On This Day in History March 16

March 16 – Events:
• 597 BC – Babylonians captures Jerusalem, replaces Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king.
• 1190 – Crusaders start to massacre the Jews of York; many Jews commit suicide rather than submit to baptism.
• 1249 – The Servite Order is officially approved by Cardinal Raniero Capocci, papal legate in Tuscany.
• 1322 – The Battle of Boroughbridge takes place in the First War of Scottish Independence.
• 1521 – Ferdinand Magellan reaches the Philippines.
• 1660 – The Long Parliament disbands.
• 1689 – The 23rd Regiment of Foot or Royal Welch Fusiliers is founded.
• 1792 – King Gustav III of Sweden is shot; he dies on March 29.
• 1802 – The United States Military Academy at West Point is established.
• 1812 – Battle of Badajoz (March 16 – April 6) – British and Portuguese forces besiege and defeat French garrison during Peninsular War.
• 1815 – Prince Willem of the House of Orange-Nassau proclaims himself King of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, the first constitutional monarch in The Netherlands.
• 1818 – Battle of Cancha Rayada – Spanish forces defeat Chileans under José de San Martín.
• 1861 – Edward Clark became Governor of Texas, replacing Sam Houston, who was evicted from the office for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy.
• 1865 – American Civil War: The Battle of Averasborough begins as Confederate forces suffer unreplacable casualties.
• 1867 – First publication of an article by Joseph Lister outlining the discovery of antiseptic surgery, in The Lancet.
• 1872 – The Wanderers F.C. won the first FA Cup, the oldest football competition in the world, beating Royal Engineers A.F.C. 1-0 at The Oval in Kennington, London.
• 1900 – Sir Arthur Evans purchases the land around the ruins of Knossos, the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete.
• 1912 – Lawrence Oates, ill member of Scott’s South Pole expedition leaves the tent saying, “I am just going outside and may be some time.”
• 1916 – The 7th and 10th US cavalry regiments under John J. Pershing cross the US-Mexico border to join the hunt of Pancho Villa.
• 1924 – The free port of Fiume is formally annexed by Mussolini’s fascist regime.
• 1926 – Robert Goddard launches the first liquid-fueled rocket, at Auburn, Massachusetts.
• 1935 – Adolf Hitler orders Germany to rearm herself in violation of the Versailles Treaty. Conscription was reintroduced to form the Wehrmacht.
• 1939 – From Prague Castle, Hitler proclaims Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate.
• 1939 – Marriage of Princess Fawzia of Egypt to Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran.
• 1942 – The first V-2 rocket test launch (exploded at liftoff).
• 1945 – World War II: The Battle of Iwo Jima ends but small pockets of Japanese resistance persist.
• 1945 – Würzburg, Germany is 90% destroyed, with 5,000 dead, in only 20 minutes by British bombers.
• 1958 – The Ford Motor Company produces its 50 millionth automobile, the Thunderbird, averaging almost a million cars a year since the company’s founding.
• 1962 – A Flying Tiger Line Super Constellation disappears in the western Pacific Ocean, with 107 people missing.
• 1963 – Mount Agung erupts on Bali, as 11,000 die.
• 1966 – Launch of Gemini 8, the 12th manned American space flight and first space docking with the Agena Target Vehicle.
• 1968 – General Motors releases its 100 millionth automobile, the Oldsmobile Toronado.
• 1969 – A Venezuelan Airlines DC-9 crashes shortly after takeoff in Maracaibo, Venezuela killing 155.
• 1976 – British Prime Minister Harold Wilson resigns, citing personal reasons.
• 1978 – Aldo Moro is kidnapped by left-wing terrorists in Italy and is later killed by his captors.
• 1978 – Supertanker Amoco Cadiz splits in two after running aground on Portsall Rocks, three miles off the coast of Brittany, resulting in the 5th-largest oil spill in history.
• 1983 – Demolition of the radio tower Ismaning, the last radio tower in Germany built of wood.
