On This Day in History July 21

July 21 – Events:

  • 356 BC – A young man called Herostratus set fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
  • 1403 – Battle of Shrewsbury: King Henry IV of England defeats rebels to the north of the county town of Shropshire, England
  • 1545 – The first landing of French troops onto the coast of the Isle of Wight during the French invasion of the Isle of Wight occurs.
  • 1568 – Eighty Years’ War: Battle of Jemmingen – Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva defeats Louis of Nassau.
  • 1718 – Treaty of Passarowitz between the Ottoman Empire, Austria and the Republic of Venice is signed.
  • 1774 – Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774: Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji ending the war.
  • 1831 – Inauguration of Léopold I of Belgium, first king of the Belgians.
  • 1861 – American Civil War: First Battle of Bull Run – At Manassas Junction, Virginia, the first major battle of the war begins (Confederate victory).
  • 1865 – In the market square of Springfield, Missouri, Wild Bill Hickok shoots Dave Tutt dead in what is regarded as the first true western showdown.
  • 1873 – At Adair, Iowa, Jesse James and the James-Younger gang pull off the first successful train robbery in the American West.
  • 1877 – After rioting by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad workers and the deaths of nine rail workers at the hands of the Maryland militia, workers in Pittsburgh stage a sympathy strike that is met with an assault by the state militia.
  • 1919 The dirigible Wingfoot Air Express crashed into the Illinois Trust and Savings Building in Chicago, killing 12 people.
  • 1925 – Scopes Trial: In Dayton, Tennessee, high school biology teacher John T. Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution in class and fined $100.
  • 1931 – CBS’s New York City station begins broadcasting the first regular seven days a week television schedule in the U.S.
  • 1944 – World War II: Battle of Guam – American troops land on Guam starting the battle (ends on August 10).
  • 1954 – First Indochina War: The Geneva Conference partitions Vietnam into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
  • 1960 – Sirimavo Bandaranaike becomes the first woman prime minister in the world, making her the first elected female national leader in the world (Sri Lanka).
  • 1961 – Mercury program: Mercury-Redstone 4 Mission – Gus Grissom piloting “Liberty Bell 7” becomes the second American to go into space (in a suborbital mission).
  • 1969 – Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin become the first men to walk on the Moon, during the Apollo 11 mission.
  • 1970 – After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt is completed.
  • 1972 – Bloody Friday bombing by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) around Belfast, Northern Ireland – 22 bomb explosions, 9 people killed and 130 people seriously injured.
  • 1976 – Christopher Ewart-Biggs British ambassador to the Republic of Ireland is assassinated by the Provisional IRA.
  • 1977 – Start of a four day long Libyan-Egyptian War.
  • 1983 – The world’s lowest temperature is recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica at -89.2°C (-129°F).
  • 1984 – In Jackson, Michigan, a factory robot crushes a worker against a safety bar in apparently the first robot-related death in the United States.
  • 1994 – Tony Blair is declared the winner of the leadership election of the British Labour Party, paving the way to him becoming Prime Minister in 1997.
  • 1995 – Third Taiwan Strait Crisis: The People’s Liberation Army begins firing missiles into the waters north of Taiwan.
  • 1997 – The fully restored USS Constitution (aka “Old Ironsides”) celebrates her 200th birthday by setting sail for the first time in 116 years.
  • 2002 – Telecom giant WorldCom files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the largest such filing in United States history.
  • 2004 – The United Kingdom government publishes Delivering Security in a Changing World, a paper detailing wide-ranging reform of the country’s armed forces.
  • 2005 – Four terrorist bombings, occurring exactly two weeks after the similar July 7 bombings, target London’s public transportation system. All four bombs fail to detonate and all four suspected suicide bombers were captured, convicted and imprisoned for long terms.

