On This Day in History March 18

March 18 – Events:
• 37 – The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius’ will and proclaims Caligula emperor.
• 1229 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor declares himself King of Jerusalem during the Sixth Crusade.
• 1241 – Kraków is ravaged by Mongols.
• 1314 – Jacques de Molay, the 23rd and the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar is burned at the stake.
• 1438 – Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Germany.
• 1608 – Susenyos is formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia.
• 1673 – John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton sells his part of New Jersey to some Friends (Quakers).
• 1766 – American Revolution: The British Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, which was very unpopular in the British colonies.
• 1793 – The first republican state in Germany, the Republic of Mainz, is declared by Andreas Joseph Hofmann.
• 1834 – Six farm labourers from Tolpuddle, Dorset, England are sentenced to be transported to Australia for forming a trade union.
• 1850 – American Express is founded by Henry Wells & William Fargo.
• 1865 – American Civil War: The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourns for the last time.
• 1871 – Declaration of the Paris Commune; President of the French Republic Adolphe Thiers orders evacuation of Paris.
• 1874 – Hawaii signs a treaty with the United States granting exclusive trading rights.
• 1893 – Former Governor General Lord Stanley pledges to donate a silver challenge cup, later named after him, as an award for the best ice hockey team in Canada; originally presented to amateur champions, the Stanley Cup has been awarded to the top pro team since 1910, and since 1926, only to National Hockey League teams.
• 1906 – Traian Vuia flies a self-propelled heavier-than-air aircraft.
• 1909 – Einar Dessau uses a short-wave radio transmitter, becoming the first radio broadcaster.
• 1913 – King George I of Greece is assassinated in the recently liberated city of Thessaloniki.
• 1915 – World War I: Massive naval attack in Battle of Gallipoli. Three battleships are sunk during a failed British & French naval attack on the Dardanelles.
• 1921 – The second Peace of Riga between Poland and Soviet Union.
• 1922 – In India, Mohandas Gandhi is sentenced to six years in prison for civil disobedience. He would serve only 2 years.
• 1922 – The first public celebration of Bat mitzvah, for the daughter of Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan, is held in New York City.
• 1925 – The Tri-State Tornado hits the Midwestern states of Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana, killing 695 people.
• 1937 – The New London School explosion kills three hundred, mostly children.
• 1937 – Spanish Civil War: Spanish Republican forces hand Italian forces a grave defeat at the Battle of Guadalajara.
• 1937 – The human-powered aircraft, Pedaliante, flies 1 kilometre (0.62 miles) outside Milan.
• 1938 – Mexico nationalizes all foreign-owned oil properties within its borders.
• 1940 – World War II: Axis Powers – Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini meet at Brenner Pass in the Alps and agree to form an alliance against France and the United Kingdom.
• 1944 – The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Italy kills 26 and causes thousands to flee their homes.
• 1945 – World War II: 1,250 American bombers attack Berlin.
• 1946 – The diplomatic relations between Switzerland and the Soviet Union were established.
• 1953 – An earthquake hits western Turkey, killing 250.
• 1959 – American President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs a bill into law allowing for Hawaiian statehood, which would become official on August 21.
• 1962 – The Evian Accords puts an end to the Algerian War of Independence, which began in 1954.
• 1965 – Cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov, leaving his spacecraft Voskhod 2 for 12 minutes, becomes the first person to walk in space.
• 1967 – Supertanker Torrey Canyon runs aground off the Cornish coast.
• 1968 – The U.S. Congress repeals the requirement for a gold reserve to back US currency.
• 1970 – Lon Nol ousts Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia.
• 1971 – A landslide at Chungar, Peru crashes into Lake Yanahuani killing 200.
• 1974 – Oil embargo crisis: Most OPEC nations end a five-month oil embargo against the United States, Europe and Japan.
• 1980 – On Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia, 50 people are killed at an explosion of a Vostok-2M rocket on its launch pad during a fueling operation.
• 1989 – In Egypt, a 4,400-year-old mummy is found in the Pyramid of Cheops.
• 1990 – In largest art theft in US history, 12 paintings, collectively worth around $300 million, are stolen from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston, Massachusetts.
• 1997 – The tail of a Russian Antonov An-24 charter plane breaks off while en-route to Turkey causing the plane to crash and killing all 50 on board and leading to the grounding of all An-24s.
• 2003 – FBI agents raid the corporate headquarters of HealthSouth Corporation in Birmingham, Alabama on suspicion of massive corporate fraud led by the company’s top executives.
• 2003 – British Sign Language is recognized as an official British language.
