On This Day in History August 14

August 14 – Events:

  • 1183 – Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures and flee to western Japan to escape pursuit by the Minamoto clan. (Traditional Japanese date: Twenty-fifth Day of the Seventh Month of the Second Year of Juei).
  • 1385 – Portuguese Crisis of 1383–1385: Battle of Aljubarrota – Portuguese forces commanded by King João I and his general Nuno Álvares Pereira defeat the Castilian army of King Juan I.
  • 1598 – Nine Years War: Battle of the Yellow Ford – Irish forces under Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone, defeat an English expeditionary force under Henry Bagenal.
  • 1842 – Indian Wars: Second Seminole War ends, with the Seminoles forced from Florida to Oklahoma.
  • 1846 – The Cape Girardeau meteorite, a 2.3 kg chondrite-type meteorite strikes near the town of Cape Girardeau in Cape Girardeau County, Missouri.
  • 1848 – Oregon Territory organized by Act of U.S. Congress.
  • 1880 – Cologne Cathedral, the most famous landmark in Cologne, Germany, completed.
  • 1885 – Japan’s first patent is issued to the inventor of a rust-proof paint.
  • 1893 – France introduces motor vehicle registration.
  • 1897 – The town of Anosimena is captured by French troops from Menabe defenders in Madagascar.
  • 1900 – A joint European-Japanese-United States force (Eight-Nation Alliance) occupies Beijing, in a campaign to end the bloody Boxer Rebellion in China.
  • 1901 – The first claimed powered flight, by Gustave Whitehead in his Number 21.
  • 1908 – First beauty contest held in Folkestone, England.
  • 1911 – United States Senate leaders agree to rotate the office of President pro tempore of the Senate among leading candidates to fill the vacancy left by William P. Frye’s death.
  • 1912 – United States Marines invade Nicaragua to support the U.S.-backed government installed there after José Santos Zelaya resigned three years earlier.
  • 1921 – Tannu Tuva, later Tuvinian People’s Republic is established as a completely independent country.
  • 1925 – The original Hetch Hetchy Moccasin Powerhouse is completed and goes on line.
  • 1933 – Loggers cause a forest fire in the Coast Range of Oregon, later known as the first forest fire of the Tillamook Burn. It is extinguished on September 5, after destroying 240,000 acres (970 km²).
  • 1935 – United States Social Security Act passes, creating a government pension system for the retired.
  • 1936 – Rainey Bethea is hanged in Owensboro, Kentucky in the last public execution in the United States.
  • 1937 – The beginning of air-to-air combat of the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II in general, when 6 Imperial Japanese Mitsubishi G3M bombers were shot down by the Nationalist Chinese Air Force while raiding Chinese air bases, hence, 14 August has thus become acknowledged and celebrated as Chinese Air Force Day.
  • 1941 – World War II – Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt sign the Atlantic Charter of war stating postwar aims.
  • 1945 – Japan accepts the Allied terms of surrender in World War II and the Emperor records the Imperial Rescript on Surrender (August 15 in Japan standard time).
  • 1947 – Pakistan gains Independence from the British Indian Empire under the administration of United Kingdom and joins the British Commonwealth.
  • 1967 – UK Marine Broadcasting Offences Act declares participation in offshore pirate radio illegal.
  • 1969 – United Kingdom troops deploy in Northern Ireland.
  • 1972 – An East German Ilyushin Il-62 crashes during takeoff from East Berlin, killing 156.
  • 1973 – The constitution of 1973 comes into effect in Pakistan
  • 1976 – The Senegalese political party PAI-Rénovation is legally recognized. PAI-Rénovation thus becomes the third legal party in the country.
  • 1980 – Lech Walesa leads strikes at Gdansk, Poland shipyards.
  • 1994 – Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, the terrorist known as “Carlos the Jackal”, is captured.
  • 2003 – Widescale power blackout in the northeast United States and Canada.
  • 2007 – The 2007 Kahtaniya bombings kills at least 400 people.

