoxha is succeeded by Ramiz Alia as the leader of Albania.
  • 1987 – Portugal and the People’s Republic of China sign an agreement in which Macau would be returned to the latter in 1999.
  • 1992 – Neil Kinnock resigns as British Labour leader following the party’s defeat by the Conservatives in the general election four days earlier.
  • 1997 – Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win golf’s Masters Tournament.

April 13 – Birthdays:

  • 1506 – Peter Faber, French Jesuit theologian (d. 1546)
  • 1519 – Catherine de’ Medici, wife of Henry II of France (d. 1589)
  • 1547 – Elisabeth of Valois, third wife of Philip II of Spain (d. 1568)
  • 1570 – Guy Fawkes, English Catholic conspirator (d. 1606)
  • 1573 – Christina of Holstein-Gottorp, queen consort of Sweden (d. 1625)
  • 1584 – Albert VI of Bavaria (d. 1666)
  • 1593 – Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, English statesman (d. 1641)
  • 1618 – Roger de Rabutin, Comte de Bussy, French writer (d. 1693)
  • 1648 – Jeanne Marie Bouvier de la Motte Guyon, French mystic (d. 1717)
  • 1715 – John Hanson, President of the United States in Congress Assembled (d. 1783)
  • 1729 – Thomas Percy, Bishop and magazine editor (d. 1811)
  • 1732 – Frederick North, Lord North, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1792)
  • 1735 – Isaac Low, delegate to the Continental Congress (d. 1791)
  • 1743 – Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President of the United States (d. 1826)
  • 1747 – Louis Philip II, Duke of Orléans (d. 1793)
  • 1764 – Laurent, Marquis de Gouvion Saint-Cyr, French marshal (d. 1830)
  • 1769 – Thomas Lawrence, English painter (d. 1830)
  • 1771 – Richard Trevithick, English engineer and inventor (d. 1833)
  • 1780 – Alexander Mitchell, Irish engineer (d. 1868)
  • 1784 – Friedrich Graf von Wrangel, Prussian field marshal (d. 1877)
  • 1787 – John Robertson, U.S. politician (d. 1873)
  • 1802 – Leopold Fitzinger, Austrian zoologist (d. 1884)
  • 1808 – Antonio Meucci, Italian inventor (d. 1896)
  • 1825 – Thomas D’Arcy McGee, Canadian journalist and politician (d. 1868)
  • 1828 – Joseph Barber Lightfoot, English theologian and Bishop (d. 1889)
  • 1832 – Juan Montalvo, Ecuadoran author (d. 1889)
  • 1841 – Louis-Ernest Barrias, French sculptor (d. 1905)
  • 1850 – Arthur Matthew Weld Downing, British astronomer (d. 1917)
  • 1851 – Robert Abbe, American surgeon (d. 1928)
  • 1852 – F.W. Woolworth, American businessman (d. 1919)
  • 1860 – James Ensor, Belgian painter (d. 1949)
  • 1866 – Butch Cassidy, American outlaw (d. 1908)
  • 1872 – Alexander Roda Roda, Austrian writer (d. 1945)
  • 1873 – John W. Davis, American politician (d. 1955)
  • 1875 – Ray Lyman Wilbur, U.S. university president and politician (d. 1949)
  • 1879 – Edward Bruce, Director art projects (d. 1943)
  • 1880 – Charles Christie, Canadian film studio owner (d. 1955)
  • 1885 – Georg Lukács, Hungarian-born philosopher and literary critic (d. 1971)
  • 1885 – Vean Gregg, American baseball player (d. 1964)
  • 1887 – Gordon S. Fahrni, Canadian physician and President of the Canadian Medical Association (d. 1995)
  • 1889 – Herbert Osborne Yardley, American cryptographer (d. 1958)
  • 1890 – Frank Murphy, American public servant (d. 1949)
  • 1891 – Maurice Vincent Buckley, Australian winner of the Victoria Cross (d. 1921)
  • 1891 – Nella Larsen, African-American novelist (d. 1964)
  • 1892 – Arthur Travers ‘Bomber’ Harris, British Air Force commander (d. 1984)