July 21 – Birthdays:

  • 1515 – Philip Neri, Italian churchman (d. 1595)
  • 1620 – Jean Picard, French astronomer (d. 1682)
  • 1664 – Matthew Prior, English poet and diplomat (d. 1721)
  • 1693 – Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1768)
  • 1710 – Paul Möhring, German physician (d. 1792)
  • 1810 – Henri Victor Regnault, French chemist (d. 1878)
  • 1858 – Lovis Corinth, German painter (d. 1925)
  • 1858 – Maria Christina of Austria, queen of Spain (d. 1929)
  • 1858 – Alfred Henry O’Keeffe, New Zealand artist (d. 1941)
  • 1870 – Emil Orlik, Czech painter (d. 1932)
  • 1880 – Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Slovak politician, French general and astronomer (d. 1919)
  • 1882 – David Burliuk, Ukrainian artist (d. 1967)
  • 1893 – Hans Fallada, German writer (d. 1947)
  • 1899 – Hart Crane, American poet (d. 1932)
  • 1899 – Ernest Hemingway, American writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1961)
  • 1903 – Roy Neuberger, American financier
  • 1908 – Harold “Jug” McSpaden, American professional golfer (d. 1996)
  • 1911 – Marshall McLuhan, Canadian author (d. 1980)
  • 1920 – Constance Dowling, American actress (d. 1969)
  • 1920 – Isaac Stern, Ukrainian-born violinist (d. 2001)
  • 1923 – Rudolph A. Marcus, Canadian chemist, Nobel laureate
  • 1922 – Kay Starr, American singer
  • 1924 – Don Knotts, American actor (d. 2006)
  • 1925 – Anne Meacham, American actress
  • 1926 – Paul Burke, American actor
  • 1926 – Norman Jewison, Canadian film director
  • 1926 – Rahimuddin Khan, Pakistani general
  • 1926 – Queenie Watts, English actress (d. 1980)
  • 1928 – Marcel Gauthier, Canadian wrestler (d. 1998)
  • 1929 – Bob Orton, American wrestler (d. 2006)
  • 1932 – Ernie Warlick, American football player
  • 1933 – John Gardner, American author (d. 1982)
  • 1935 – Norbert Blüm, German politician
  • 1935 – Moe Drabowsky, baseball player (d. 2006)
  • 1938 – Janet Reno, 79th United States Attorney General
  • 1939 – John Negroponte, 1st United States Director of National Intelligence
  • 1943 – Edward Herrmann, American actor
  • 1944 – Tony Scott, British film director
  • 1944 – Paul Wellstone, American politician (d. 2002)
  • 1945 – John Lowe, English darts player
  • 1945 – Lydia Shum, Hong Kong comedian and actress (d. 2008)
  • 1946 – Kenneth Starr, American lawyer
  • 1948 – Ed Hinton, American sportswriter
  • 1948 – Yusuf Islam, formerly Cat Stevens, English singer
  • 1948 – Garry Trudeau, American cartoonist
  • 1949 – Al Hrabosky, baseball player
  • 1950 – Ubaldo Fillol, Argentinian footballer
  • 1951 – Robin Williams, American comedian/actor
  • 1953 – Brian Talbot, British footballer
  • 1953 – Jeff Fatt, Chinese Australian actor
  • 1955 – Howie Epstein, American musician (d. 2003)
  • 1955 – Taco Ockerse, Indonesian singer
  • 1957 – Jon Lovitz, American comedian
  • 1957 – George Landress, American songwriter and music producer
  • 1959 – Paul “Fatty” Vautin, Australian rugby league player
  • 1960 – Lance Guest, American actor
  • 1960 – Fritz Walter, German footballer
  • 1961 – Amar Singh Chamkila, Punjabi folk singer
  • 1961 – “Big” Jim Martin, American musician (Faith No More)
  • 1963 – Kevin Poole, English footballer
  • 1964 – Jens Weißflog, German ski jumper
  • 1965 – Gudni Bergsson, Icelandic footballer
  • 1965 – Mike Bordick, American baseball player
  • 1966 – Arija Bareikis, American actress
  • 1968 – Brandi Chastain, American soccer player
  • 1968 – Lyle Odelein, Canadian hockey player
  • 1969 – Emerson Hart, American musician (Tonic)
  • 1970 – Shawn Stasiak, American professional wrestler
  • 1971 – Emmanuel Bangué, French long jumper
  • 1971 – Charlotte Gainsbourg, French actress and singer
  • 1971 – Nuno Markl, Portuguese comedian and radio host
  • 1974 – Geoff Jenkins, American baseball player
  • 1975 – Mike Sellers, National Football League fullback
  • 1978 – Josh Hartnett, American actor
  • 1978 – Justin Bartha, American actor
  • 1978 – Damian Marley, Jamacian musician
  • 1978 – Gary Teale, Scottish football player
  • 1979 – David Carr, American football player
  • 1979 – Tamika Catchings, American basketball player
  • 1980 – C. C. Sabathia, American baseball player
  • 1981 – Titus Bramble, English footballer
  • 1981 – Stefan Schumacher, German cyclist
  • 1981 – Veronica Belmont, CNET TV personality
  • 1981 – Blake Lewis, American Idol finalist
  • 1981 – Joaquín Sánchez, Spanish footballer
  • 1982 – Claudette Ortiz, American soul singer
  • 1983 – Eivør Pálsdóttir, Faroese singer
  • 1983 – Kellen Winslow II, American football player
  • 1984 – Liam Ridgewell, English footballer
  • 1985 – Von Wafer, American basketball player
  • 1989 – Jamie Waylett, British actor
  • 1988 – Chris Mitchell (footballer), Falkirk F.C Player
  • 1989 – Rory Culkin, American actor
  • 1989 – Chris Gunter, Welsh footballer
  • 1992 – Rachael Flatt, American figure skater

