On This Day in History July 18

July 18 – Events:

  • 390 BC – Roman-Gaulish Wars: Battle of the Allia – A Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, leading to the subsequent sacking of Rome.
  • 64 – Great fire of Rome: A fire begins to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burns completely out of control while Emperor Nero reportedly plays his lyre and sings while watching the blaze from a safe distance.
  • 1334 – The bishop of Florence blesses the first foundational stone laid for the new campanile (bell tower) of the Florence Cathedral, designed by the artist Giotto di Bondone.
  • 1656 – Polish-Lithuanian forces clashes with Sweden and its Brandenburg allies in the start of what is to be known as The Battle of Warsaw which ends in a decisive Swedish victory.
  • 1857 – Louis Faidherbe, French governor of Senegal, arrives to relieve French forces at Kayes, effectively ending El Hajj Umar Tall’s war on the French.
  • 1914 – The U.S. Congress forms the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps, this gives definite status to aircraft within the U.S. Army for the first time.
  • 1925 – Adolf Hitler publishes his personal manifesto Mein Kampf.
  • 1942 – World War II: The Germans test fly the Messerschmitt Me-262 using only its jets for the first time.
  • 1944 – World War II: Hideki Tojo resigns as Prime Minister of Japan due to numerous setbacks in the war effort.
  • 1965 – Zond 3 launched.
  • 1966 – Gemini 10 launched.
  • 1969 – After a party on Chappaquiddick Island, Senator Ted Kennedy from Massachusetts drives an Oldsmobile off a wooden bridge into a tide-swept pond and his passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne, dies.
  • 1982 – 268 campesinos (“peasants” or “country people”) are slain in the Plan de Sánchez massacre in Ríos Montt’s Guatemala.
  • 1984 – McDonald’s massacre in San Ysidro, California: In a fast-food restaurant, James Oliver Huberty opens fire, killing 21 people and injuring 19 others before being shot dead by police.
  • 1986 – A tornado is broadcast live on KARE television in Minnesota when the station’s helicopter pilot makes a chance encounter.
  • 1992 – The ten victims of the La Cantuta massacre disappeared from their university in Lima.
  • 1995 – On the Caribbean island of Montserrat, the Soufriere Hills volcano erupts. Over the course of several years, it devastates the island, destroying the capital and forcing most of the population to flee.
  • 1996 – Storms provoke severe flooding on the Saguenay River, beginning one of Québec’s costliest natural disasters ever.
  • 1996 – An F5 tornado hit the town of Oakfield, Wisconsin.

July 18 – Birthdays:

  • 1501 – Isabella of Burgundy, wife of Christian II of Denmark (d. 1526)
  • 1504 – Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss religious reformer (d. 1575)
  • 1552 – Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1612)
  • 1634 – Johannes Camphuys, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (d. 1695)
  • 1635 – Robert Hooke, English scientist (d. 1703)
  • 1670 – Giovanni Bononcini, Italian composer (d. 1747)
  • 1718 – Saverio Bettinelli, Italian writer (d. 1808)
  • 1720 – Gilbert White, English ornithologist (d. 1793)
  • 1797 – Immanuel Hermann Fichte, German philosopher (d. 1879)
  • 1811 – William Makepeace Thackeray, English author (d. 1863)
  • 1818 – Louis De Geer, 1st Swedish Prime Minister (d. 1896)
  • 1821 – Pauline Garcia-Viardot, French mezzo-soprano and composer (d. 1910)
  • 1837 – Vasil Levski, Bulgarian revolutionary (d. 1873)
  • 1845 – Tristan Corbière, French poet (d. 1875)
  • 1848 – W. G. Grace, English cricketer (d. 1915)
  • 1850 – Rose Hartwick Thorpe, American poet (d. 1939)
  • 1853 – Hendrik Lorentz, Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1928)
  • 1862 – Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich, Russian general (d. 1933)
  • 1864 – Phillip Snowden, British politician (d. 1937)
  • 1867 – Margaret Brown, The Unsinkable Molly Brown, Titanic survivor (d. 1932)
  • 1881 – Larry McLean, baseball player (d. 1921)
  • 1884 – Alberto di Jorio, former head of the Vatican Bank and secretary of the 1958 conclave (d. 1979)
  • 1887 – Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian soldier, politician and convicted traitor (d. 1945, by execution)
  • 1890 – Frank Forde, 15th Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1983)
  • 1892 – Arthur Friedenreich, Brazilian football player (d. 1969)
  • 1895 – George Machine Gun Kelly, American gangster (d. 1954)
  • 1897 – E. A. D. Eldridge, British racing driver (d. 1935)
  • 1900 – Nathalie Sarraute, French writer (d. 1999)
  • 1902 – Jessamyn West, American writer (d. 1984)
  • 1903 – Chill Wills, American actor (d. 1978)
  • 1906 – S. I. Hayakawa, American semanticist and politician (d. 1992)
  • 1906 – Clifford Odets, American writer (d. 1963)
  • 1908 – Lupe Vélez, Mexican actress (d. 1944)
  • 1909 – Andrei Gromyko, Soviet diplomat and President (d. 1989)
  • 1909 – Mohammed Daoud Khan, President of Afghanistan (d. 1978)
  • 1909 – Harriet Nelson, American singer and actress (d. 1994)
  • 1911 – Hume Cronyn, Canadian actor (d. 2003)
  • 1913 – Red Skelton, American actor and comedian (d. 1997)
  • 1914 – Gino Bartali, Italian cyclist (d. 2000)
  • 1916 – Johnny Hopp, baseball player (d. 2003)
  • 1917 – Henri Salvador, French singer (d. 2008)
  • 1918 – Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa, Nobel Peace Prize laureate
  • 1920 – Eric Brandon, British racing driver (d. 1982)
  • 1921 – John Glenn, Mercury Seven astronaut and United States Senator from Ohio
  • 1922 – Thomas Kuhn, American philosopher (d. 1996)
  • 1923 – Jerome H. Lemelson, American inventor (d. 1997)
  • 1924 – Inge Sørensen, Danish swimmer
  • 1925 – Shirley Strickland, Australian athlete (d. 2004)
  • 1926 – Robert Sloman, writer (d. 2005)
  • 1927 – Kurt Masur, Silesian-born conductor
  • 1929 – Dick Button, American figure skater
  • 1929 – Screamin’ Jay Hawkins, American singer (d. 2000)
  • 1930 – Burt Kwouk, English actor
  • 1933 – Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Russian poet
  • 1933 – Syd Mead, American industrial and conceptual designer
  • 1933 – Jean Yanne, French film actor and director (d. 2003)
  • 1934 – Darlene Conley, American actress (d. 2007)
  • 1934 – Roger Reynolds, American composer and teacher
  • 1935 – Jayendra Saraswathi, Hindu religious leader
  • 1936 – Ted Harris, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1937 – Roald Hoffman, Polish-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1937 – Hunter S. Thompson, American journalist and author (d. 2005)
  • 1938 – Paul Verhoeven, Dutch film director
  • 1938 – Ian Stewart, Scottish pianist formerly a member of The Rolling Stones (d. 1985)
  • 1939 – Dion DiMucci, American singer
  • 1939 – Brian Auger, British musician
  • 1939 – Edward Gramlich, American economics professor (d. 2007)
  • 1939 – Jerry Moore, American football coach
  • 1940 – James Brolin, American actor
  • 1940 – Joe Torre, American baseball player and manager
  • 1941 – Frank Farian, German music producer
  • 1941 – Lonnie Mack, American guitarist and singer
  • 1941 – Martha Reeves, American singer
  • 1942 – Adolf Ogi, member of the Swiss Federal Council
  • 1942 – Bobby Susser, American songwriter and record producer
  • 1942 – Giacinto Facchetti, Italian footballer (d. 2006)
  • 1946 – Leo Madder, Belgian actor
  • 1947 – Steve Forbes, American entrepreneur and politician
  • 1947 – Steven W. Mahoney, Canadian politician
  • 1948 – Hartmut Michel, German chemist, Nobel laureate
  • 1950 – Jerome Barkum, former National Football League player
  • 1950 – Sir Richard Branson, British entrepreneur
  • 1950 – Jack Layton, Canadian politician
  • 1950 – Kostas Eleftherakis, Greek footballer
  • 1951 – Elio Di Rupo, Belgian politician
  • 1954 – Ricky Skaggs, American country/bluegrass musician
  • 1955 – Bernd Fasching, Austrian painter and sculptor
  • 1956 – Razor Shines, Major and Minor league baseball player, manager and coach
  • 1957 – Nick Faldo, English golfer
  • 1960 – Anne-Marie Johnson, American actress
  • 1961 – Elizabeth McGovern, American-born actress
  • 1962 – Lee Arenberg, American actor
  • 1962 – Jack Irons, American drummer (Pearl Jam, Red Hot Chili Peppers)
  • 1963 – Martín Torrijos Espino, President of Panama
  • 1963 – Mike Greenwell, baseball player
  • 1963 – Al Snow, American professional wrestler
  • 1964 – Wendy Williams, radio host
  • 1966 – Lori Alan, American actress
  • 1967 – Vin Diesel, American actor
  • 1969 – Masanori Murakawa, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1971 – Penny Hardaway, American basketball player
  • 1974 – Alan Morrison, British poet
  • 1975 – Torii Hunter, baseball player
  • 1975 – Daron Malakian, American guitarist (System of a Down)
  • 1976 – Elsa Pataky, Spanish actress
  • 1977 – Dylan Lane, American television host
  • 1977 – Alfian bin Sa’at, Singaporean writer, poet and playwright
  • 1978 – Shane Horgan, Irish rugby player
  • 1978 – Ben Sheets, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Mélissa Theuriau, French newscaster
  • 1978 – Verónica Romeo, Spanish singer
  • 1979 – Rick Baxter, American politician
  • 1979 – Deion Branch, football player
  • 1979 – Jared Hess, American film director and screenwriter, (Napoleon Dynamite)
  • 1979 – Joey Mercury, American professional wrestler
  • 1979 – Jermaine Paul, American musician
  • 1980 – Kristen Bell, American actress
  • 1982 – Priyanka Chopra, Indian actress and Miss World 2000
  • 1982 – Ryan Cabrera, American musician and TV host
  • 1985 – Chace Crawford, American actor

