On This Day in History February 14

February 14 – Events:
• 842 – Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German languages.
• 1014 – Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany.
• 1076 – Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor.
• 1349 – Approximately 2,000 Jews are burned to death by mobs or forcibly removed from the city of Strasbourg.
• 1556 – Thomas Cranmer is declared a heretic.
• 1743 – Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister.
• 1778 – The United States Flag is formally recognized by a foreign naval vessel for the first time, when French Admiral Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte rendered a nine gun salute to USS Ranger, commanded by John Paul Jones.
• 1779 – James Cook is killed by Native Hawaiians near Kealakekua on the Island of Hawaii.
• 1797 – French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of Cape St. Vincent – John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent and Horatio Nelson (later 1st Viscount Nelson) lead the British Royal Navy to victory over a Spanish fleet in action near Gibraltar.
• 1803 – Chief Justice John Marshall declares that any act of U.S. Congress that conflicts with the Constitution is void.
• 1804 – Karadjordje leads the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire.
• 1831 – Ras Marye of Yejju marches into Tigray and defeats and kills Dejazmach Sabagadis in the Battle of Debre Abbay.
• 1835 – The original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is formed in Kirtland, Ohio.
• 1849 – In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes the first serving President of the United States to have his photograph taken.
• 1855 – Texas is linked by telegraph to the rest of the United States, with the completion of a connection between New Orleans and Marshall, Texas.
• 1859 – Oregon is admitted as the 33rd U.S. state.
• 1876 – Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the telephone, as does Elisha Gray.
• 1879 – The War of the Pacific breaks out when Chilean armed forces occupy the Bolivian port city of Antofagasta.
• 1899 – Voting machines are approved by the U.S. Congress for use in federal elections.
• 1900 – Russia responds to international pressure to free Finland by tightening imperial control over the country.
• 1900 – Second Boer War: In South Africa, 20,000 British troops invade the Orange Free State.
• 1903 – The United States Department of Commerce and Labor is established (later split into Department of Commerce and Department of Labor).
• 1912 – Arizona is admitted as the 48th U.S. state.
• 1912 – In Groton, Connecticut, the first diesel-powered submarine is commissioned.
• 1918 – The Soviet Union adopts the Gregorian calendar (on 1 February according to the Julian calendar).
• 1919 – The Polish-Soviet War begins.
• 1920 – The League of Women Voters is founded in Chicago, Illinois.
• 1924 – The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is founded.
• 1929 – St. Valentine’s Day Massacre: Seven people, six of them gangster rivals of Al Capone’s gang, are murdered in Chicago, Illinois.
• 1942 – Battle of Pasir Panjang contributes to the fall of Singapore.
• 1943 – World War II: Rostov-on-Don, Russia is liberated.
• 1943 – World War II: Battle of the Kasserine Pass – German General Erwin Rommel and the Afrika Korps launch an offensive against Allied defenses in Tunisia.
• 1944 – World War II: Anti-Japanese revolt on Java.
• 1945 – World War II: On the second day of the bombing of Dresden , the British Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces begin firebombing Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony.
• 1945 – World War II: Prague is bombed probably due to a mistake in the orientation of the pilots bombing Dresden.
• 1945 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt meets with King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia aboard the USS Quincy, officially starting the U.S.-Saudi diplomatic relationship.
• 1945 – World War II: Mostar is liberated by Yugoslav partisans.
• 1946 – The Bank of England is nationalized.
• 1949 – The Knesset (Israeli parliament) convenes for the first time.
• 1949 – The Asbestos Strike begins in Canada. The strike marks the beginning of the Quiet Revolution in Quebec.
• 1956 – The XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union begins in Moscow. On the last night of the meeting, Premier Nikita Khrushchev condemns Josef Stalin’s crimes in a secret speech.
• 1961 – Discovery of the chemical elements: Element 103, Lawrencium, is first synthesized at the University of California.
• 1962 – First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy takes television viewers on a tour of the White House.
• 1966 – Australian currency is decimalized.
• 1966 – Wilt Chamberlain breaks NBA career scoring record at 20,884 points.
• 1967 – Aretha Franklin records “Respect.”
• 1971 – Movie “Ben Hur” first shown on television.
• 1971 – Richard Nixon installs secret taping system in White House.
• 1979 – In Kabul, Muslims kidnap the American ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs who is later killed during a gunfight between his kidnappers and police.