• 2005 – Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube is removed at the request of her husband, fueling a worldwide debate on euthanasia.
March 18 – Birthdays:
• 1395 – John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter, English military leader (d. 1447)
• 1496 – Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England and queen consort of Louis XII of France (d. 1533)
• 1555 – François, Duke of Anjou (d. 1584)
• 1590 – Manuel de Faria e Sousa, Portuguese historian and poet (d. 1649)
• 1602 – Jacques de Billy, French mathematician (d. 1679)
• 1603 – Simon Bradstreet, Massachusetts Bay colonist (d. 1693)
• 1634 – Marie-Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de la Fayette, French writer (d. 1693)
• 1640 – Philippe de la Hire, French mathematician and astronomer (d. 1719)
• 1657 – Giuseppe Ottavio Pitoni, Italian composer (d. 1743)
• 1679 – Matthew Decker, English merchant and writer (d. 1759)
• 1685 – Ralph Ersine, Scottish minister (d. 1752)
• 1690 – Christian Goldbach, Prussian mathematician (d. 1764)
• 1701 – Niclas Sahlgren, Swedish merchant and philanthropist (d. 1776)
• 1780 – Milos Obrenovic, Leader of The Second Serbian Uprising and Prince of Serbia (d. 1860)
• 1782 – John C. Calhoun, 7th Vice President of the United States (d. 1850)
• 1813 – Christian Friedrich Hebbel, German writer (d. 1864)
• 1823 – Antoine Eugène Alfred Chanzy, French general (d. 1883)
• 1828 – William Randal Cremer, English politician and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1908)
• 1837 – Grover Cleveland, President of the United States (d. 1908)
• 1840 – William Cosmo Monkhouse, English poet and critic (d. 1901)
• 1842 – Stéphane Mallarmé, French poet (d. 1898)
• 1844 – Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Russian composer (d. 1908)
• 1848 – Nathanael Herreshoff, American naval architect (d. 1938)
• 1848 – Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, daughter of Queen Victoria (d. 1939)
• 1858 – Rudolf Diesel, German inventor (d. 1913)
• 1869 – Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1940)
• 1872 – Anna Held, Polish actress and singer (d. 1918)
• 1874 – Nikolai Berdyaev, Russian philosopher (d. 1948)
• 1877 – Edgar Cayce, American psychic (d. 1945)
• 1877 – Clem Hill, Australian cricketer (d. 1945)
• 1882 – Gian Francesco Malipiero, Italian composer (d. 1973)
• 1886 – Edward Everett Horton, American actor (d. 1970)
• 1898 – Jake Swirbul, American aircraft manufacturer (d. 1960)
• 1893 – Costante Girardengo, Italian cyclist (d. 1978)
• 1893 – Wilfred Owen, British poet (d. 1918)
• 1899 – Jean Goldkette, Greek-born jazz musician (d. 1962)
• 1904 – Srecko Kosovel, Slovenian poet (d. 1926)
• 1905 – Robert Donat, English actor (d. 1958)
• 1905 – Thomas Townsend Brown, American scientist (d. 1985)
• 1907 – John Zachary Young, British biologist (d. 1997)
• 1909 – Ernest Gallo, American winemaker (d. 2007)
• 1910 – Chiang Ching-kuo, President of the Republic of China (d. 1988)
• 1911 – Smiley Burnette, American singer and songwriter (d. 1967)
• 1913 – René Clément, French film director and screenwriter (d. 1996)
• 1913 – Werner Mölders German WWII fighter pilot (d. 1941)
• 1915 – Richard Condon, American novelist (d. 1996)
• 1917 – Frederika of Hanover, queen of the Hellenes (d. 1981)
• 1918 – Al Benton, American baseball player (d. 1968)
• 1918 – Bob Broeg, American sports writer (d. 2005)
• 1922 – Egon Bahr, German politician
• 1923 – Andy Granatelli, American motorsports entrepreneur
• 1926 – Peter Graves, American actor
• 1926 – Dick Littlefield, American baseball player (d. 1997)
• 1927 – John Kander, American songwriter
• 1927 – George Plimpton, American writer and actor (d. 2003)
• 1928 – Julia Mullock, Princess of Korea
• 1928 – Miguel Poblet, Spanish cyclist
• 1928 – Fidel V. Ramos, President of the Philippines
• 1929 – John Macurdy, American bass
• 1930 – Pat Halcox, British musician
