On This Day in History March 13

March 13 – Events:
• 1138 – Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II.
• 1639 – Harvard College is named for clergyman John Harvard.
• 1781 – William Herschel discovers Uranus.
• 1845 – Felix Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto is premièred in Leipzig with Ferdinand David as soloist.
• 1862 – American Civil War: The U.S. federal government forbids all Union army officers from returning fugitive slaves, thus effectively annulling the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 and setting the stage for the Emancipation Proclamation.
• 1865 – American Civil War: The Confederate States of America agree to the use of black troops.
• 1881 – Alexander II of Russia is killed near his palace when a bomb is thrown at him.
• 1884 – The siege of Khartoum, Sudan begins, ending on January 26, 1885.
• 1897 – San Diego State University is founded.
• 1900 – Second Boer War: British forces occupy Bloemfontein, Orange Free State.
• 1900 – In France the length of the workday for women and children is limited to 11 hours by law.
• 1921 – Mongolia, under Baron Roman Ungern von Sternberg, declares its independence from China.
• 1925 – Scopes Trial: A law in Tennessee prohibits the teaching of evolution.
• 1930 – The news of the discovery of Pluto is telegraphed to the Harvard College Observatory.
• 1933 – Great Depression: Banks in the U.S. begin to re-open after President Franklin D. Roosevelt mandated a “bank holiday.”
• 1938 – World News Roundup is broadcast for the first time on CBS Radio in the United States.
• 1940 – The Russo-Finnish Winter War ends.
• 1943 – World War II: In Bougainville, Japanese troops end their assault on American forces at Hill 700.
• 1943 – The Holocaust: German forces liquidate the Jewish ghetto in Kraków.
• 1957 – Cuban student revolutionaries storm the presidential palace in Havana in a failed attempt on the life of President Fulgencio Batista.
• 1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 9 returns safely to Earth after testing the Lunar Module.
• 1979 – The New Jewel Movement, headed by Maurice Bishop, ousts Prime Minister Eric Gairy in a nearly bloodless coup d’etat in Grenada.
• 1986 – Microsoft has its initial public offering.
• 1989 – A geomagnetic storm causes the collapse of the Hydro-Québec power grid. Six million people were left without power for nine hours.
• 1991 – The United States Justice Department announces that Exxon has agreed to pay $1 billion for the clean-up of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.
• 1992 – An earthquake registering 6.8 on the Richter scale kills over 500 in Erzincan, eastern Turkey.
• 1996 – Dunblane massacre: in Dunblane, Scotland, 16 children and 1 teacher are shot dead by a spree killer who then commits suicide.
• 1997 – India’s Missionaries of Charity chooses Sister Nirmala to succeed Mother Teresa as its leader.
• 1997 – The Phoenix lights were seen over Phoenix, Arizona by hundreds of people, and by millions on television.
• 2003 – Human evolution: The journal Nature reports 350,000-year-old footprints of an upright-walking human have been found in Italy.
• 2005 – Terry Ratzmann shoots and kills six members of the Living Church of God and the minister at Sheraton Inn in Brookfield, Wisconsin before killing himself.
• 2008 – Gold prices on the New York Mercantile Exchange hit $1,000.00 an ounce for the first time.
March 13 – Birthdays:
• 1372 – Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans, brother of Charles VI of France (d. 1407)
• 1615 – Pope Innocent XII (d. 1700)
• 1683 – John Theophilus Desaguliers, French-British philosopher (d. 1744)
• 1700 – Michel Blavet, French flutist (d. 1768)
• 1719 – John Griffin Whitwell, 4th Baron Howard de Walden, British field marshal (d. 1797)
• 1720 – Charles Bonnet, Swiss naturalist and writer (d. 1793)
• 1733 – Joseph Priestley, English scientist and minister (d. 1804)
• 1741 – Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1790)
• 1763 – Guillaume Marie Anne Brune, French marshal (d. 1815)
• 1764 – Earl Grey, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1845)
• 1770 – Daniel Lambert, Englishman famous for his obesity (d. 1809)
• 1781 – Karl Friedrich Schinkel, German architect (d. 1841)
• 1784 – Jean Moufot, French philosopher and mathematician (d. 1842)