August 14 – Birthdays:

  • 1297 – Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Japan (d. 1348)
  • 1473 – Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury, daughter of George, Duke of Clarence (d. 1541)
  • 1479 – Princess Catherine of York (d. 1527)
  • 1575 – Robert Hayman, English-born poet (d. 1629)
  • 1586 – William Hutchinson, Rhode Island colonist (d. 1642)
  • 1599 – Méric Casaubon, English classical scholar (d. 1671)
  • 1625 – François de Harlay de Champvallon, Archbishop of Paris (d. 1695)
  • 1642 – Cosimo III de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (d. 1723)
  • 1653 – Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle, English statesman (d. 1688)
  • 1688 – Frederick William I of Prussia (d. 1740)
  • 1714 – Claude Joseph Vernet, French painter (d. 1789)
  • 1727 – Henriette-Anne of France, daughter of king Louis XV (d.1752)
  • 1727 – Louise-Elisabeth of France, daughter of king Louis XV (d. 1759)
  • 1740 – Pope Pius VII (d. 1823)
  • 1758 – Antoine Charles Horace Vernet, French painter (d. 1835)
  • 1777 – Francis I of the Two Sicilies (d. 1830)
  • 1777 – Hans Christian Ørsted, Danish physicist (d. 1851)
  • 1817 – Alexander H. Bailey, American politician (d. 1874)
  • 1840 – Richard von Krafft-Ebing, German psychologist (d. 1902)
  • 1847 – Robert Comtesse, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1922)
  • 1851 – Doc Holliday, American gambler and dentist (d. 1887)
  • 1857 – Max Wagenknecht, German composer (d. 1922)
  • 1863 – Ernest Thayer, American poet (d. 1940)
  • 1865 – Guido Castelnuovo, Italian mathematician (d. 1952)
  • 1866 – Charles Jean de la Vallée-Poussin, Belgian mathematician (d. 1962)
  • 1867 – John Galsworthy, Nobel Prize Laureate (d. 1933)
  • 1867 – Cupid Childs, American baseball player (d. 1912)
  • 1876 – Aleksandar Obrenovic, King of Serbia (d. 1903)
  • 1881 – Francis Ford, American actor (d. 1953)
  • 1882 – Gisela Richter, English art historian (d. 1972)
  • 1908 – Manos Katrakis, Greek actor (d. 1984)
  • 1910 – Pierre Schaeffer, French composer (d. 1955)
  • 1911 – Vethathiri, Indian yogi (d. 2006)
  • 1913 – Paul Dean, American baseball player (d. 1981)
  • 1916 – Wellington Mara, Co-Owner of the New York Giants (d. 2005)
  • 1924 – Georges Prêtre, French conductor
  • 1925 – Russell Baker, American columnist
  • 1926 – Alice Ghostley, American actress (d. 2007)
  • 1926 – René Goscinny, French comic-strip author (d. 1977)
  • 1926 – Lina Wertmüller, Italian film director
  • 1929 – Dick Tiger, Nigerian boxer (d. 1971)
  • 1930 – Earl Weaver, American baseball manager
  • 1932 – Lee Hoffman, American author (d. 2007)
  • 1933 – Richard R. Ernst, Swiss chemist and Nobel Prize Laureate
  • 1935 – John Brodie, American football player
  • 1940 – Dash Crofts, American musician
  • 1941 – David Crosby, American musician
  • 1941 – Connie Smith, American singer
  • 1942 – Jackie Oliver, English race car driver
  • 1943 – Jimmy Johnson, American football coach
  • 1945 – Steve Martin, American comedian
  • 1945 – Wim Wenders, German-born film director
  • 1946 – Antonio Fargas, American actor
  • 1946 – Susan Saint James, American actress
  • 1946 – Larry Graham, American musician
  • 1947 – Peter Christian, English actor
  • 1947 – Danielle Steel, American novelist
  • 1947 – Bruce Nash, American television producer
  • 1948 – Terry Adams, American musician (NRBQ)
  • 1950 – Bob Backlund, American wrestler
  • 1950 – Gary Larson, American cartoonist
  • 1951 – Peter Blegvad, American musician (Slapp Happy)
  • 1952 – Carl Lumbly, American actor
  • 1952 – Debbie Meyer, American swimmer