• 1931 – John Fraser, Scottish-born stage, film and television actor
• 1932 – John Updike, American author
• 1935 – Ole Barndorff-Nielsen, Danish mathematician
• 1936 – Frederik Willem de Klerk, President of South Africa, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
• 1937 – Mark Donohue, American race car driver (d. 1975)
• 1937 – Rudi Altig, German cyclist
• 1938 – Charley Pride, American musician
• 1938 – Shashi Kapoor, Indian Actor
• 1939 – Ron Atkinson, English former footballer and manager
• 1939 – Giannis Markopoulos, Greek composer
• 1941 – Wilson Pickett, American singer (d. 2006)
• 1941 – John W. Derr, American politician
• 1943 – Kevin Dobson, American actor
• 1943 – Toula Grivas, Greek actress
• 1947 – B.J. Wilson, English drummer (d. 1990)
• 1947 – Patrick Chesnais, French actor
• 1947 – Patrick Barlow, English actor, comedian and playwright
• 1948 – Guy Lapointe, Canadian ice hockey player
• 1949 – Alex Higgins, Northern Irish snooker player
• 1949 – Åse Kleveland, Norwegian singer and politician
• 1950 – Brad Dourif, American actor
• 1950 – Richard Kretchmer, English artist and historian
• 1950 – Rodney Milburn, American athlete (d. 1997)
• 1950 – Larry Perkins, Australian racing driver
• 1951 – Bill Frisell, American jazz musician
• 1951 – Ben Cohen, American co-founder of Ben & Jerry’s ice cream
• 1952 – Mike Webster, American football player (d. 2002)
• 1956 – Ingemar Stenmark, Swedish skier
• 1957 – György Pazdera, Hungarian bassist (Pokolgép)
• 1957 – Christer Fuglesang, Swedish ESA astronaut
• 1959 – Luc Besson, French producer, writer, and director
• 1959 – Irene Cara, American actress and singer
• 1960 – Richard Biggs, American actor (d. 2004)
• 1960 – Guy Carbonneau, Canadian ice hockey player and manager
• 1962 – Thomas Ian Griffith, American actor
• 1962 – James McMurtry, American folk singer/songwriter
• 1962 – Mike Rowe, American television personality
• 1963 – Jeff LaBar, American guitarist
• 1963 – Vanessa L. Williams, American beauty queen, actress, and singer
• 1964 – Bonnie Blair, American speed skater
• 1964 – Courtney Pine, British jazz saxophonist
• 1964 – Rozalla, Zambian singer
• 1964 – Alex Caffi, Italian racecar driver
• 1966 – Jerry Cantrell, American musician
• 1967 – Miki Berenyi, English singer (Lush)
• 1968 – Shinichiro Miki, Japanese seiyu (voice actor)
• 1969 – Vassily Ivanchuk, Ukrainian chess player
• 1969 – Shaun Udal, English cricketer
• 1970 – Queen Latifah, American singer and actress
• 1972 – Dane Cook, American comedian and actor
• 1973 – Max Barry, Australian author
• 1975 – Brian Griese, American football player
• 1975 – Tomas Žvirgždauskas, Lithuanian footballer
• 1975 – Sutton Foster, American actress, singer, and dancer
• 1975 – Rodleen Getsic, American musician, civil servant
• 1976 – Jovan Kirovski, American soccer player
• 1976 – Tomokazu Ohka, Japanese baseball player
• 1976 – Scott Podsednik, American baseball player
• 1977 – Danny Murphy, English footballer
• 1977 – Zdeno Chára, Slovak ice hockey player
• 1977 – Devin Lima, American singer
• 1977 – Willy Sagnol, French footballer
• 1977 – Terrmel Sledge, American baseball player
• 1977 – Fernando Rodney, Dominican baseball player
• 1978 – Khalilah Adams, American actress
• 1978 – Yoshie Takeshita, Japanese volleyball player
• 1978 – Jan Bulis, Czech ice hockey player
• 1979 – Adam Levine, American singer (Maroon 5)
• 1979 – Brandon Lee, American adult actor
• 1980 – Alexei Yagudin, Russian figure skater
• 1980 – Sophia Myles, English actress
• 1980 – Sebastien Frey, French footballer
• 1981 – Jang Nara, Korean singer and actress
• 1982 – Chad Cordero, American baseball player
• 1982 – Timo Glock German Formula 1 driver
• 1982 – Pedro Mantorras, Angolan footballer
• 1983 – Andy Sonnanstine, American baseball player
• 1984 – Vonzell Solomon, American Idol Contestant
• 1985 – Vince Lia, Australian Footballer
