On This Day in History August 5

August 5 – Events:

  • 642 – Battle of Maserfeld – Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia.
  • 910 – The last major Viking army to raid England is defeated at the Battle of Tettenhall by the allied forces of Mercia and Wessex, led by King Edward and Earl Aethelred.
  • 1100 – Henry I crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey.
  • 1305 – William Wallace, who led Scottish resistance to England, is captured by the English near Glasgow and transported to London for trial and execution.
  • 1388 – Battle of Otterburn, border skirmish between the Scottish and the English in Northern England.
  • 1583 – Sir Humphrey Gilbert establishes first English colony in North America, at what is now St John’s, Newfoundland.
  • 1620 – The Mayflower departs Southampton, England.
  • 1689 – 1,500 Iroquois attack village of Lachine, in New France.
  • 1716 – Battle of Petrovaradin
  • 1735 – Freedom of the press: New York Weekly Journal writer John Peter Zenger is acquitted of seditious libel against the royal governor of New York, on the basis that what he published was true.
  • 1763 – Pontiac’s War: Battle of Bushy Run – British forces led by Henry Bouquet defeat Chief Pontiac’s Indians at Bushy Run.
  • 1772 – The First Partition of Poland begins.
  • 1812 – War of 1812: Tecumseh’s Indian force ambushes Thomas Van Horne’s 200 Americans at Brownstone Creek, causing them to flee and retreat.
  • 1858 – Cyrus West Field and others complete the first transatlantic telegraph cable after several unsuccessful attempts. It operated for less than a month.
  • 1860 – Carl IV of Sweden-Norway is crowned king of Norway, in Trondheim.
  • 1861 – American Civil War: In order to help pay for the war effort, the United States government issues the first income tax as part of the Revenue Act of 1861 (3% of all incomes over US $800; rescinded in 1872).
  • 1861 – The United States Army abolished flogging.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Baton Rouge – Along the Mississippi River near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Confederate troops drive Union forces back into the city.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Mobile Bay begins – At Mobile Bay near Mobile, Alabama, Admiral David Farragut leads a Union flotilla through Confederate defenses and seals one of the last major Southern ports.
  • 1870 – Franco-Prussian War: The Battle of Spicheren is fought, resulting in a Prussian victory.
  • 1874 – Japan launches its postal savings system, modeled after a similar system in England.
  • 1882 – Standard Oil of New Jersey is established.
  • 1882 – Martial law is enacted in Japan.
  • 1884 – The cornerstone for the Statue of Liberty is laid on Bedloe’s Island in New York Harbor.
  • 1888 – Bertha Benz drives from Mannheim to Pforzheim in the first long distance automobile trip.
  • 1901 – Peter O’Connor sets the first IAAF recognized long jump world record of 24feet 11¾ inches. The record will stand for 20 years.
  • 1912 – Japan’s first taxicab service begins in Ginza, Tokyo.
  • 1914 – In Cleveland, Ohio, the first electric traffic light is installed.
  • 1925 – Plaid Cymru is formed with the aim of disseminating knowledge of the Welsh language, which is in danger of dying out.
  • 1940 – World War II : Latvia is annexed by the Soviet Union.
  • 1943 – World War II: During the Battle of Troina, at around 11 A.M, Mount Etna erupted sending much ash and lava miles into the sky.
  • 1944 – World War II: Possibly the biggest prison breakout in history occurs as 545 Japanese POWs attempt to escape outside the town of Cowra, NSW, Australia.
  • 1944 – Holocaust: Polish insurgents liberate a German labor camp in Warsaw, freeing 348 Jewish prisoners.
  • 1949 – In Ecuador an earthquake destroys 50 towns and kills more than 6,000.
  • 1957 – American Bandstand, a show dedicated to the teenage “baby-boomers” by playing the songs and showing popular dances of the time, debuts on the ABC television network.
  • 1960 – Burkina Faso, then known as “Upper Volta”, becomes independent from France.
  • 1962 – Nelson Mandela is jailed. He would not be released until 1990.
  • 1963 – United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union sign a nuclear test ban treaty.
  • 1964 – Vietnam War: Operation Pierce Arrow – American aircraft from carriers USS Ticonderoga and USS
  • Constellation bomb North Vietnam in retaliation for strikes attacked US destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin.
  • 1969 – Mariner program: Mariner 7 makes its closest fly-by of Mars (3,524 kilometers).
  • 1974 – Vietnam War: The U.S. Congress places a $1 billion dollar limit on military aid to South Vietnam.
  • 1979 – In Afghanistan, Maoists undertake an attempted military uprising.
  • 1981 – Ronald Reagan fires 11,359 striking air-traffic controllers who ignored his order for them to return to work.
  • 1989 – General elections are held in Nicaragua, Sandinista Front wins the majority.
  • 1995 – The city of Knin, a significant Serb stronghold, is captured by Croatian forces during Operation Storm. The date is celebrated as the day of victory (Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day) in Croatia.
  • 2003 – A car bomb explodes in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta outside the Marriott Hotel killing 12 and injuring 150.

