On This Day in History September 12

September 12 – Events:
• 490 BC – Athens defeats Persia at the Battle of Marathon; origin of the marathon long-distance race (attributed to Pheidippides)
• 1213 – Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon, at the Battle of Muret.
• 1229 – The Aragonese army under the command of James I of Aragon disembarks at Santa Ponça, Mallorca, with the purpose of conquering the island.
• 1609 – Henry Hudson discovers the Hudson River.
• 1683 – Austro-Ottoman War: Battle of Vienna – Several European armies join forces to defeat the Ottoman Empire.
• 1814 – Battle of North Point: An American detachment halts the British land advance to Baltimore in the War of 1812.
• 1846 – Elizabeth Barrett elopes with Robert Browning.
• 1847 – Mexican-American War: The Battle of Chapultepec begins. U.S. Army deserters in the Saint Patrick’s Battalion who fought alongside the Mexican army are hanged en masse for treason by the order of General Winfield Scott.
• 1848 – Switzerland became a Federal state.
• 1857 – The SS Central America sinks about 160 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, drowning a total of 426 passengers and crew, including Captain William Lewis Herndon. The ship carried 13-15 tons of gold from the San Francisco Gold Rush.
• 1874 The District of Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada is founded.
• 1890 – Salisbury, Rhodesia, is founded.
• 1897 – Battle of Saragarhi
• 1906 – Newport Transporter Bridge is opened in Newport, South Wales by Viscount Tredegar.
• 1910 – Premiere performance of Gustav Mahler’s 8th symphony in Munich with a chorus of 852 singers, and an orchestra of 171 players.
• 1930 – Wilfred Rhodes ends his 1,110-game first-class career by taking 5 for 95 for H.D.G. Leveson Gower’s XI against the Australians.
• 1933 – Leó Szilárd, waiting for a red light on Southampton Row in Bloomsbury, conceives the idea of the nuclear chain reaction.
• 1938 – Adolf Hitler demands autonomy for the Germans of the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.
• 1940 – Cave paintings discovered in Lascaux, France.
• 1940 – The Hercules Powder Company in Kenvil, New Jersey explodes, killing 51 people and injuring over 200.
• 1942 – World War II: RMS Laconia, carrying civilians, Allied soldiers and Italian POWs is torpedoed off the coast of West Africa and sinks.
• 1942 – World War II: First day of the Battle of Edson’s Ridge during the Guadalcanal campaign. U.S. Marines protecting Henderson Field on Guadalcanal are attacked by Imperial Japanese Army forces.
• 1943 – World War II: Benito Mussolini, dictator of Italy, is rescued from house arrest on the Gran Sasso in Abruzzi, by German commando Otto Skorzeny.
• 1944 – World War II: The liberation of Serbia from Nazi Germany and the Chetniks continues. Bajina Bašta in western Serbia is among those liberated cities.
• 1947 – The U.S. Screen Actors Guild implements an anti-Communist loyalty oath.
• 1948 – Invasion of the State of Hyderabad by the Indian Army on the day after the Pakistani leader Jinnah’s death to limit damage control.
• 1953 – Nikita Khrushchev is elected first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
• 1959 – Bonanza premiers. First regularly-scheduled TV program presented in color.
• 1959 – The Soviet Union launches a large rocket, Lunik II, at the moon.
• 1970 – Palestinian terrorists blow up three hijacked airliners in Jordan, continuing to hold the passengers hostage in various undisclosed locations in Amman.
• 1974 – Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, ‘Messiah’ of the Rastafari movement, is deposed following a military coup by the Derg.
• 1974 – Juventude Africana Amilcar Cabral is founded in Guinea-Bissau.
• 1977 – South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko is killed in police custody.
• 1979 – Indonesia is hit with an earthquake that measures 8.1 on the Richter scale.
• 1980 – Military coup in Turkey.
• 1983 – A Wells Fargo depot in West Hartford, Connecticut, United States, was robbed of approximately US$7 million by Los Macheteros .
• 1990 – The two German states and the Four Powers sign the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany in Moscow, paving the way for German re-unification.