  • 1892 – Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, Scottish inventor (d. 1973)
  • 1895 – Arthur Fadden, thirteenth Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1973)
  • 1897 – Werner Voss, German World War I pilot (d. 1917)
  • 1899 – Alfred Mosher Butts, American architect and Scrabble inventor (d. 1993)
  • 1900 – Pierre Molinier, French painter and photographer (d. 1976)
  • 1901 – Jacques Lacan, French psychoanalyst and semanticist (d. 1981)
  • 1902 – Philippe de Rothschild, French race car driver and wine grower (d. 1988)
  • 1904 – Sir David Robinson, British philanthropist and entrepreneur (d. 1987)
  • 1906 – Samuel Beckett, Irish writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1989)
  • 1906 – Bud Freeman, American musician (d. 1991)
  • 1907 – Harold Stassen, American Presidential candidate (d. 2001)
  • 1909 – Stanislaw Marcin Ulam, Polish mathematician (d. 1984)
  • 1909 – Eudora Welty, American writer (d. 2001)
  • 1911 – Ico Hitrec, Croatian footballer (d. 1946)
  • 1911 – Jean-Louis Lévesque, Canadian entrepreneur and philanthropist (d. 1994)
  • 1916 – Phyllis Fraser Cerf Wagner, American actress, journalist, and publisher (d. 2006)
  • 1917 – Robert O. Anderson, American businessman (d. 2007)
  • 1919 – Roland Gaucher, French journalist
  • 1919 – Howard Keel, American actor, singer, and president of the Screen Actors Guild (d. 2004)
  • 1919 – Madalyn Murray O’Hair, American atheist activist (d. 1995)
  • 1919 – Phil Tonken, American radio and television announcer (d. 2000)
  • 1920 – Roberto Calvi, Italian banker (d. 1982)
  • 1920 – Claude Cheysson, French politician
  • 1920 – Liam Cosgrave, fifth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland
  • 1920 – John LaPorta, American musician (d. 2004)
  • 1922 – John Braine, British novelist (d. 1986)
  • 1922 – Julius Nyerere, Tanzanian politician (d. 1999)
  • 1923 – Don Adams, American actor and comedian (d. 2005)
  • 1924 – Jack Chick, American evangelist
  • 1924 – Stanley Donen, American film director
  • 1926 – John Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough
  • 1926 – Ellie Lambeti, Greek actress (d. 1983)
  • 1927 – Maurice Ronet, French film actor (d. 1983)
  • 1928 – Alan Clark, English politician (d. 1999)
  • 1931 – Robert Enrico, French film director and screenwriter (d. 2001)
  • 1931 – Dan Gurney, American race car driver and team owner
  • 1931 – Jon Stone, co-creator of Sesame Street (d. 1997)
  • 1932 – Orlando Letelier, Chilean politician (d. 1976)
  • 1933 – Ben Nighthorse Campbell, U.S. politician
  • 1935 – Lyle Waggoner, American actor
  • 1937 – Edward Fox, English actor
  • 1937 – Lanford Wilson, American playwright
  • 1939 – Seamus Heaney, Irish writer, Nobel laureate
  • 1939 – Paul Sorvino, American actor
  • 1940 – Mike Beuttler, British racing driver (d. 1988)
  • 1940 – Jim McNab, Scottish footballer (d. 2006)
  • 1941 – Michael Stuart Brown, American geneticist, Nobel laureate
  • 1942 – Bill Conti, American composer
  • 1943 – Billy Kidd, American skier
  • 1944 – Jack Casady, American musician
  • 1944 – Susan Davis, American politician
  • 1944 – Brian Pendleton, musician (d. 2001)
  • 1945 – Tony Dow, American actor
  • 1945 – Lowell George, American singer/guitarist (d. 1979)
  • 1945 – Bob Kalsu, American football player (d. 1970)
  • 1945 – Judy Nunn, Australian actress
  • 1945 – Charles Robinson, American actor
  • 1946 – Al Green, American singer and pastor
  • 1947 – Thanos Mikroutsikos, Greek composer & former minister
