On This Day in History April 3

April 3 – Events:

  • 1043 – Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England.
  • 1077 – Creation of the first Parliament of Friuli.
  • 1559 – The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis treaty is signed, ending the Italian Wars.
  • 1834 – The generals in the Greek War of Independence stand trial for treason.
  • 1860 – The first successful Pony Express run from Saint Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California begins.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America.
  • 1882 – American Old West outlaw Jesse James is killed by Robert Ford for a $5,000 reward.
  • 1885 – Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for his engine design.
  • 1895 – The libel trial instigated by Oscar Wilde begins, eventually resulting in his imprisonment on charges of homosexuality.
  • 1896 – The first publication of La Gazzetta dello Sport newspaper in Italy.
  • 1917 – Vladimir Lenin arrives in Russia from exile, marking the beginning of Bolshevik leadership in the Russian Revolution.
  • 1922 – Joseph Stalin became the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
  • 1929 – RMS Queen Mary is ordered from John Brown & Company Shipbuilding and Engineering by Cunard Line.
  • 1933 – Unsuccessful boycott of Jewish stores in Nazi Germany.
  • 1936 – Bruno Richard Hauptmann is executed for the kidnapping and death of Charles Augustus Lindbergh II, the baby son of world-famous pilot Charles Lindbergh.
  • 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces begin an assault on the United States and Filipino troops on the Bataan Peninsula.
  • 1946 – Japanese Lt. General Masaharu Homma is executed in the Philippines for leading the Bataan Death March.
  • 1948 – President Harry Truman signs the Marshall Plan which authorizes $5 billion in aid for 16 countries.
  • 1948 – In Jeju, South Korea, a civil-war-like period of violence and human rights abuses begins, known as the Jeju massacre.
  • 1948 – First run of the Texas Chief passenger train.
  • 1953 – TV Guide
  • 1955 – The American Civil Liberties Union announces it will defend Allen Ginsberg’s book Howl against obscenity charges.
  • 1956 – Elvis Presley sings “Heartbreak Hotel” on the Milton Berle Show, with an estimated 25% of the United States population viewing.
  • 1956 – The western part of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan is struck by a deadly F5 tornado (known as the Hudsonville-Standale Tornado).
  • 1969 – Vietnam War: U.S. Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird announces that the United States will start to “Vietnamize” the war effort.
  • 1971 – Japanese tokusatsu television series Kamen Rider premieres, marking the beginning of the long-running Kamen Rider
  • 1973 – The first portable cell phone call is placed in New York City.
  • 1974 – The Super Outbreak occurs, the biggest tornado outbreak in recorded history. The death toll is 315, with nearly 5,500 injured.
  • 1975 – Bobby Fischer refuses to play in a chess match against Anatoly Karpov, giving Karpov the title of World Champion by default.
  • 1982 – Great Britain dispatched a naval task force to the south Atlantic to reclaim the disputed Falkland Islands from Argentina.
  • 1996 – Suspected “Unabomber” Theodore Kaczynski is arrested at his Montana cabin.
  • 1996 – A United States Air Force airplane carrying United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown crashes in Croatia, killing all 35 on board.
  • 1997 – Thalit massacre begins in Algeria; all but 1 of the 53 inhabitants of Thalit are killed by guerrillas.
  • 2000 – United States v. Microsoft: Microsoft is ruled to have violated United States antitrust laws by keeping “an oppressive thumb” on its competitors.
  • 2004 – Islamist terrorists involved in the 11 March 2004 Madrid attacks are trapped by the police in their apartment and kill themselves.
  • 2007 – An official new world record for conventional-train speed of 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) is set by a French TGV on the LGV Est high speed line east of Paris.