• 1992 – NASA launches Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-47 which marked the 50th shuttle mission. On board is Mae Carol Jemison, the first African-American woman in space.
• 1992 – Abimael Guzmán, leader of the Shining Path, is captured by Peruvian special forces; shortly thereafter the rest of Shining Path’s leadership fell as well.
• 1994 – Frank Eugene Corder crashes a Cessna 150 into the White House’s south lawn, striking the West wing and killing himself.
• 1995 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar’s All Star Team beats the Harlem Globetrotters 91-85, ending the Globetrotters’ 24-year, 8,829-game winning streak.
• 2001 – Article V of the NATO agreement is invoked for only the second time (the other being in Bosnia) in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States of America.
• 2001 – Ansett Australia, Australia’s first commercial interstate airline, collapses due to increased strain on the international airline industry leaving 10,000 people unemployed.
• 2003 – The United Nations lifted sanctions against Libya after that country agreed to accept responsibility and recompense the families of victims in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.
• 2005 – The red-green coalition, led by Jens Stoltenberg, wins the Norwegian parliamentary election, taking 87 of 169 seats in the parliament.
• 2005 – Israel completes its withdrawal of all troops and settlers from the Gaza Strip.
• 2005 – Hong Kong Disneyland opens in Penny’s Bay, Lantau Island, Hong Kong.
• 2007 – Shinzo Abe announced he resigns as Prime Minister of Japan.
• 2007 – Former Philippine President Joseph Estrada was convicted for the crime of plunder.
• 2007 – An earthquake that measures 8.4 on the Richter scale occurred off the coast of Indonesia, producing a small tsunami.
September 12 – Birthdays:
• 1492 – Lorenzo II de’ Medici, Duke of Urbino (d. 1519)
• 1494 – King Francis I of France (d. 1547)
• 1575 – Henry Hudson, English explorer (d. 1611)
• 1605 – William Dugdale, English antiquarian (d. 1686)
• 1688 – Ferdinand Brokoff, Czech sculptor (d. 1731)
• 1690 – Peter Dens, Belgian Catholic theologian (d. 1775)
• 1725 – Guillaume Le Gentil, French astronomer (d. 1792)
• 1740 – Johann Heinrich Jung, German author (d. 1817)
• 1812 – Richard Hoe, American inventor and industrialist (d. 1886)
• 1818 – Richard Gatling, American weapons inventor (d. 1903)
• 1830 – William Sprague IV, America politician from Rhode Island (d. 1915)
• 1852 – H. H. Asquith, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1928)
• 1855 – Simon-Napoléon Parent, Canadian politician (d. 1920)
• 1875 – Matsunosuke Onoe, Japanese actor (d. 1926)
• 1880 – H. L. Mencken, American journalist and author (d. 1956)
• 1888 – Maurice Chevalier, French singer and actor (d. 1972)
• 1891 – Pedro Albizu Campos, advocate for Puerto Rican independence (d. 1965)
• 1892 – Alfred A. Knopf, American publisher (d. 1984)
• 1897 – Irene Joliot-Curie, French physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (d. 1956)
• 1898 – Salvador Bacarisse, Spanish composer (d. 1963)
• 1898 – Ben Shahn, Lithuanian-born American artist (d. 1969)
• 1901 – Ben Blue, Canadian actor and comedian (d. 1975)
• 1902 – Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, President of Brazil (d. 1976)
• 1907 – Louis MacNeice, Irish poet (d. 1963)
• 1909 – Donald MacDonald, O.C., LL.D. former president of the Canadian Labour Congress and politician (d.1986)
• 1913 – Jesse Owens, American athlete (d. 1980)
• 1914 – Rais Amrohvi, Pakistani poet and psychoanalyst (d. 1988)