August 5 – Birthdays:

  • 1301 – Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, English politician (d. 1330)
  • 1397 – Guillaume Dufay, Franco-Flemish composer and theorist (d. 1474)
  • 1461 – Alexander Jagiellon, Grand Duke of Lithuania (d. 1506)
  • 1623 – Antonio Cesti, Italian composer (d. 1669)
  • 1641 – John Hathorne, American magistrate (d. 1717)
  • 1662 – James Anderson, Scottish historian (d. 1728)
  • 1694 – Leonardo Leo, Italian composer (d. 1744)
  • 1802 – Niels Henrik Abel, Norwegian mathematician (d. 1829)
  • 1811 – Ambroise Thomas, French opera composer (d. 1896)
  • 1813 – Ivar Aasen, Norwegian poet and language reformer (d. 1896)
  • 1815 – Edward John Eyre, English explorer (d. 1901)
  • 1827 – Deodoro da Fonseca, first President of Brazil (d.1892)
  • 1828 – Louise of the Netherlands, queen of Sweden and Norway (d. 1871)
  • 1833 – Carola of Vasa, Queen consort of Saxony (d. 1907)
  • 1850 – Guy de Maupassant, French author (d. 1893)
  • 1862 – Joseph Merrick, the “Elephant Man” (d. 1890)
  • 1866 – Carl Harries, German chemist (d. 1923)
  • 1866 – Harry Trott, Australian cricketer (d. 1917)
  • 1872 – Oswaldo Cruz, Brazilian physician (d. 1917)
  • 1877 – Tom Thomson, Canadian painter (d. 1917)
  • 1887 – Reginald Owen, English actor (d. 1972)
  • 1888 – Victor Francen, Belgian-born actor (d. 1977)
  • 1889 – Conrad Aiken, American writer (d. 1973)
  • 1890 – Erich Kleiber, Austrian-born conductor (d. 1956)
  • 1890 – Naum Gabo, sculptor (d. 1977)
  • 1897 – Aksel Larsen, Danish politician (d. 1972)
  • 1901 – Claude Autant-Lara, French film director (d. 2000)
  • 1906 – John Huston, American director (d. 1987)
  • 1906 – Wassily Leontief, Russian economist, Nobel laureate (d. 1999)
  • 1906 – Joan Hickson, English actress (d. 1998)
  • 1908 – Harold Holt, 17th Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1967)
  • 1910 – Bruno Coquatrix, French songwriter and music impresario (d. 1979)
  • 1911 – Robert Taylor, American actor (d. 1969)
  • 1912 – Abbé Pierre, French Catholic priest (d. 2007)
  • 1914 – David Brian, American actor (d. 1993)
  • 1918 – Tom Drake, American actor (d. 1982)
  • 1918 – Betty Oliphant, Canadian ballerina (d. 2004)
  • 1923 – Devan Nair, President of Singapore
  • 1930 – Neil Armstrong, American astronaut
  • 1930 – Michal Kovác, President of Slovakia
  • 1934 – Wendell Berry, American poet, writer and farmer
  • 1935 – John Saxon, American actor
  • 1937 – Herb Brooks, American ice hockey coach (d. 2003)
  • 1939 – Princess Irene of the Netherlands
  • 1941 – Bob Clark, American film director (d. 2007)
  • 1943 – Nelson Briles, American baseball player (d. 2005)
  • 1943 – Sammi Smith, American country singer and songwriter (d. 2005)
  • 1946 – Loni Anderson, American actress
  • 1946 – Ron Silliman, American poet
  • 1946 – Erika Slezak, American actress
  • 1947 – Angry Anderson, Australian entertainer
  • 1947 – Bernie Carbo, American baseball player
  • 1947 – Rick Derringer, American musician