April 3 – Birthdays:

  • 1151 – Igor Svyatoslavich, Ukrainian prince (d. 1202)
  • 1367 – King Henry IV of England (d. 1413)
  • 1529 – Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1581)
  • 1593 – George Herbert, English poet and orator (d. 1633)
  • 1643 – Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, general of the Holy Roman Empire (d. 1690)
  • 1683 – Mark Catesby, English naturalist (d. 1749)
  • 1693 – George Edwards, English naturalist (d. 1773)
  • 1715 – William Watson, English physician and scientist (d. 1787)
  • 1764 – John Abernathy, English surgeon (d. 1831)
  • 1769 – Christian Günther von Bernstorff, Danish and Prussian statesman and diplomat (d. 1835)
  • 1770 – Theodoros Kolokotronis, Greek general in the Greek War of Independence (d. 1843)
  • 1781 – Bhagwan Swaminarayan (d. 1830)
  • 1783 – Washington Irving, American author (d. 1859)
  • 1806 – Ivan Kireevsky, Russian literary critic and philosopher (d. 1856)
  • 1821 – T. Pelham Dale, Anglican clergyman prosecuted for Ritualist practices in the 1870s (d. 1892)
  • 1822 – Edward Everett Hale, American writer (d. 1909)
  • 1823 – William Marcy Tweed, American political boss (d. 1878)
  • 1880 – Otto Weininger, Austrian philosopher (d. 1903)
  • 1881 – Alcide De Gasperi, Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1954)
  • 1885 – Allan Dwan, Canadian-born American film director (d. 1981)
  • 1885 – Bud Fisher, American cartoonist (Mutt and Jeff) (d. 1954)
  • 1889 – Grigoras Dinicu, Romanian composer and violinist (d. 1949)
  • 1893 – Leslie Howard, English actor (d. 1943)
  • 1893 – Princess Maud of Fife (d. 1945)
  • 1895 – Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Italian composer (d. 1968)
  • 1898 – George Jessel, American comedian (d. 1981)
  • 1898 – Henry Luce, American publisher (d. 1967)
  • 1899 – David Jack, English footballer (d. 1958)
  • 1904 – Iron Eyes Cody, American actor (d. 1999)
  • 1904 – Russel Wright, American industrial designer (d. 1976)
  • 1905 – Robert Frederick Sink, United States Army Officer (d. 1965)
  • 1913 – Per Borten, Premier of Norway (d. 2005)
  • 1916 – Herb Caen, American newspaper columnist (d. 1997)
  • 1918 – Louis Applebaum, Canadian composer, conductor and administrator (d. 2000)
  • 1920 – John Demjanjuk, Ukrainian-born American auto worker, alleged Nazi
  • 1920 – Stan Freeman, American composer and lyricist (d. 2001)
  • 1921 – Robert Karvelas, American actor (d. 1991)
  • 1921 – Darío Moreno, Turkish-Jewish singer and songwriter (d. 1968)
  • 1921 – Jan Sterling, American actress (d. 2004)
  • 1924 – Marlon Brando, American actor (d. 2004)
  • 1924 – Doris Day, American actress
  • 1925 – Tony Benn, British politician
  • 1926 – Alex Grammas, American baseball player
  • 1926 – Gus Grissom, American astronaut (d. 1967)
  • 1928 – Don Gibson, American country musician (d. 2003)
  • 1928 – Kevin Hagen, American actor (d. 2005)
  • 1928 – Jennifer Paterson, English chef and TV personality (Two Fat Ladies) (d. 1999)
  • 1929 – Lee Leonard, American television personality
  • 1930 – Lawton Chiles, U.S. Senator from Florida and Governor of Florida (d. 1998)
  • 1930 – Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of Germany
  • 1930 – Wally Moon, American baseball player
  • 1934 – Jane Goodall, English zoologist
  • 1936 – Scott LaFaro, American musician (d. 1961)
  • 1936 – Jimmy McGriff, American jazz organist
  • 1938 – Jeff Barry, American songwriter and record producer
  • 1941 – Jan Berry, American musician (Jan and Dean) (d. 2004)
  • 1941 – Carl Boenish, American father of BASE jumping (d. 1984)
  • 1941 – Eric Braeden, German-born actor
  • 1941 – Philippé Wynne, American musician (d. 1984)
  • 1942 – Marsha Mason, American actress
  • 1942 – Wayne Newton, American singer