• 1980 – 13th Winter Olympic games open in Lake Placid, NY.
• 1981 – Stardust Disaster: A fire in a Dublin nightclub kills 48 people
• 1983 – United American Bank of Knoxville, Tennessee collapses. Its president, Jake Butcher is later convicted of fraud.
• 1985 – Hostage CNN reporter Jeremy Levin is released in Beirut.
• 1988 – Bobby Allison at 50 becomes oldest driver to win Daytona 500.
• 1988 – General hospital star Jackie Zeman marries Glenn Gorden.
• 1989 – Boxer Mike Tyson & actress Robin Given divorce.
• 1989 – Union Carbide agrees to pay $470 million to the Indian government for damages it caused in the 1984 Bhopal Disaster.
• 1989 – Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini issues a fatwa encouraging Muslims to kill the author of The Satanic Verses, Salman Rushdie.
• 1989 – The first of 24 satellites of the Global Positioning System are placed into orbit.
• 1990 – 92 people are killed aboard Indian Airlines Flight 605 at Bangalore, India.
• 1994 – Andrei Chikatilo, a Russian serial killer is executed by shooting.
• 1996 – China launches a Long March 3 rocket, carrying the Intelsat 708 satellite. The rocket flies off course 3 seconds after liftoff and crashes into a rural village.
• 1998 – Authorities in the United States announce that Eric Robert Rudolph is a suspect in an Alabama abortion clinic bombing.
• 2000 – The spacecraft NEAR Shoemaker enters orbit around asteroid 433 Eros, the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid.
• 2002 – The Tullaghmurray Lass sinks off the coast of Kilkeel, County Down, Northern Ireland killing three members of the same family on board.
• 2004 – In a suburb of Moscow, Russia, the roof of the Transvaal water park collapses, killing more than 25 people, and wounding more than 100 others.
• 2005 – Lebanon’s former Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri, is assassinated, prompting the country to fall into chaos.
• 2005 – Seven people are killed and 151 wounded in a series of bombings by suspected Al-Qaeda-linked militants that hit the Philippines’ Makati financial district in Metro Manila, Davao City, and General Santos City.
• 2008 – Northern Illinois University shooting: a gunman opened fire in a lecture hall of the DeKalb County, Illinois university resulting in 24 casualties; 6 fatalities (including gunman) and 18 injured.
February 14 – Birthdays:
• 1404 – Leone Battista Alberti, Italian painter and philosopher (d. 1472)
• 1468 – Johann Werner, German mathematician (d. 1522)
• 1483 – Babur, Moghul emperor of India (d. 1530)
• 1602 – Francesco Cavalli, Italian composer (d. 1676)
• 1680 – John Sidney, 6th Earl of Leicester, English privy councillor (d. 1737)
• 1692 – Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée, French writer (d. 1754)
• 1701 – Enrique Florez, Spanish historian (d. 1773)
• 1763 – Jean Victor Marie Moreau, French general (d. 1813)
• 1788 – Fernando Sor, Spanish composer (d. 1839)
• 1800 – Emory Washburn, 22nd Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1877)
• 1812 – Alfred Thomas Agate, American artist (d. 1846)
• 1819 – Joshua A. Norton, American eccentric (d. 1880)
• 1819 – Christopher Sholes, American inventor (d. 1890)
• 1824 – Winfield Scott Hancock, American Civil War Union general (d. 1886)
• 1828 – Edmond François Valentin About, French writer (d. 1885)
• 1838 – Margaret Knight, American inventor, famous as female Thomas Edison, (d. 1914)