  • 1948 – Sue Doughty, British politician
  • 1948 – Nam Hae-il, Chief of Naval Operations of Republic of Korea Navy
  • 1949 – Frank Doran, Scottish politician
  • 1949 – Christopher Hitchens, English-born journalist, critic, and author
  • 1949 – Ricardo Zuniño, Argentine racing driver
  • 1950 – Terry Lester, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1950 – Ron Perlman, American actor
  • 1950 – William Sadler, American actor
  • 1951 – Peabo Bryson, American singer
  • 1951 – Peter Davison, English actor
  • 1951 – Joachim Streich, East German footballer
  • 1951 – Max Weinberg, American drummer
  • 1952 – Ron Dittemore, American space administrator
  • 1952 – David Drew, British politician
  • 1952 – Erick Avari, British-Indian actor
  • 1953 – Stephen Byers, British politician
  • 1954 – Niels Olsen, Danish singer
  • 1955 – Ole von Beust, Mayor of Hamburg
  • 1955 – Lupe Pintor, Mexican boxer
  • 1956 – Peter ‘Possum’ Bourne, New Zealand rally driver (d. 2003)
  • 1957 – Saundra Santiago, American actress
  • 1957 – Dallas Moir, Scottish cricketer
  • 1960 – Rudi Völler, German football coach
  • 1960 – Olaf Ludwig, German cyclist
  • 1961 – Hiro Yamamoto, American rock bassist
  • 1962 – Dave Miley, former baseball player and manager
  • 1962 – Hillel Slovak, Israeli-born guitarist (d. 1988)
  • 1962 – Jennifer Rubin, American actress
  • 1963 – Garry Kasparov, Russian chess player
  • 1964 – Caroline Rhea, Canadian actress
  • 1965 – Patricio Pouchulu, Argentinean architect
  • 1966 – Ali Boumnijel, Tunisian football player
  • 1966 – Marc Ford, American musician
  • 1967 – Olga Tañón, Puerto Rican singer
  • 1970 – Monty Brown, American professional wrestler
  • 1970 – Gerry Creaney, Scottish footballer
  • 1970 – Rick Schroder, American actor
  • 1970 – Szilveszter Csollány, Hungarian gymnast, Olympic gold medalist
  • 1970 – Ricardo Rincon, Mexican baseball player
  • 1971 – Dina Korzun, Russian actress
  • 1971 – Bo Outlaw, American basketball player
  • 1971 – Valensia, Dutch singer
  • 1972 – Mariusz Czerkawski, Polish ice hockey player
  • 1972 – Aaron Lewis, American singer (Staind)
  • 1974 – Darren Turner , British Race Driver
  • 1974 – Sergei Gonchar, Russian ice hockey player
  • 1974 – David Zdrilic, Australian soccer player
  • 1975 – Lou Bega, German-born musician and artist
  • 1975 – Bruce Dyer, English footballer
  • 1976 – Jonathan Brandis, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1976 – Patrik Eliáš, Czech ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Yu Ji-tae, South Korean actor
  • 1978 – Arron Asham, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1978 – Kyle Howard, American actor
  • 1978 – Carles Puyol, Spanish footballer
  • 1978 – Chris Sligh, American Idol finalist
  • 1979 – Baron Davis, American basketball player
  • 1979 – Meghann Shaughnessy, American tennis player
  • 1980 – Jana Cova, Czech pornographic actress
  • 1980 – Quentin Richardson, American basketball player
  • 1980 – Colleen Clinkenbeard, American voice actress
  • 1981 – Courtney Peldon, American actress
  • 1981 – Nat Borchers, American soccer player
  • 1982 – Nellie McKay, American singer
  • 1982 – Janice Vidal, Hong Kong singer
  • 1982 – Jill Vidal, Hong Kong singer
  • 1983 – Schalk Burger, South African rugby player
  • 1984 – Hiro Mizushima, Japanese actor
  • 1987 – Brandon Hardesty, American internet entertainer
  • 1988 – Anderson Luís de Abreu Oliveira, Brazilian footballer
  • 1992 – Emma Degerstedt, American actress