  • 1942 – Marek Perepeczko, Polish actor (d. 2005)
  • 1942 – Billy Joe Royal, American singer
  • 1943 – Jonathan Lynn, British actor and comedy writer
  • 1943 – Mario Lavista, Mexican composer
  • 1943 – Richard Manuel, Canadian musician and songwriter (d. 1986)
  • 1943 – Doreen Tracey, English-born Mouseketeer
  • 1944 – Tony Orlando, American musician
  • 1945 – Catherine Spaak, French actress
  • 1946 – Hanna Suchocka, Poland’s first female prime minister
  • 1946 – Marisa Paredes, Spanish actress
  • 1948 – Arlette Cousture, French-Canadian writer
  • 1948 – Carlos Salinas, President of Mexico
  • 1949 – Lyle Alzado, American football player (d. 1992)
  • 1949 – Richard Thompson, English musician and songwriter
  • 1950 – Sally Thomsett, English actress
  • 1953 – Craig Taubman, Jewish singer
  • 1954 – Elisabetta Brusa, Italian composer
  • 1956 – Miguel Bosé, Spanish musician and actor
  • 1956 – Ray Combs, American game show host and comedian (d. 1996)
  • 1956 – Boris Miljkovic, Serbian TV & theatre director and video artist
  • 1958 – Alec Baldwin, American actor
  • 1958 – Jaya Prada, Indian Actress
  • 1959 – David Hyde Pierce, American actor
  • 1960 – Arjen Anthony Lucassen, Dutch musician (Ayreon)
  • 1960 – Marie Denise Pelletier, Quebec singer
  • 1961 – Eddie Murphy, American actor and comedian
  • 1962 – Mike Ness, American musician (Social Distortion)
  • 1963 – Criss Oliva, American musician (Savatage) (d. 1993)
  • 1963 – Jack Del Rio, American football coach
  • 1963 – Tsuyoshi Sekito, Japanese composer
  • 1964 – Bjarne Riis, Danish cyclist
  • 1964 – Andy Robinson, English rugby player
  • 1965 – Nazia Hassan, First South Asian Pop Singer (d.2000)
  • 1966 – Mina Tominaga, Japanese seiyu (voice actress)
  • 1966 – John de Vries, Australian racing driver
  • 1967 – Brent Gilchrist, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1967 – Mark Skaife, Australian racing driver
  • 1968 – Sebastian Bach, Canadian musician (Skid Row)
  • 1968 – Charlotte Coleman, English actress (d. 2001)
  • 1968 – Jamie Hewlett, English illustrator (Tank Girl and Gorillaz)
  • 1969 – Lance Storm, Canadian professional wrestler
  • 1971 – Picabo Street, American alpine ski champion
  • 1972 – Jennie Garth, American actress
  • 1972 – Sandrine Testud, French Top-10 tennis player
  • 1973 – Matthew Ferguson, Canadian actor
  • 1973 – Jamie Bamber, English actor
  • 1975 – Michael Olowokandi, Nigerian basketball player
  • 1975 – Aries Spears, American comedian
  • 1975 – Mickey Beyer Clausen, Danish entrepreneur and philanthropist
  • 1975 – Shawn Bates, American ice hockey player
  • 1975 – Koji Uehara, Japanese professional baseball pitcher
  • 1975 – Yoshinobu Takahashi, Japanese professional baseball player
  • 1976 – Drew Shirley, American musician (Switchfoot)
  • 1976 – Will Mellor, English actor
  • 1978 – Tommy Haas, German tennis player
  • 1978 – Matthew Goode, English actor
  • 1978 – John Smit, South African rugby player
  • 1981 – Heath Ramsay, Australian Olympic swimmer
  • 1981 – Aaron Bertram, American musician, Suburban Legends
  • 1981 – Matthew Nash, Australian soccer player
  • 1982 – Fler, German rapper
  • 1982 – Iain Fyfe, Australian soccer player
  • 1982 – Kasumi Nakane, Japanese gravure idol
  • 1982 – Cobie Smulders, Canadian actress
  • 1983 – Errol Barnett, English reporter
  • 1984 – Jonathan Blondel, Belgian footballer
  • 1984 – Maxi López, Argentine footballer
  • 1985 – Leona Lewis, English singer
  • 1986 – Amanda Bynes, American actress
  • 1986 – Sergio Sánchez, Spanish footballer
  • 1987 – Sal Zizzo, American soccer player
  • 1987 – Julie Sokolow, American musician
  • 1988 – Peter Hartley, English footballer
  • 1988 – Tim Krul, Dutch footballer
  • 1993 – Dakoda Dowd, American golfer