• 1846 – Julian Scott, American artist and Civil War Medal of Honor recipient. (d. 1901)
• 1847 – Anna Howard Shaw, American suffragette (d. 1919)
• 1847 – Maria Pia of Italy, queen of Portugal (d. 1911)
• 1848 – Benjamin Baillaud, French astronomer (d. 1934)
• 1856 – Frank Harris, Irish author and editor (d. 1931)
• 1859 – George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr., engineer and inventor (d. 1896)
• 1869 – Charles Wilson, Scottish physicist, Nobel Prize Laureate (d. 1959)
• 1871 – Gerda Lundequist, Swedish actress (d. 1959)
• 1884 – Hezekiah M. Washburn, missionary (d. 1972)
• 1884 – Kostas Varnalis, Greek poet (d. 1974)
• 1884 – Joe Jagersberger, Austrian racing driver (d. 1952)
• 1885 – Syed Zafarul Hasan, Prominent Muslim Indian/Pakistani philosopher (d. 1949)
• 1890 – Nina Hamnett, Welsh artist (d. 1956)
• 1892 – Radola Gajda, Czech military commander (d. 1948)
• 1894 – Jack Benny, American actor and comedian (d. 1974)
• 1895 – Max Horkheimer, German philosopher and sociologist (d. 1973)
• 1898 – Fritz Zwicky, Swiss-American physicist and astronomer (d. 1974)
• 1902 – Thelma Ritter, American actress (d. 1969)
• 1903 – Stu Erwin, American actor (d. 1967)
• 1904 – Charles Oatley, Professor of electrical engineering, (scanning electron microscope), (d. 1996)
• 1904 – Hertta Kuusinen, Finnish communist (d. 1974)
• 1912 – Tibor Sekelj, Croatian explorer (d. 1988)
• 1913 – Mel Allen, American sports reporter (d. 1996)
• 1913 – Woody Hayes, American college football coach (d. 1987)
• 1913 – Jimmy Hoffa, American labor union leader (disappeared 1975)
• 1914 – Margarete Mewes, Nazi overseer at concentration camp
• 1914 – Norman Von Nida, Australian golfer (d. 2007)
• 1916 – Marcel Bigeard, French general
• 1916 – Masaki Kobayashi, Japanese director (d. 1996)
• 1916 – Edward Platt, American actor (d. 1974)
• 1917 – Herbert A. Hauptman, American mathematician, Nobel Prize Laureate
• 1921 – Hugh Downs, American television host
• 1922 – Murray the K, American impresario and disk jockey (d. 1982)
• 1927 – Lois Maxwell, Canadian actress (d. 2007)
• 1929 – Vic Morrow, American actor (d. 1982)
• 1931 – Bernie Geoffrion, Canadian hockey player (d. 2006)
• 1931 – Brian Kelly, American actor (d. 2005)
• 1931 – Phyllis McGuire, American singer (The McGuire Sisters)
• 1932 – Alexander Kluge, German actor and film director
• 1933 – Madhubala, Indian actress (d. 1969)
• 1934 – Michel Corboz, Swiss conductor
• 1934 – Florence Henderson, American actress
• 1936 – Fanne Foxe, Argentine dancer and focus of a 1974 scandal involving Congressman Wilbur Mills.
• 1936 – Andrew Prine, American actor
• 1941 – Donna Shalala, American educator
• 1941 – Paul Tsongas, United States Senator from Massachusetts (d. 1997)
• 1942 – Michael Bloomberg, Mayor of New York City
• 1942 – Andrew Robinson, American actor
• 1942 – Ricardo Rodríguez, Mexican racing driver (d. 1962)
• 1943 – Maceo Parker, American musician (P-Funk)
• 1943 – Aaron Russo, American movie producer (d. 2007)
• 1944 – Carl Bernstein, American journalist
• 1944 – Alan Parker, British film director and writer
• 1944 – Ronnie Peterson, Swedish racing driver (d. 1978)
• 1945 – Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein
• 1946 – Bernard Dowiyogo, President of Nauru (d. 2003)
• 1946 – Gregory Hines, American dancer and actor (d. 2003)
• 1947 – Tim Buckley, American singer-songwriter (d. 1975)
• 1948 – Pat O’Brien, American sportscaster and television host
• 1948 – Teller, American magician (Penn and Teller)