• 1984 – William Buckley, the CIA station chief in Beirut, Lebanon, is kidnapped by Islamic fundamentalists and later dies in captivity.
• 1985 – Associated Press newsman Terry Anderson is taken hostage in Beirut. He is released on December 4, 1991.
• 1988 – Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North and Vice Admiral John Poindexter are indicted on charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States.
• 1988 – The Kurdish town of Halabjah in Iraq was attacked with a mix of poison gas and nerve agents, killing thousands of people.
• 1995 – Mississippi formally ratifies the Thirteenth Amendment, becoming the last state to approve the abolition of slavery. The thirteenth amendment was officially ratified in 1865.
• 1996 – Göran Persson is elected leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party.
• 2005 – Israel officially hands over Jericho to Palestinian control.
• 2006 – The United Nations General Assembly votes overwhelmingly to establish the UN Human Rights Council.
March 16 – Birthdays:
• 1338 – Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick (d. 1401)
• 1445 – Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (d. 1510)
• 1473 – Henry IV the Pious, Duke of Saxony (d. 1541)
• 1581 – Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft, Dutch historian and writer (d. 1647)
• 1585 – Gerbrand Adriaensz Bredero, Dutch writer (d. 1618)
• 1631 – René Le Bossu, French critic (d. 1680)
• 1654 – Andreas Acoluthus, German orientalist (d. 1704)
• 1687 – Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, queen consort in Prussia (d. 1757)
• 1750 – Caroline Herschel, German-born English astronomer (d. 1848)
• 1751 – James Madison, 4th President of the United States (d. 1836)
• 1773 – Juan Ramón Balcarce, Argentine military leader and politician (d. 1836)
• 1774 – Captain Matthew Flinders, English explorer of the coasts of Australia (d. 1814)
• 1789 – Georg Simon Ohm, German physicist (d. 1854)
• 1794 – Ami Boué, Austrian geologist (d. 1881)
• 1800 – Emperor Ninko of Japan (d. 1846)
• 1805 – Peter Ernst von Lasaulx, German philosopher and writer (d. 1861)
• 1822 – Rosa Bonheur, French realist painter and sculptor (d. 1899)
• 1834 – James Hector, Scottish geologist (d. 1907)
• 1839 – René François Armand Sully-Prudhomme, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1907)
• 1839 – John Butler Yeats, Northern Irish artist (d. 1922)
• 1840 – Shibusawa Eiichi, Japanese industrialist (d. 1931)
• 1846 – Gösta Mittag-Leffler, Swedish mathematician (d. 1927)
• 1851 – Martinus Beijerinck, Dutch microbiologist and botanist (d. 1931)
• 1856 – Napoléon Eugène Louis John Joseph, called Napoleon IV, the only child of Emperor Napoleon III of France (d. 1879)
• 1857 – Charles Harding Firth, British historian (d. 1936)
• 1859 – Alexander Stepanovich Popov, Russian physicist (d. 1906)
• 1865 – Patsy Donovan, Irish-American baseball player (d. 1953)
• 1869 – F. A. Forbes, Scottish author (d. 1936)
• 1877 – Reza Shah Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (d. 1941)
• 1878 – Clemens August Graf von Galen, German archbishop and cardinal (d. 1946)
• 1889 – Reggie Walker, South African athlete (d. 1951)
• 1890 – Solomon Mikhoels, Soviet actor and chairman of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (d. 1948)
• 1892 – César Vallejo, Peruvian poet (d. 1938)
• 1892 – James Petrillo, leader of the U.S. musicians union (d. 1984)
• 1897 – Conrad Nagel, American actor (d. 1970)