April 3 – Deaths:

  • 963 – William III, Duke of Aquitaine (b. 915)
  • 1287 – Pope Honorius IV
  • 1350 – Eudes IV, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1295)
  • 1606 – Charles Blount, 1st Earl of Devon, English politician (b. 1563)
  • 1680 – Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire (b. 1630)
  • 1682 – Bartolomé Estéban Murillo, Spanish painter (b. 1618)
  • 1691 – Jean Petitot, Swiss enamel painter (b. 1608)
  • 1695 – Melchior d’Hondecoeter, Dutch painter
  • 1717 – Jacques Ozanam, French mathematician (b. 1640)
  • 1728 – James Anderson, Scottish lawyer (b. 1662)
  • 1792 – George Pocock, British admiral (b. 1706)
  • 1804 – Jedrzej Kitowicz, Polish priest (b. 1727/1728)
  • 1827 – Ernst Chladni, German physicist (b. 1756)
  • 1849 – Juliusz Slowacki, Polish poet (b. 1809)
  • 1868 – Franz Berwald, Swedish composer and inventor (b. 1796)
  • 1882 – Jesse James, American outlaw (b. 1847)
  • 1897 – Johannes Brahms, German composer (b. 1833)
  • 1901 – Richard D’Oyly Carte, British impresario (b. 1844)
  • 1930 – Emma Albani, Canadian soprano (b. 1847)
  • 1932 – Wilhelm Ostwald, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1853)
  • 1936 – Bruno Hauptmann, German killer of Charles Lindbergh III (b. 1899)
  • 1943 – Conrad Veidt, German actor (b. 1893)
  • 1950 – Carter G. Woodson, African American historian, author, journalist and founder of Black History Month (b. 1875)
  • 1950 – Kurt Weill, German composer (b. 1900)
  • 1952 – Miina Sillanpää, Finnish politician, first female Finnish minister (b. 1866)
  • 1965 – Ernst Kirchweger, Austrian communist and resistance fighter
  • 1971 – Joseph Valachi, American gangster (b. 1904)
  • 1972 – Ferde Grofé, American composer (b. 1882)
  • 1975 – Mary Ure, Scottish actress (b. 1933)
  • 1978 – Ray Noble, English bandleader and composer (b. 1903)
  • 1981 – Juan Trippe, Airline entrepreneur and pioneer, Pan Am founder (b. 1899)
  • 1982 – Warren Oates, American character actor (b. 1928)
  • 1986 – Peter Pears, English tenor (b. 1910)
  • 1987 – Tom Sestak, American football player (b. 1936)
  • 1990 – Sarah Vaughan, American singer (b. 1924)
  • 1991 – Charles Goren, American bridge player, writer, and columnist (b. 1901)
  • 1991 – Graham Greene, English writer (b. 1904)
  • 1993 – Pinky Lee, American comic and children’s television host (b. 1907)
  • 1994 – Frank Wells, American entertainment businessman (b. 1932)
  • 1995 – Alfred J. Billes, Canadian businessman (Canadian Tire) (b. 1902)
  • 1996 – Ron Brown, U.S. Secretary of Commerce (b. 1941)
  • 1996 – Carl Stokes, Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio (b. 1927)
  • 1998 – Mary Cartwright, English mathematician (b. 1900)
  • 1999 – Lionel Bart, English composer (Oliver!) (b. 1930)
  • 2000 – Terence McKenna, American writer and philosopher (b. 1946)
  • 2002 – Fad Gadget, English singer and musician (b. 1956)
  • 2003 – Michael Kelly, American journalist (b. 1957)
  • 2005 – Tony Croatto, Italian-born singer (b. 1940)
  • 2007 – Marion Eames, Welsh novelist (b. 1921)
  • 2007 – Eddie Robinson, American football coach (b. 1919)
  • 2007 – Nina Wang, Asia’s Richest Woman (b. 1937)

April 3 – Holidays:

  • Sizdah be dar (Outdoor thirteen). In Iran, people play jokes on each other on April 3, the thirteenth day of the Persian calendar new year (Norooz).
  • Liturgical feasts:
    • Saint Agape (d. 304)
    • Saint Richard (d. 1253)
    • Saint Sixtus I
    • Saint Mary of Egypt
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