• 1950 – Roger Fisher, American musician (Heart)
• 1951 – Kevin Keegan, English footballer
• 1951 – JoJo Starbuck, American ice skater
• 1952 – Nancy Keenan, current NARAL president
• 1955 – James Eckhouse, American actor
• 1955 – Rip Rogers, American professional wrestler
• 1957 – Alan Hunter, one of the original MTV VJ’s
• 1957 – Soile Isokoski, Finnish soprano
• 1958 – Enrique Mansilla, Argentine racing driver
• 1958 – Grant Thomas, Australian rules footballer
• 1959 – Renée Fleming, American soprano
• 1960 – Jim Kelly, American football player
• 1960 – Meg Tilly, Canadian actress
• 1961 – Phillip Hamilton, American author
• 1962 – Kevyn Aucoin, American cosmetologist (d. 2002)
• 1962 – Michael Higgs, English actor
• 1962 – Philippe Sella, French rugby player
• 1962 – Sakina Jaffrey, Indian actress
• 1963 – Enrico Colantoni, Canadian actor
• 1964 – Gianni Bugno, Italian cyclist
• 1964 – Zach Galligan, American actor
• 1966 – Petr Svoboda, National Hockey League player
• 1967 – Manuela Maleeva, Bulgarian tennis player
• 1967 – Stelios Haji-Ioannou, British entrepreneur
• 1968 – Jules Asner, American television personality
• 1969 – Adriana Behar, Brazilian beach volleyball player
• 1969 – Harry Colon, American football player
• 1970 – Giuseppe Guerini, Italian cyclist
• 1970 – Simon Pegg, British comedian and actor
• 1971 – Tommy Dreamer, American professional wrestler
• 1971 – Noriko Sakai, Japanese singer
• 1972 – Drew Bledsoe, American football player
• 1972 – Big Daddy V, American professional wrestler
• 1972 – Hiroshi, Japanese comedian
• 1972 – Najwa Nimri, Spanish actress
• 1972 – Rob Thomas, American musician (Matchbox Twenty)
• 1973 – Steve McNair, American football player
• 1974 – Filippa Giordano, Italian singer
• 1974 – Philippe Léonard, Belgian footballer
• 1975 – Scott Owen, Australian musician (The Living End)
• 1975 – Yul Kwon, American Survivor contestant
• 1976 – Liv Kristine, Norwegian singer (Leaves’ Eyes)
• 1977 – Darren Bennett, a Professional Latin Ballroom Dancer
• 1977 – Cadel Evans, Australian cyclist
• 1977 – Darren Purse, English footballer
• 1977 – Elmer Symons, South African motorcycle racer (d. 2007)
• 1978 – Dean Gaffney, British actor
• 1978 – Richard Hamilton, American basketball player
• 1978 – Darius Songaila, basketball player
• 1979 – Pablo Pallante, Uruguayan footballer
• 1980 – Fátima Leyva, Mexican footballer
• 1980 – Michelle Ye, Hong Kong actress
• 1980 – Josh Senter, American screenwriter
• 1982 – Marián Gáborík, Slovak hockey player
• 1983 – Bacary Sagna, French footballer
• 1983 – Rhydian Roberts, Welsh Singer, X factor Runner Up
• 1984 – Hamed Namouchi, Tunisian footballer
• 1985 – Karima Adebibe, Moroccan-English actress and model
• 1985 – Tyler Clippard, American baseball player
• 1985 – Heart Evangelista, Pinay celebrity
• 1985 – Natsume Sano, Japanese gravure idol
• 1985 – Philippe Senderos, Swiss footballer
• 1985 – Miki Yeung, Hong Kong singer and actress
• 1986 – Michael Ammermüller, German racing driver
• 1986 – Roxanne Guinoo, Filipino actress
• 1987 – Joseph Pichler, American actor
• 1987 – Julia Savicheva, Russian singer
• 1987 – David Wheater, English footballer
• 1988 – Ángel Di María, Argentine footballer
• 1988 – Eliska Sursova, American actress
• 1992 – Freddie Highmore, English actor
• 1995 – Paul Butcher, American actor
February 14 – Deaths:
• 270 – St. Valentine marking Valentines Day (some sources say 269, others 273).