• 1883 – Ethel Anderson, Australian poet (d. 1958)
• 1901 – Edward Pawley, American actor (d. 1988)
• 1902 – Leon Roppolo, American jazz clarinetist (d. 1943)
• 1903 – Mike Mansfield, American politician, and diplomat (d. 2001)
• 1905 – Elisabeth Flickenschildt, German actress (d. 1977)
• 1905 – Marlin Perkins, American naturalist (d. 1986)
• 1906 – Henny Youngman, American comedian (d. 1998)
• 1906 – Francisco Ayala, Spanish writer
• 1908 – René Daumal, French Surrealist writer (d. 1944)
• 1908 – Robert Rossen, American film director, screenwriter and producer (d. 1966)
• 1911 – Dr. Josef Mengele, German, accused Nazi war criminal (d. 1979)
• 1911 – Pierre Harmel, Belgian politician
• 1912 – Pat Nixon, First Lady of the United States (d. 1993)
• 1916 – Mercedes McCambridge, American actress (d. 2004)
• 1917 – Samael Aun Weor, Colombian writer (d. 1977)
• 1918 – Frederick Reines, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
• 1920 – Leo McKern, Australian actor (d. 2002)
• 1920 – Traudl Junge, Hitler’s secretary (d. 2002)
• 1920 – John Addison, British composer (d. 1998)
• 1920 – Dorothea Binz, Nazi war criminal (d. 1947)
• 1922 – Harding Lemay, American television scriptwriter and playwright
• 1925 – Luis E. Miramontes, Mexican chemist, co-inventor of the combined oral contraceptive pill (d. 2004)
• 1926 – Charles Goodell, American politician (d. 1987)
• 1926 – Jerry Lewis, American comedian
• 1927 – Vladimir Komarov, Soviet cosmonaut (d. 1967)
• 1927 – Daniel Patrick Moynihan, U.S. Senator from New York (d. 2003)
• 1927 – Olga San Juan, American comedian
• 1928 – Christa Ludwig, German mezzo-soprano
• 1928 – Karlheinz Böhm, Austrian actor
• 1929 – Nadja Tiller, Austrian actress
• 1930 – Tommy Flanagan, American jazz pianist (d. 2001)
• 1931 – Betty Johnson, American singer
• 1932 – Don Blasingame, American baseball player and manager (d. 2005)
• 1932 – Walter Cunningham, American astronaut
• 1933 – Sandy Weill, American financier and philanthropist
• 1934 – Ray Hnatyshyn, Governor-General of Canada (d. 2002)
• 1935 – Teresa Berganza, Spanish soprano
• 1936 – Fred Neil, American singer-songwriter (d. 2001)
• 1937 – Amos Tversky, Israeli psychologist (d. 1996)
• 1939 – Carlos Bilardo, Argetinian football coach
• 1940 – Bernardo Bertolucci, Italian film director
• 1940 – Jan Pronk, Dutch politician
• 1940 – Keith Rowe, English guitarist (AMM) and painter
• 1941 – Robert Guéï, ruler of Côte d’Ivoire (d. 2002)
• 1941 – Chuck Woolery, American game show host
• 1942 – James Soong, Taiwanese politician
• 1942 – Jerry Jeff Walker, American musician
• 1942 – Roger Crozier, Canadian ice hockey goaltender (d. 1996)
• 1943 – Ursula Goodenough, Evolutionary Scholar, Cell Biologist
• 1943 – Kim Mu-saeng, South Korean actor (d. 2005)
• 1946 – Michael Basman, English chess master
• 1946 – Hubert Soudant, Dutch conductor
• 1947 – Ramzan Paskayev, Chechen accordionist
• 1948 – Michael Bruce, American musician. Guitarist and keyboard player for Alice Cooper
• 1948 – Margaret Weis, American author
• 1948 – Richard Desjardins, Quebec singer, songwriter and film director
• 1949 – Erik Estrada, Puerto Rican actor
• 1949 – Elliott Murphy, American Singer-Songwriter
• 1949 – Victor Garber, Canadian actor
• 1950 – Kate Nelligan, Canadian actress
• 1951 – Joe DeLamielleure, American football player
• 1952 – Philippe Kahn, French-American entrepreneur
• 1953 – Isabelle Huppert, French actress