• 1914 – Desmond Llewelyn, Welsh actor (d. 1999)
• 1915 – Frank McGee, American journalist (d. 1974)
• 1916 – Tony Bettenhausen, American race car driver (d. 1961)
• 1917 – Pierre Sévigny, Canadian politician (d. 2004)
• 1921 – Stanislaw Lem, Polish writer (d. 2006)
• 1922 – Ellen Demming, American actress (d. 2002)
• 1925 – Stan Lopata, American baseball player
• 1931 – Sir Ian Holm, English actor
• 1931 – George Jones, American singer
• 1933 – Tatiana Doronina, Russian actress
• 1934 – Glenn Davis, American athlete
• 1934 – Jaegwon Kim, Korean-born American philosopher
• 1937 – George Chuvalo, Canadian boxer
• 1938 – Claude Ruel, French Canadian ice hockey coach
• 1940 – Linda Gray, American actress
• 1940 – Mickey Lolich, American baseball player
• 1940 – Patrick Mower, English actor
• 1943 – Maria Muldaur, American singer
• 1943 – Michael Ondaatje, Sri Lankan-born writer
• 1944 – Leonard Peltier, American activist
• 1944 – Barry White, American singer (d. 2003)
• 1948 – Luis Lima, Argentinian tenor
• 1949 – Irina Rodnina, Russian figure skater
• 1950 – Gustav Brunner, Austrian engineer
• 1951 – Bertie Ahern, Irish politician
• 1951 – Ray Gravell, Welsh rugby union player
• 1951 – Joe Pantoliano, American actor
• 1951 – Gerald Stano, American serial killer
• 1952 – Gerry Beckley, American musician (America)
• 1952 – Neil Peart, Canadian drummer and author (Rush)
• 1954 – Adrian Adonis, American professional wrestler (d. 1988)
• 1954 – Jeff Jarvis, American journalist
• 1954 – Peter Scolari, American actor
• 1955 – Harsha Makalande, Sri Lankan composer,pianist
• 1956 – Barry Andrews, British musician
• 1956 – Sam Brownback, American politician
• 1956 – Leslie Cheung, Hong Kong singer (d. 2003)
• 1956 – Ricky Rudd, American race car driver
• 1957 – Rachel Ward, English actress
• 1957 – Hans Zimmer, German composer
• 1958 – Wilfredo Benitez, American boxer
• 1961 – Mylène Farmer, French singer and songwriter
• 1961 – Kathem Al Saher, Iraqi singer
• 1962 – Dino Merlin, Bosnian singer
• 1962 – Amy Yasbeck, American actress
• 1964 – Dieter Hecking, German footballer
• 1965 – John Norwood Fisher, American musician
• 1966 – Ben Folds, American musician
• 1967 – Pat Listach, American baseball player
• 1968 – Ler LaLonde, American guitarist (Primus)
• 1968 – Paul F. Tompkins, American comedian
• 1969 – Ángel Cabrera, Argentine golfer
• 1969 – James Frey, American writer
• 1969 – Shigeki Maruyama, Japanese golfer
• 1969 – André Heinz, American environmentalist; son of Teresa Heinz
• 1970 – Nathan Larson, American guitarist and composer (Shudder To Think, Hot One)
• 1972 – Jason Statham, English actor
• 1973 – Darren Campbell, British athlete
• 1973 – Ki-Jana Carter, American football player
• 1973 – Martin Lapointe, Canadian hockey player
• 1973 – Paul Walker, American actor
• 1974 – Caroline Aigle, First female French fighter pilot (d. 2007)
• 1974 – Nuno Valente, Portuguese footballer
• 1974 – Jennifer Nettles, American country singer, part of Sugarland
• 1976 – Bizzy Bone (Bryon Anthony McCane), American rapper
• 1976 – Maciej Zurawski, Polish footballer
• 1977 – Nathan Bracken, Australian cricketer
• 1977 – Grant Denyer, Australian television personality and TV Host
• 1977 – Jeff Irwin, American musician
• 1977 – James McCartney, British musician and son of ex-Beatle Paul McCartney
• 1977 – Idan Raichel, Israeli Musician
• 1977 – David Thompson, English footballer
• 1978 – Benjamin McKenzie, American actor
• 1978 – Michael Paget, Welsh guitarist (Bullet for My Valentine)
• 1978 – Ruben Studdard, American singer