  • 1948 – Carole Laure, French Canadian actress
  • 1948 – Ray Clemence, English footballer
  • 1951 – John Jarratt, Australian actor
  • 1953 – Rick Mahler, American baseball player (d. 2005)
  • 1953 – Samantha Sang, Australian singer
  • 1956 – Jerry Ciccoritti, Canadian film director
  • 1956 – Fred Ottman, American wrestler
  • 1956 – Maureen McCormick, American actress
  • 1957 – Faith Prince, American actress
  • 1959 – Pete Burns, English singer (Dead or Alive)
  • 1960 – Seth Swirsky, American songwriter
  • 1961 – Tawny Kitaen, American actress
  • 1961 – Mark O’Connor, American violinist
  • 1961 – Clayton Rohner, American actor
  • 1962 – Patrick Ewing, American basketball player
  • 1964 – Adam Yauch (MCA), American musician (Beastie Boys)
  • 1965 – Motoi Sakuraba, Japanese composer
  • 1966 – Jonathan Silverman, American actor
  • 1968 – Terri Clark, Canadian country singer
  • 1968 – Funkmaster Flex, American hip hop DJ
  • 1968 – Tokimitsu Ishizawa, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1968 – Oleg Luzhny, Ukrainian footballer
  • 1968 – Colin McRae, Scottish rally driver (d. 2007)
  • 1968 – John Olerud, American baseball player
  • 1970 – James Gunn, American filmmaker
  • 1971 – Evil Jared Hasselhoff, American bassist (The Bloodhound Gang)
  • 1972 – Christian Olde Wolbers, Belgian bassist (Fear Factory)
  • 1974 – Alvin Ceccoli, Australian soccer player
  • 1974 – Antoine Sibierski, French footballer
  • 1975 – Antony Cotton, English actor
  • 1975 – Ami Foster, American actress
  • 1975 – Kajol Mukherjee, Indian actress
  • 1976 – Jeff Friesen, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Kwon Sang-woo, South Korean actor
  • 1976 – Marian Pahars, Latvian footballer
  • 1977 – Eric Hinske, American baseball player
  • 1977 – Mark Mulder, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Kim Gevaert, Belgian sprinter
  • 1978 – Nektaria Karantzi, Greek singer
  • 1979 – David Healy, Northern Irish footballer
  • 1980 – Kaylani Lei, Asian-American porn star
  • 1980 – Wayne Bridge, English footballer
  • 1980 – Jason Culina, Australian soccer player
  • 1980 – Ali Umar, Maldivian footballer
  • 1981 – Carl Crawford, American baseball player
  • 1981 – Rachel Scott, American murder victim (d. 1999)
  • 1981 – Ko Shibasaki, Japanese singer
  • 1981 – Erik Guay, Canadian alpine skier
  • 1981 – Cory Williams, American internet celebrity
  • 1982 – LoLo Jones, American track and field athlete
  • 1982 – Ryu Seung Min, Korean table tennis player
  • 1982 – Tobias Regner, German singer
  • 1983 – Dawn Richard, American singer (Danity Kane)
  • 1985 – Salomon Kalou, Ivorian footballer
  • 1985 – Laurent Ciman, Belgian footballer
  • 1986 – Paula Creamer, American golfer
  • 1987 – Genelia D’Souza, Indian actress
  • 1987 – Xenia Tchoumitcheva, Russian-born Swiss model
  • 1993 – Corey J. Smith, English television actor
  • 1993 – Suzuka Ogo, Japanese actress
  • 2000 – Maya Bond, Japanese-born American singer and musician