• 1953 – Richard Stallman, American free software activist
• 1954 – Jimmy Nail, British actor and singer
• 1954 – Nancy Wilson, American guitarist, singer, and actress (Heart)
• 1955 – Jiro Watanabe, Japanese boxer
• 1955 – Bruno Barreto, Brazilian film director
• 1958 – Jorge Ramos, Mexican TV anchor
• 1959 – Flavor Flav, American rapper
• 1959 – Jens Stoltenberg, Prime Minister of Norway
• 1960 – Duane Sutter, Canadian ice hockey player
• 1961 – Todd McFarlane, Canadian cartoonist, comic book writer, artist, and media entrepreneur
• 1961 – Brett Kenny, Australian rugby league footballer
• 1963 – Jimmy Degrasso, American musician, drummer
• 1963 – Kevin Smith, New Zealand actor (d. 2002)
• 1964 – Patty Griffin, American singer and songwriter
• 1964 – Gore Verbinski, American movie director
• 1964 – Pascal Richard, Swiss cyclist
• 1965 – Richard Daniel Roman, English songwriter and record producer
• 1965 – Belén Rueda, Spanish actress
• 1967 – Lauren Graham, American actress
• 1968 – Ananya Khare, Indian actress and teacher
• 1970 – Paul Oscar, Icelandic pop singer, songwriter and disc jockey
• 1971 – Alan Tudyk, American actor
• 1973 – Brant Bjork, American musician (Kyuss)
• 1974 – Georgios Anatolakis, Greek footballer
• 1974 – Fotini Vavatsi, Greek archer
• 1975 – Sienna Guillory, English actress
• 1976 – Nick Spano, American actor
• 1976 – Abraham Núñez, Dominican baseball player
• 1977 – Donal Óg Cusack, Irish hurler
• 1979 – Edison Méndez, Ecuadorian footballer
• 1979 – Rashad Moore, National Football League player
• 1979 – Leena Peisa, Finnish musician (Lordi)
• 1980 – Felipe Reyes, Spanish basketball player
• 1980 – Todd Heap, American football player
• 1981 – Andrew Bree, Irish swimmer
• 1981 – Curtis Granderson, American baseball player
• 1983 – Brandon League, American baseball player
• 1984 – Levi Brown, American football player
• 1985 – Nicole Trunfio, Australian supermodel
• 1986 – Ken Doane, American professional wrestler
• 1987 – Tiiu Kuik, Estonian model
• 1987 – Maragret Eno, Professional Irish Dancer
• 1989 – Theo Walcott, English footballer
• 1989 – Peaches Geldof, English writer
• 1990 – James Bulger, British murder victim (d. 1993)
• 1991 – Wolfgang Van Halen, American musician
• 1994 – Sierra McClain, American actress and singer
March 16 – Deaths:
• 37 – Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar, Roman Emperor (b. 46 BC)
• 455 – Valentinian III, Roman Emperor (b. 419)
• 1021 – Heribert of Cologne, Archbishop of Cologne and Chancellor of Emperor Otto III
• 1037 – Robert I, Archbishop of Rouen
• 1072 – Adalbert of Hamburg, German archbishop
• 1322 – Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, English soldier (b. 1276)
• 1410 – John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (b. 1373)
• 1457 – László Hunyadi, Hungarian statesman and warrior (b. 1433)
• 1485 – Anne Neville, queen of Richard III of England (b. 1456)
• 1559 – Anthony St. Leger, Lord Deputy of Ireland (b. 1496)
• 1649 – Jean de Brébeuf, French Jesuit missionary (b. 1593)
• 1620 – St. John Sarkander, Moravian priest, died of injuries caused by torturing
• 1679 – John Leverett, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony (b. 1616)
• 1721 – James Craggs the Elder, English politician (b. 1657)
• 1736 – Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Italian composer (b. 1710)
• 1737 – Benjamin Wadsworth, President of Harvard University (b. 1670)
• 1738 – George Bähr, German architect (b. 1666)