April 13 – Deaths:

  • 799 – Paul the Deacon, Italian monk and chronicler
  • 814 – Krum, Khan of Bulgaria
  • 1093 – Prince Vsevolod I of Kiev (b. 1030)
  • 1279 – Boleslaus the Pious, Polish duke
  • 1605 – Boris Godunov, Tsar of Russia
  • 1612 – Sasaki Kojiro, Japanese samurai (killed by Musashi Miyamoto)
  • 1635 – Fahkr-al-Din II, Druze Prince of Lebanon (executed)
  • 1638 – Henri, duc de Rohan, French Huguenot leader (b. 1579)
  • 1641 – Richard Montagu, English clergyman (b. 1577)
  • 1695 – Jean de la Fontaine, French author (b. 1621)
  • 1722 – Charles Leslie, Irish Anglican theologian (b. 1650)
  • 1793 – Pierre Gaspard Chaumette, French revolutionary (b. 1763)
  • 1794 – Nicolas Chamfort, French writer (b. 1741)
  • 1826 – Franz Danzi, German composer (b. 1763)
  • 1853 – Leopold Gmelin, German chemist (b. 1788)
  • 1853 – James Iredell, Jr., Governor of North Carolina (b. 1788)
  • 1855 – Henry De la Beche, English geologist (b. 1796)
  • 1868 – Tewodros II, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1818)
  • 1880 – Robert Fortune, Scottish botanist (b. 1813)
  • 1882 – Bruno Bauer, German theologian (b. 1809)
  • 1890 – Samuel J. Randall, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (b. 1828)
  • 1909 – Whitley Stokes, British lawyer (b. 1830)
  • 1910 – William Quiller Orchardson, British painter (b. 1835)
  • 1911 – George Washington Glick, Governor of Kansas (b. 1827)
  • 1911 – John McLane, Governor of New Hampshire (b. 1852)
  • 1912 – Ishikawa Takuboku, Japanese author (b. 1886)
  • 1918 – Lavr Georgevich Kornilov, Russian general (b. 1870)
  • 1936 – Milton Brown, American swing bandleader (b. 1903)
  • 1938 – Grey Owl, proponent of nature conservation (b. 1888)
  • 1941 – Annie Jump Cannon, American astronomer (b. 1863)
  • 1944 – Cécile Chaminade, French composer and pianist (b. 1857)
  • 1945 – Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher (b. 1874)
  • 1954 – Angus Lewis Macdonald, Premier of Nova Scotia (b. 1890)
  • 1959 – Eduard van Beinum, Dutch conductor (b. 1901)
  • 1962 – Culbert Olson, Governor of California (b. 1876)
  • 1966 – Abdul Salam Arif, President of Iraq (b. 1921)
  • 1966 – Georges Duhamel, French writer (b. 1884)
  • 1971 – Michel Brière, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1949)
  • 1971 – Juhan Smuul, Estonian author (b. 1921)
  • 1975 – Larry Parks, American actor (b. 1914)
  • 1975 – François (Ngarta) Tombalbaye, first President of Chad (b. 1918)
  • 1978 – Jack Chambers, Canadian artist and film maker (b. 1931)
  • 1980 – Markus Höttinger, Austrian racing driver (b. 1956)
  • 1981 – Prince Asaka Yasuhiko of Japan (b. 1887)
  • 1983 – Theodore Stephanides, Greek poet, author, doctor and naturalist (b. 1896)
  • 1984 – Richard Hurndall. British actor (b. 1910)
  • 1984 – Ralph Kirkpatrick, American musician (b. 1911)
  • 1984 – Dionyssis Papayannopoulos, Greek actor (b. 1912)
  • 1986 – Stephen Stucker. American actor (b. 1947)
  • 1993 – Wallace Stegner, American writer (car accident) (b. 1909)
  • 1997 – Dorothy Frooks, American author, publisher, military figure, and actress (b. 1896)
  • 1997 – Voldemar Väli, Estonian wrestler, Olympic medalist (b. 1903)
  • 1998 – Patrick de Gayardon, French skydiver and skysurfing pioneer (b. 1960)
  • 1999 – Ortvin Sarapu, New Zealand chess player “Mr NZ Chess” (b. 1924)
  • 1999 – Willi Stoph, German politician (b. 1914)
  • 2000 – Giorgio Bassani, Italian writer (b. 1916)
  • 2001 – Robert Moon, Postal Inspector and “Father” of the ZIP Code (b. 1917)
  • 2002 – Desmond Titterington, Northern Irish racecar driver (b. 1928)
  • 2004 – Lou Berberet, baseball player (b. 1929)
  • 2004 – Caron Keating, British television presenter (b. 1962)
  • 2005 – Don Blasingame, baseball player (b. 1932)
  • 2005 – Johnnie Johnson, American blues musician (b. 1924)
  • 2005 – Johnny Loughrey, Irish singer (b. 1945)
  • 2006 – Bill Baker, baseball player (b. 1911)
  • 2007 – Don Selwyn, Maori actor and film director (b. circa 1936)

April 13 – Holidays:

  • First day of Thai New Year.
  • First day of Cambodian New Year.
  • First day of Sinhala/Hindu new year in Sri Lanka
  • Liturgical feasts:

o   The Feast Day of St. Martin the Confessor in the Greek Orthodox Church.

o   In the Catholic Church:

  • Saint Martinus I
  • Saint Hermenegild
  • Caradoc
  • Carpus
  • Maximus
  • Blessed Ida of Boulogne
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