• 1798 – Abigail Fillmore, First Lady of the United States (d. 1853)
• 1815 – James Curtis Hepburn, American missionary and linguist (d. 1911)
• 1825 – Hans Gude, Norwegian romanticist landscape painter (d. 1903)
• 1855 – Percival Lowell, American astronomer (d. 1916)
• 1860 – Hugo Wolf, Austrian composer (d. 1903)
• 1864 – Alexej von Jawlensky, Russian painter (d. 1941)
• 1870 – Albert Meyer, member of the Swiss Federal Council in the 1930s (d. 1953)
• 1883 – Enrico Toselli, Italian (Florentine) composer and pianist(d. 1926)
• 1884 – Sir Hugh Walpole, English novelist (d. 1941)
• 1890 – Fritz Busch, German conductor (d. 1951)
• 1898 – Henry Hathaway, American film director and producer (d. 1985)
• 1899 – John Hasbrouck van Vleck, American physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1980)
• 1899 – Jan Lechon, Polish poet (d. 1956)
• 1900 – Béla Guttman, Hungarian footballer (d. 1981)
• 1900 – Giorgos Seferis, Greek poet, Nobel laureate (d. 1971)
• 1907 – Mircea Eliade, Romanian historian of religions and writer (d. 1986)
• 1908 – Walter Annenberg, American publisher and philanthropist (d. 2002)
• 1910 – Karl Gustav Ahlefeldt, Danish actor (d. 1985)
• 1910 – Sammy Kaye, American musician (d. 1987)
• 1911 – L. Ron Hubbard, American science fiction author and founder of Scientology (d. 1986)
• 1913 – William Casey, American CIA director (d. 1987)
• 1913 – Lambros Konstantaras, Greek actor (d. 1985)
• 1913 – Sergey Mikhalkov, Russian writer
• 1914 – Edward O’Hare, American pilot (d. 1943)
• 1914 – W.O. Mitchell, Canadian writer (d. 1998)
• 1921 – Al Jaffee, American cartoonist
• 1923 – William F. Bolger, 65th Postmaster General of the United States (d. 1989)
• 1926 – Raúl Alfonsín, President of Argentina
• 1926 – Roy Haynes, American jazz drummer
• 1926 – Carlos Roberto Reina, President of Honduras (d. 2003)
• 1927 – Robert Denning, American interior designer (d. 2005)
• 1929 – Peter Breck, American actor
• 1930 – Jan Howard, American singer
• 1930 – Liz Anderson, American country music singer-songwriter
• 1933 – Mike Stoller, American songwriter
• 1934 – Barry Hughart, American author
• 1935 – Joseph Mascolo, American actor
• 1935 – Leslie Parrish, American actress
• 1935 – Michael Walzer, American philosopher
• 1938 – Erma Franklin, American singer (d. 2002)
• 1939 – Neil Sedaka, American singer and songwriter
• 1942 – Dave Cutler, American software engineer
• 1942 – Geoffrey Hayes, English television presenter and actor
• 1942 – Scatman John, (real name John Larkin) American singer (d. 1999)
• 1943 – André Téchiné, French film director and screenwriter
• 1945 – Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko, Russian mathematician
• 1946 – Yonatan Netanyahu, Israeli soldier (d. 1976)
• 1947 – Beat Richner, Swiss physician and cellist
• 1948 – Robert S. Woods, American actor
• 1949 – Hiroshi Kazato, Japanese racing driver (d. 1974)
• 1949 – Julia Migenes, American soprano
• 1950 – William H. Macy, American actor
• 1951 – Fred Berry, American actor and dancer (d. 2003)
• 1952 – Wolfgang Rihm, German composer
• 1953 – Deborah Raffin, American actress
• 1955 – Bruno Conti, Italian footballer
• 1955 – Glenne Headly, American actress
• 1956 – Dana Delany, American actress
• 1957 – Steve Lake, American baseball player
• 1958 – Linda Robson, English actress.
• 1960 – Yuri Andrukhovych, Ukrainian writer, poet and political essayist
• 1960 – Adam Clayton, Irish bassist (U2)
• 1960 – Joe Ranft, American animator (d. 2005)
• 1963 – Fito Páez, Argentine musician and songwriter
• 1964 – Will Clark, American baseball player
• 1967 – Andrés Escobar, Colombian footballer (d. 1994)
• 1968 – Akira Nogami, Japanese professional wrestler
• 1970 – Tim Story, American film director
• 1971 – Annabeth Gish, American actress
• 1971 – Robert Lanham, American author and satirist
• 1972 – Common, American rapper
• 1973 – Edgar Davids, Dutch footballer
• 1973 – David Draiman, American musician and songwriter (Disturbed)
• 1973 – Bobby Jackson, American basketballer
• 1974 – Thomas Enqvist, Swedish tennis player
• 1974 – Vampeta, Brazilian footballer
• 1976 – James Dewees, musician
• 1976 – Danny Masterson, American actor
• 1977 – Ed Sloan, American musician (Crossfade)
• 1977 – Momo Sylla, Guinean footballer
• 1977 – Kay Tse, Hong Kong singer
• 1978 – Tom Danielson, American cyclist
• 1978 – Karina Smirnoff, Ukrainian dancer