• 1747 – Christian Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst, father of Catherine II of Russia (b. 1690)
• 1888 – Hippolyte Carnot, French statesman (b. 1801)
• 1890 – Zorka of Montenegro, Princess of Serbia (b. 1864)
• 1892 – Samuel F. Miller, American politician (b. 1827)
• 1898 – Aubrey Beardsley, British artist (b. 1872)
• 1899 – Joseph Medill, mayor of Chicago (b. 1823)
• 1903 – Roy Bean, American jurist
• 1914 – Charles Albert Gobat, Swiss politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1843)
• 1926 – Sergeant Stubby, decorated World War I dog
• 1930 – Miguel Primo de Rivera, Spanish dictator (b. 1870)
• 1935 – John James Richard Macleod, Scottish-born physician and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1876)
• 1935 – Aron Nimzowitsch, Latvian-born chess player (b. 1886)
• 1936 – Marguerite Durand, French journalist and feminist (b. 1864)
• 1940 – Selma Lagerlöf, Swedish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1858)
• 1945 – Börries von Münchhausen, German poet (b. 1874)
• 1955 – Nicolas de Staël, French-Russian painter (b. 1914)
• 1957 – Constantin Brancusi, Romanian sculptor (b. 1876)
• 1961 – Chen Geng, Chinese military leader (b. 1903)
• 1968 – Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Italian composer (b. 1895)
• 1968 – Gunnar Ekelöf, Swedish poet and writer (b. 1907)
• 1970 – Tammi Terrell, American singer (b. 1946)
• 1971 – Thomas Dewey, American presidential candidate (b. 1902)
• 1975 – Richard W. DeKorte, American politician (b. 1936)
• 1975 – T-Bone Walker, American musician (b. 1910)
• 1977 – Kamal Jumblatt, leader of the Lebanese Druze (b. 1917)
• 1979 – Jean Monnet, French politician (b. 1888)
• 1980 – Tamara de Lempicka, Polish-born painter (b. 1898)
• 1983 – Arthur Godfrey, American actor and television host (b. 1903)
• 1983 – Fred Rose, Canadian politician (b. 1907)
• 1984 – John Hoagland, American photographer (b. 1947)
• 1985 – Eddie Shore, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1902)
• 1992 – Yves Rocard, French physicist (b. 1903)
• 1992 – Roger Lemelin, Quebec novelist and television writer (b. 1919)
• 1993 – Johnny Cymbal, American singer and producer (b. 1945)
• 1996 – Charlie Barnett, American actor (b. 1954)
• 1998 – Derek Harold Richard Barton, British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1918)
• 1999 – Gratien Gélinas, Quebec playwright and director (b. 1909)
• 2000 – Thomas Ferebee, Hiroshima bombardier (b. 1918)
• 2001 – Norma MacMillan, Canadian actress (b. 1921)
• 2001 – Bob Wollek, French race car driver (b. 1943)
• 2003 – Rachel Corrie, American political activist (b. 1979)
• 2003 – Ronald Ferguson, father of Sarah, Duchess of York (b. 1931)
• 2004 – Vilém Tauský, Czech conductor and composer (b. 1910)
• 2005 – Todd Bell, American football player (b. 1958)
• 2005 – Ralph Erskine, British architect (Byker Wall) (b. 1914)
• 2005 – Anthony George, American TV actor (b. 1921)
• 2005 – Allan Hendrickse, South African politician (b. 1927)
• 2005 – Dick Radatz, American baseball player (b. 1937)
• 2006 – David Feintuch, American sci-fi author (b. 1944)
• 2007 – Manjural Islam, Bangladeshi test cricket player (b. 1984)
March 16 – Holidays:
• Latvia – The controversial Latvian Legion Day
• The first day of the Bacchanalia in ancient Rome
• Abban of Magheranoidhe
• Abban of New Ross
• Saint Heribert of Cologne (died 1021)
• Saint Agapitus

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