• 1986 – Bia Figueiredo, Brazilian racing driver
• 1987 – Mauro Zárate, Argentinian Footballer
• 1987 – Gabriel Mercado, Argentinian Footballer
• 1987 – Ben Waterworth, Australian Radio Personality
• 1996 – Madeline Carroll, American actress
March 18 – Deaths:
• 978 – King Edward the Martyr of England
• 1227 – Pope Honorius III (b. 1148)
• 1314 – Jacques DeMolay, Frankish noble, the 23rd Grand Master of the Knights Templar (b.1244)
• 1583 – King Magnus of Livonia (b. 1540)
• 1584 – Tsar Ivan IV of Russia (b. 1530)
• 1675 – Arthur Chichester, 1st Earl of Donegall, Irish soldier (b. 1606)
• 1689 – John Dixwell, English judge (b. 1607)
• 1696 – Robert Charnock, English conspirator
• 1745 – Sir Robert Walpole, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1676)
• 1746 – Anna Leopoldovna, regent of Russia (b. 1718)
• 1768 – Laurence Sterne, Irish writer (b. 1713)
• 1781 – Anne Robert Turgot, French statesman (b. 1727)
• 1823 – Jean-Baptiste Breval, French composer (b. 1753)
• 1835 – Christian Gunther von Bernstorff, Danish-Prussian statesman and diplomat (b. 1769)
• 1871 – Augustus De Morgan, Indian-born British mathematician and logician (b. 1806)
• 1898 – Matilda Joslyn Gage, American suffragist (b. 1826)
• 1907 – Marcellin Berthelot, French chemist and politician (b. 1827)
• 1913 – King George I of Greece (b. 1845)
• 1936 – Eleftherios Venizelos, Former Prime minister of Greece
• 1939 – Henry Simpson Lunn, English humanitarian and religious leader (b. 1859)
• 1941 – Henri Cornet, French cyclist (b. 1884)
• 1945 – William Grover-Williams, British racing driver
• 1947 – William C. Durant, American automobile pioneer (b. 1861)
• 1962 – Walter W. Bacon, Governor of Delaware (b. 1880)
• 1963 – Wanda Hawley, American actress (b. 1895)
• 1964 – Sigfrid Edström, Swedish sports official (b. 1870)
• 1965 – King Farouk I of Egypt (b. 1920)
• 1969 – Barbara Bates, American film actress (b. 1925)
• 1973 – Lauritz Melchior, Danish-born American opera singer (b. 1890)
• 1975 – Alain Grandbois, Quebec poet (b. 1900)
• 1976 – Giuseppe Genco Russo, Sicilian mafioso (b. 1893)
• 1977 – Marien Ngouabi, President of the Republic of the Congo (b. 1938)
• 1977 – José Carlos Pace, Brazilian racing driver (b. 1944)
• 1978 – Leigh Brackett, American author (b. 1915)
• 1978 – Peggy Wood, American actress (b. 1892)
• 1980 – Erich Fromm, German-born psychologist and philosopher (b. 1900)
• 1983 – King Umberto II of Italy, (b. 1904)
• 1983 – Kenneth E. Boulding, English economist (b. 1910)
• 1984 – Charlie Lau, American baseball player (b. 1933)
• 1986 – Bernard Malamud, American writer (b. 1914)
• 1988 – Billy Butterfield, American jazz trumpeter (b. 1917)
• 1990 – Robin Harris, American actor and comedian (b. 1953)
• 1995 – Robin Jacques, illustrator of children’s books (b. 1920)
• 1996 – Odysseas Elytis, Greek poet, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1911)
• 1999 – Elizabeth Huckaby, American educator (b. 1905)
• 2000 – Eberhard Bethge, German theologian (b. 1909)
• 2001 – John Phillips, American musician (The Mamas and the Papas) (b. 1935)
• 2002 – R.A. Lafferty, American science fiction writer (b. 1914)
• 2002 – Gösta Winbergh, Swedish tenor (b. 1943)
• 2003 – Karl Kling, German race car driver (b. 1910)
• 2003 – Adam Osborne, British computer pioneer (b. 1939)
• 2004 – Harrison McCain, Canadian businessman (b. 1927)
• 2006 – Bill Beutel, American journalist (b. 1930)
• 2006 – Dan Gibson, musician (b. 1922)
• 2007 – Bob Woolmer, English cricketer and Pakistan national coach (b. 1948)
March 18 – Holidays:
• Aruba – Flag Day (1976)
• Ancient Latvia – Bindus Diena
• United States – National Biodiesel Day
• Mothers Day (Nigeria)
• Mexico – Expropiación Petrolera
• Saint Cyril of Jerusalem (d.386)
• Saint Alexander of Jerusalem
• Saint Anselm
• Saint Edward the Martyr (d.978)
• Saint Narcissus
• Saint Salvator

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