• 1979 – Johan Santana, Venezuelan baseball player
• 1979 – Spanky G, American musician (Bloodhound Gang)
• 1980 – Caron Butler, American basketballer
• 1980 – Lee Jung-hyun, South Korean pop singer and actress
• 1980 – Molly Stanton, American actress
• 1981 – Stephen Maguire, Scottish snooker player
• 1983 – Kaitlin Sandeno, American swimmer
• 1984 – Pieter Custers, Dutch athlete
• 1984 – Noel Fisher, Canadian actor
• 1984 – Yuuka Nanri, Japanese seiyu
• 1984 – Marc Zwiebler, German badminton player
• 1985 – Emile Hirsch, American actor
• 1985 – Austin Scott, American football player
• 1985 – Alcides Brazilian football player
• 1986 – Chiaki Kyan, Japanese gravure idol
• 1989 – Harry Melling, British actor
• 1999 – Wiktoria Gasiewska, Polish actress
March 13 – Deaths:
• 1271 – Henry of Almain, English crusader (b. 1235)
• 1395 – John Barbour, Scottish poet
• 1516 – King Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary (b. 1456)
• 1569 – Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, French Huguenot general (b. 1530)
• 1573 – Michel de l’Hôpital, French statesman
• 1604 – Arnaud d’Ossat, French diplomat and writer (b. 1537)
• 1619 – Richard Burbage, English actor (b. 1567)
• 1711 – Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, French poet and critic (b. 1636)
• 1773 – Philibert Commerçon, French naturalist and explorer (b. 1727)
• 1778 – Charles le Beau, French historian (b. 1701)
• 1803 – William Emes, English landscape architect (b. 1729 or 1730)
• 1808 – King Christian VII of Denmark (b. 1749)
• 1842 – Henry Shrapnel, British soldier and inventor (b. 1761)
• 1854 – Jean-Baptiste Guillaume Joseph, comte de Villèle, French statesman (b. 1773)
• 1879 – Adolf Anderssen, German chess player (b. 1818)
• 1881 – Tsar Alexander II of Russia (b. 1818)
• 1884 – Leland Stanford, Jr., son of American railroad magnate, Stanford University
• named for him (b. 1868)
• 1901 – Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President of the United States (b. 1833)
• 1906 – Susan B. Anthony, American women’s suffrage activist (b. 1820)
• 1911 – John J. Toffey, American Civil War Medal of Honor Recipient (b. 1844)
• 1918 – César Cui, Russian composer (b. 1835)
• 1925 – Lucille Ricksen, American actress (b. 1909)
• 1938 – Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin, Russian politician and intellectual (b. 1888)
• 1938 – Clarence Darrow, American attorney (b. 1857)
• 1941 – Elizabeth Madox Roberts, American poet and novelist (b. 1881)
• 1943 – Stephen Vincent Benét, American author (b. 1898)
• 1949 – Henri Giraud, French general (b. 1879)
• 1955 – King Tribhuvan of Nepal (b. 1906)
• 1963 – Austin Dobson, British racing driver (b. 1912)
• 1964 – Kitty Genovese, American murder victim (b. 1935)
• 1965 – Corrado Gini, Italian statistician (b. 1884)
• 1965 – Fan S. Noli, Albanian bishop, poet, and politician (b. 1882)
• 1965 – Vittorio Jano, Italian engineer (b. 1891)
• 1972 – Tony Ray-Jones, British photographer (b. 1941)
• 1975 – Ivo Andric, Serbo-Croatian writer, Nobel laureate (b. 1892)
• 1983 – Louison Bobet, French cyclist (b. 1925)
• 1988 – John Holmes, American porn star (b. 1944)
• 1990 – Bruno Bettelheim, American psychiatrist (b. 1903)
• 1990 – Karl Münchinger, German conductor (b. 1915)
• 1995 – Leon Day, American baseball player (b. 1916)
• 1995 – Odette, French-born WWII heroine (b. 1912)
• 1996 – Krzysztof Kieslowski, Polish film director (b. 1941)
• 1998 – Bill Reid, Canadian artist (b. 1920)
• 1998 – Hans von Ohain, German engineer (b. 1911)
• 1999 – Lee Falk, American cartoonist (b. 1911)
• 1999 – Garson Kanin, American writer and director (b. 1912)
• 1999 – Bidu Sayão, Brazilian born soprano (b. 1902)
• 2001 – Henry Lee Lucas of heart failure major serial killer, 63 years old
• 2002 – Hans-Georg Gadamer, German philosopher (b. 1900)
• 2004 – Franz König, Austrian Catholic Archbishop of Vienna (b. 1905)
• 2006 – Jimmy Johnstone, Scottish footballer (b. 1944)
• 2006 – Maureen Stapleton, American actress (b. 1925)
• 2006 – Peter Tomarken, American game show host (Press Your Luck) (b. 1942)
• 2007 – Arnold Skaaland, American professional wrestler (b. 1925)
March 13 – Holidays:
• In the Roman Catholic Church:
o Saint Gerald
o Saint Nicephorus
o Saint Roderick
o Saint Leticia
• In the Greek Orthodox Church:
o Saint Nicephorus

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