August 5 – Deaths:

  • 882 – King Louis III of France (b. 863)
  • 1063 – Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, King of Gwynedd
  • 1364 – Emperor Kogon of Japan (b. 1313)
  • 1572 – Isaac Luria, Palestinian-born Kabbalist (b. 1534)
  • 1579 – Stanislaus Hosius, Polish Catholic cardinal (b. 1504)
  • 1610 – Alonso García de Ramón, Spanish soldier and twice Royal Governor of Chile
  • 1633 – Archbishop George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1562)
  • 1678 – Juan García de Zéspedes, Mexican musician and composer (b. 1619)
  • 1743 – John Hervey, Lord Hervey, English statesman and writer (b. 1696)
  • 1778 – Charles Clémencet, French historian (b. 1703)
  • 1792 – Frederick North, Lord North, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1732)
  • 1799 – Richard Howe, British admiral (b. 1726)
  • 1868 – Jacques Boucher de Crèvecoeur de Perthes, French archaeologist (b. 1788)
  • 1880 – Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra, Austrian physician (b. 1816)
  • 1895 – Friedrich Engels, German philosopher (b. 1820)
  • 1911 – Bob Caruthers, baseball player (b. 1864)
  • 1923 – Vatroslav Jagic, Croatian slavist (b. 1835)
  • 1925 – Jennie Lee (actor), American actress (b. 1848)
  • 1929 – Millicent Fawcett, British suffragist and feminist (b. 1847)
  • 1946 – Wilhelm Marx, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1863)
  • 1952 – Sameera Moussa, Egyptian nuclear scientist (b. 1917)
  • 1955 – Carmen Miranda, Portuguese actress and singer (b. 1909)
  • 1957 – Heinrich Otto Wieland, German chemist, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1877)
  • 1959 – Edgar Guest, English poet (b. 1881)
  • 1960 – Arthur Meighen, 9th Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1874)
  • 1962 – Marilyn Monroe, American actress (b. 1926)
  • 1963 – Salvador Bacarisse, Spanish composer (b. 1898)
  • 1964 – Art Ross, professional ice hockey player and executive (b. 1886) (Art Ross Trophy)
  • 1972 – Harry Hylton-Foster, Speaker of the British House of Commons (b. 1905)
  • 1978 – Jesse Haines, baseball player (b. 1893)
  • 1984 – Richard Burton, British actor (b. 1925)
  • 1991 – Paul Brown, American football coach (b. 1908)
  • 1991 – Soichiro Honda, founder of the Honda Motor Company (b. 1906)
  • 1992 – Jeff Porcaro, American drummer (b. 1954)
  • 1994 – Alain de Changy, Belgian racing driver (b. 1922)
  • 1998 – Otto Kretschmer, German U-boat commander (b. 1912)
  • 1998 – Todor Zhivkov, Bulgarian Communist dictator from 1956 to 1989 (b. 1911)
  • 2000 – Sir Alec Guinness, British actor (b. 1914)
  • 2000 – Otto Buchsbaum, writer and ecological activist (b. 1920)
  • 2002 – Josh Ryan Evans, American actor (b. 1982)
  • 2002 – Chick Hearn, American basketball announcer (b. 1916)
  • 2002 – Franco Lucentini, Italian writer (b. 1920)
  • 2005 – Polina Astakhova, Russian gymnast (b. 1936)
  • 2005 – Jim O’Hora, American football coach (b. 1915)
  • 2005 – Raul Roco, Philippine senator (b. 1941)
  • 2006 – Susan Butcher, American Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race champion (b. 1954)
  • 2007 – Florian Pittis, Romanian artist (b. 1943)
  • 2007 – Jean-Marie Lustiger, Cardinal of France

August 5 – Holidays:

  • Burkina Faso – Independence Day.
  • Croatia – Victory and Homeland Thanksgiving Day.
  • Chile – Children’s Day
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