• 869 – Saint Cyril, Greek monk, scholar, theologian and linguist (b. 827)
• 1317 – Marguerite of France, queen of Edward I of England (b. 1282)
• 1400 – King Richard II of England (murdered) (b. 1367)
• 1405 – Timur, Mongol conqueror (b. 1336)
• 1571 – Odet de Coligny, French cardinal and Protestant (b. 1517)
• 1676 – Abraham Bosse, French engraver and artist
• 1714 – Maria Luisa of Savoy, Queen Consort of Spain (b. 1688)
• 1737 – Charles Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot of Hensol, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (b. 1685)
• 1744 – John Hadley, inventor (b. 1682)
• 1779 – James Cook, British naval captain and explorer (b. 1728)
• 1780 – William Blackstone, English jurist (b. 1723)
• 1808 – John Dickinson, American lawyer and Governor of Delaware and Pennsylvania (b. 1732)
• 1831 – Vicente Guerrero, Mexican revolutionary hero (b. 1782)
• 1831 – Henry Maudslay, English inventor (b. 1771)
• 1870 – St. John Richardson Liddell, American Civil War Confederate General (b. 1815)
• 1881 – Fernando Wood, New York City mayor (b. 1812)
• 1885 – Jules Vallès, French writer (b. 1832)
• 1891 – William Tecumseh Sherman, Civil War General (b. 1820)
• 1894 – Eugène Charles Catalan, Belgian mathematician (b. 1814)
• 1922 – Heikki Ritavuori, Finnish politician (assassinated) (b. 1880)
• 1929 – Tom Burke, American runner (b. 1875)
• 1942 – Adnan Bin Saidi, Officer of the Malay Regiment killed in the defense of Singapore (b. 1915)
• 1943 – Dora Gerson, German actress, cabaret singer, and Holocaust victim (b. 1899)
• 1943 – David Hilbert, German mathematician (b. 1862)
• 1945 – Mordecai Brown, baseball player (b. 1876)
• 1949 – Yusuf Salman Yusuf, Iraqi-Assyrian communist leader (b. 1901)
• 1950 – Karl Guthe Jansky, American Discoverer of cosmic radio waves (b. 1905)
• 1952 – Maurice De Waele, Belgian cyclist (b. 1896)
• 1958 – Abdul Rab Nishtar, veteran leader of Pakistan Movement, (b. 1899)
• 1959 – Baby Dodds, American jazz drummer (b. 1898)
• 1967 – Sig Ruman, German-American actor (b. 1884)
• 1969 – Vito Genovese, American gangster (b. 1897)
• 1970 – Herbert Strudwick, English cricketer (b. 1880).
• 1974 – Stewie Dempster, New Zealand cricketer (b. 1903)
• 1975 – Julian Huxley, British biologist (b. 1887)
• 1975 – P. G. Wodehouse, English writer (b. 1881)
• 1979 – Adolph Dubs, American diplomat (b. 1920)
• 1980 – Luitkonwar Rudra Baruah, Assamese composer and actor
• 1983 – Lina Radke, German athlete (b. 1903)
• 1987 – Dmitri Borisovich Kabalevsky, Russian composer (b. 1904)
• 1987 – Karolos Koun, Greek theater director (b. 1908)
• 1988 – Frederick Loewe, Austrian-American composer (b. 1901)
• 1989 – James Bond, American ornithologist (b. 1900)
• 1990 – Tony Holiday, German singer
• 1994 – Andrei Chikatilo, Russian serial killer (executed) (b. 1936)
• 1995 – U Nu, Burmese politician (b. 1907)
• 1995 – Michael V. Gazzo, American actor (b. 1923)
• 1996 – Bob Paisley, English football manager (b. 1919)
• 1999 – John Ehrlichman, American presidential advisor (b. 1925)
• 1999 – Buddy Knox, American singer and songwriter (b. 1933)
• 2002 – Nándor Hidegkuti, Hungarian footballer (b. 1922)
• 2003 – Dolly, first cloned mammal (b. 1996)
• 2003 – Johnny Longden, English jockey (b. 1907)
• 2004 – Marco Pantani, Italian cyclist (b. 1970)
• 2005 – Najai Turpin, American boxer
• 2005 – Rafik Hariri, Lebanese politician and billionaire businessman (b. 1944)
• 2006 – Shoshana Damari, Israeli singer and actress (b. 1923)
• 2006 – Lynden David Hall, British singer (b. 1974)
• 2006 – Darry Cowl, French musician and actor (b. 1925)
• 2007 – Gareth Morris, British flautist (b. 1920)
• 2007 – Ryan Larkin, Canadian animated film maker. (b. 1943)
February 14 – Holidays:
• Bulgaria – Trifon Zarezan (Wine-grower’s Day)
• Mexico – Day of National Mourning (1831).
• Arizona – Admission Day (1912).
• Oregon – Admission Day (1859).
• Western World – St. Valentine’s Day.
• Iraq – ‘Communist Martyrs Day’ celebrated by Iraqi Communist Party.
• Europe/Catholicism – Feast day of Saints Cyril and Methodius, patron saints of Europe.
• Saint Valentine (d. 422).

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