• 1980 – Sean Burroughs, American baseball player
• 1980 – Fernando Cesar de Souza, Brazilian footballer
• 1980 – Gus G., Greek guitarist (Firewind, ex-Dream Evil)
• 1980 – Yao Ming, Chinese basketball player
• 1980 – Josef Vasicek, Czech ice hockey player
• 1981 – Jennifer Hudson, American actress and singer
• 1982 – Nana Ozaki, Japanese gravure idol
• 1983 – Daniel Muir, National Football League player
• 1985 – Jack Wilkinson, English footballer
• 1986 – Yang Mi, Chinese actress
• 1986 – Emmy Rossum, American actress
September 12 – Deaths:
• 413 – Marcellinus of Carthage, Christian saint
• 1185 – Andronikos I Komnenos, Byzantine emperor (b. 1118)
• 1213 – King Peter II of Aragon (b. 1174)
• 1362 – Pope Innocent VI
• 1369 – Blanche of Lancaster, wife of John of Gaunt (b. 1345)
• 1500 – Albert, Duke of Saxony (b. 1443)
• 1612 – Tsar Vasili IV of Russia (b. 1552)
• 1642 – Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars, French conspirator (b. 1620)
• 1660 – Jacob Cats, Dutch poet, jurist, and politician (b. 1577)
• 1665 – Jean Bolland, Flemish Jesuit writer (b. 1596)
• 1672 – Tanneguy Lefebvre, French classical scholar (b. 1615)
• 1683 – King Afonso VI of Portugal (b. 1643)
• 1691 – John George III, Elector of Saxony (b. 1647)
• 1695 – Jacob Abendana, Spanish scholar (b. 1630)
• 1712 – Jan van der Heyden, Dutch painter (b. 1637)
• 1764 – Jean-Philippe Rameau, French composer (b. 1683)
• 1779 – Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple, English politician (b. 1711)
• 1819 – Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Prussian general (b. 1742)
• 1836 – Christian Dietrich Grabbe, German writer (b. 1801)
• 1869 – Peter Roget, British lexicographer (b. 1779)
• 1870 – Fitz Hugh Ludlow, American author (b. 1836)
• 1874 – François Guizot, French historian and statesman (b. 1787)
• 1912 – Pierre-Hector Cardinal Coullie, Cardinal-Archbishop of Lyon
• 1918 – George Reid, fourth Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1845)
• 1919 – Leonid Andreyev, Russian writer (b. 1871)
• 1923 – Jules Violle, French physicist and inventor (b. 1841)
• 1927 – Sarah Frances Whiting, American physicist and astronomer (b. 1847)
• 1929 – Rainis, Latvian poet and playwright (b. 1865)
• 1945 – Hajime Sugiyama, Japanese general (committed suicide, b. 1880)
• 1953 – Hugo Schmeisser, German weapons designer (b. 1884)
• 1956 – Hans Carossa, German writer (b. 1878)
• 1956 – Sándor Graf Festetics, Hungarian politician (b. 1882)
• 1961 – Carl Hermann, German physicist (b. 1898)
• 1968 – Tommy Armour, Scottish golfer (b. 1894)
• 1972 – William Boyd, American actor (b. 1895)
• 1977 – Steve Biko, South African anti-apartheid activist (b. 1946)
• 1977 – Robert Lowell American poet (b.1917)
• 1981 – Eugenio Montale, Italian poet, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1896)
• 1986 – Jacques Henri Lartigue, French photographer (b. 1894)
• 1993 – Raymond Burr, Canadian actor (b. 1917)
• 1993 – Willie Mosconi, American billiards player (b. 1913)
• 1994 – Tom Ewell, American actor (b. 1909)
• 1994 – Boris Yegorov, Russian cosmonaut (b. 1937)
• 1995 – Jeremy Brett, English actor (b. 1933)
• 2000 – Stanley Turrentine, American jazz saxophonist (b. 1934)
• 2001 – Victor Wong, Chinese-American actor (b. 1927)
• 2003 – Johnny Cash, American singer and guitarist (b. 1932)
September 12 – Holidays:
• Cape Verde – National Day.
• Ethiopia – National Revolution Day (1974).
• Maryland (United States) – Defenders Day.
• Mexico – Commemoration of the mass hanging of the Saint Patrick’s Battalion.

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