July 18 – Deaths:

  • 1100 – Godfrey of Bouillon, Protector of the Holy Sepulcher, de facto King of Jerusalem
  • 1488 – Alvise Cadamosto, Italian explorer (b. 1432)
  • 1591 – Jacobus Gallus, Slovenian composer (b. 1550)
  • 1608 – Joachim Friedrich, Elector of Brandenburg (b. 1546)
  • 1610 – Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Italian artist (b. 1573)
  • 1639 – Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, German general (b. 1604)
  • 1695 – Johannes Camphuys, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (b. 1634)
  • 1698 – Johann Heinrich Heidegger, Swiss theologian (b. 1633)
  • 1721 – Antoine Watteau, French painter (b. 1684)
  • 1730 – François de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, French soldier (b. 1644)
  • 1792 – John Paul Jones, American naval commander (b. 1747)
  • 1817 – Jane Austen, English novelist (b. 1775)
  • 1863 – Robert Gould Shaw, American military officer (b. 1837)
  • 1872 – Benito Juárez, President of Mexico (b. 1806)
  • 1884 – Ferdinand von Hochstetter, Austrian geologist (b. 1829)
  • 1892 – Thomas Cook, English travel agent (b. 1808)
  • 1899 – Horatio Alger, Jr., American writer (b. 1832)
  • 1916 – Benjamin C. Truman, American journalist and author
  • 1918 – Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna (b. 1864)
  • 1925 – Louis Nazaire Bégin, Roman Catholic cardinal and Archbishop of Quebec (b. 1840)
  • 1937 – Julian Bell, British poet, killed in the Spanish Civil War (b. 1908)
  • 1944 – Thomas Sturge Moore, English poet, author and artist (b. 1870)
  • 1948 – Herman Gummerus, Finnish historian and politician (b. 1877)
  • 1949 – Vítezslav Novák, Czech composer (b. 1870)
  • 1952 – Paul Saintenoy, Belgian architect (b. 1862)
  • 1953 – Lucy Booth, Daughter of William and Catherine Booth (b. 1868)
  • 1954 – George Machine Gun Kelly, American gangster (b. 1895)
  • 1966 – Bobby Fuller, American rock singer and guitarist (b. 1942)
  • 1968 – Corneille Heymans, Belgian physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1892)
  • 1969 – Mary Jo Kopechne, American Robert F. Kennedy campaign worker (b. 1940)
  • 1973 – Jack Hawkins, English film actor (b. 1910)
  • 1982 – Lionel Daunais, French-Canadian singer and composer (b. 1902)
  • 1988 – Nico, German-born model and singer (b. 1938)
  • 1989 – Donnie Moore, baseball player (suicide) (b. 1954)
  • 1990 – Yoon Boseon, President of South Korea (b. 1897)
  • 1990 – Karl Menninger, American psychiatrist (b. 1896)
  • 1990 – Gerry Boulet, Quebec rock singer (b. 1946)
  • 1990 – Johnny Wayne, Canadian comedian (b. 1918)
  • 1995 – Fabio Casartelli, Italian cyclist (b. 1970)
  • 1997 – Eugene Merle Shoemaker, American astronomer (b. 1928)
  • 2001 – James Hatfield, American author (b. 1958)
  • 2001 – Fabio Taglioni, Italian automotive engineer (b. 1920)
  • 2002 – Victor Emery, British theoretical physicist (b. 1933)
  • 2004 – Paul Foot, British journalist (b. 1937)
  • 2004 – Émile Peynaud, French oenologist (b. 1912)
  • 2005 – William Westmoreland, U.S. Army general (b. 1914)
  • 2005 – Bill Hicke, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1938)
  • 2007 – George Caiazzo, American professional wrestler
  • 2007 – Jerry Hadley, American opera singer, (b. 1952)
  • 2007 – Kenji Miyamoto, Japanese communist politician (b. 1908)

July 18- Holidays:

  • Uruguay – Constitution Day
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