July 21 – Deaths:

  • 1403 – Henry Percy, English soldier (killed in battle)
  • 1425 – Manuel II Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (b. 1350)
  • 1688 – James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, English statesman and soldier (b. 1610)
  • 1793 – Bruni d’Entrecasteaux, French explorer (b. 1739)
  • 1796 – Robert Burns, Scottish poet (b. 1759)
  • 1798 – François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt, Austrian field marshal (b.  1733)
  • 1880 – Hiram Walden, American politician (b. 1800)
  • 1889 – Nelson Dewey, American politician, 1st Governor of Wisconsin (b. 1813)
  • 1899 – Robert G. Ingersoll, American politician and military officer (b. 1833)
  • 1932 – Bill Gleason, late 19th century baseball player
  • 1938 – Owen Wister, American author (b. 1860)
  • 1941 – Bohdan Lepky, Ukrainian writer and poet (b. 1872)
  • 1943 – Charlie Paddock, American athlete (b. 1900)
  • 1944 – Claus von Stauffenberg, German, leader of failed plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, by execution (b. 1907)
  • 1944 – Ludwig Beck, German Chief of Staff (b. 1880)
  • 1946 – Gualberto Villarroel, President of Bolivia (b. 1908)
  • 1967 – Jimmie Foxx, baseball player (b. 1907)
  • 1967 – Albert Lutuli, South African politician, Nobel Peace Prize laureate
  • 1967 – Basil Rathbone, English actor (b. 1892)
  • 1968 – Ruth St. Denis, dancer and choreographer (b. 1878)
  • 1970 – Mikhail Gerasimov, Russian anthropologist and sculptor (b. 1907)
  • 1970 – Bob Kalsu, American football player (b. 1945)
  • 1972 – Ralph Craig, American athlete (b. 1889)
  • 1982 – Dave Garroway, American television host (b. 1913)
  • 1986 – Ernest Maas, American screenwriter (b. 1892)
  • 1998 – Alan Shepard, astronaut (b. 1923)
  • 1998 – Robert Young, American actor (b. 1907)
  • 2001 – Steve Barton, American actor (b. 1954)
  • 2001 – Sivaji Ganesan, South Indian Tamil actor (b. 1927)
  • 2003 – John Davies, New Zealand Olympic Committee president (b. 1938)
  • 2003 – Walter M. “Matt” Jefferies, American film art director (b. 1921)
  • 2004 – Jerry Goldsmith, American composer (b. 1929)
  • 2004 – Edward B. Lewis, American geneticist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate (b.  1918)
  • 2005 – Long John Baldry, British blues musician (b. 1941)
  • 2005 – Lord Alfred Hayes, British Wrestling Announcer for WWE (b. 1928)
  • 2006 – Mako, Japanese-born American actor (b. 1933)
  • 2006 – Ta Mok, “The Khmer Rouge Butcher,” war criminal in Democratic Kampuchea (b. 1926)

July 21 – Holidays:

  • Belgium: National holiday (1831 – inauguration of Léopold I, first king of the Belgians)
  • Guam: Liberation Day (1944)
  • Russia: summer Kazanskaya
  • Singapore: Racial Harmony Day
  • Roman Catholic Church:

o   Saint Arbogastus, bishop of Strasburg, confessor [Basel, Constance, Strassburg]

o   Saint Daniel

o   Saint Lawrence of Brindisi, priest, Doctor of the Church

o   Saint Praxedes (Praxidis)

o   Saint Victor of Marseilles, and companions, martyrs [Trier, southern France; Paris]

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