  • 1953 – James Horner, American composer
  • 1953 – Cliff Johnson, American computer game author
  • 1954 – Mark Fidrych, American baseball player
  • 1956 – Jackée Harry, American actress
  • 1956 – Andy King, English footballer
  • 1956 – Rusty Wallace, American race car driver
  • 1956 – Luther Wamble, American guitarist
  • 1957 – Peter Costello, Australian politician
  • 1957 – Gino Hernandez, American wrestler (d. 1986)
  • 1959 – Marcia Gay Harden, American actress
  • 1959 – Magic Johnson, American basketball player
  • 1960 – Sarah Brightman, English soprano
  • 1960 – Cecilia Gasdia, Italian soprano
  • 1961 – Susan Olsen, American actress
  • 1961 – “Hot Stuff” Eddie Gilbert, American wrestler (d. 1995)
  • 1964 – Brannon Braga, American scriptwriter
  • 1965 – Emmanuelle Béart, French actress
  • 1966 – Halle Berry, American actress
  • 1968 – Catherine Bell, American actress
  • 1968 – Darren Clarke, Northern Irish golfer
  • 1968 – Adrian Lester, English actor
  • 1968 – Billy Mavreas, Greek-Canadian cartoonist
  • 1969 – DJ Uncle Al, American hip-hop DJ (d. 2001)
  • 1969 – Stig Tøfting, Danish footballer
  • 1970 – Ctislav Dosedel, Czech tennis player
  • 1971 – Raoul Bova, Italian actor
  • 1972 – Jay Manuel, Canadian make-up artist
  • 1973 – Jared Borgetti, Mexican footballer
  • 1973 – Daisuke Ishiwatari, Japanese game developer and composer
  • 1973 – Jay-Jay Okocha, Nigerian footballer
  • 1973 – Kieren Perkins, Australian swimmer
  • 1974 – Chucky Atkins, American basketball player
  • 1974 – Martin Bulloch, Scottish musician (Mogwai)
  • 1974 – Christopher Gorham, American actor
  • 1974 – Ana Matronic, American singer (Scissor Sisters)
  • 1975 – Mike Vrabel, American football player
  • 1976 – Alex Albrecht, American actor
  • 1976 – Steve Braun, Canadian actor
  • 1977 – Juan Pierre, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Anastasios Kyriakos, Greek footballer
  • 1978 – Kate Ritchie, Australian actress
  • 1979 – Paul Burgess, Australian athlete
  • 1979 – Yoichiro Morikawa, Japanese film director
  • 1980 – Estrella Morente, Spanish flamenco singer
  • 1980 – Roy Williams, American football player
  • 1981 – Matthew Etherington, English footballer
  • 1981 – Julius Jones, American football player
  • 1983 – Elena Baltacha, Ukrainian-born tennis player
  • 1983 – Mila Kunis, Ukrainian-born actress
  • 1983 – Leo Núñez, Dominican baseball player
  • 1984 – Clay Buchholz, American baseball player
  • 1984 – Josh Gorges, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1985 – Christian Gentner, German footballer
  • 1986 – Terin Humphrey, American gymnast
  • 1988 – Shahd Barmada, Syrian singer
  • 1989 – Kyle Turris, Canadian ice hockey player

August 14 – Deaths:

  • 582 – Tiberius II Constantine, Byzantine Emperor
  • 1167 – Rainald of Dassel, Archbishop of Cologne
  • 1204 – Minamoto no Yoriie, Japanese shogun (b. 1182)
  • 1390 – John FitzAlan, 2nd Baron Arundel, English soldier (b. 1364)
  • 1430 – Philip I, Duke of Brabant (b. 1404)
  • 1433 – King John I of Portugal (b. 1357)
  • 1464 – Pope Pius II (b. 1405)
  • 1573 – Saito Tatsuoki, Japanese warlord (b. 1548)
  • 1691 – Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel, Irish rebel (b. 1630)
  • 1704 – Roland Laporte, French Protestant leader (b. 1675)
  • 1727 – William Croft, English composer (b. 1678)
  • 1774 – Johann Jakob Reiske, German physician (b. 1716)
  • 1784 – Nathaniel Hone, Irish-born painter (b. 1718)
  • 1856 – Constant Prévost, French geologist (b. 1787)
  • 1860 – André Marie Constant Duméril, French zoologist (b. 1774)
  • 1870 – David Farragut, American officer of the U.S. Navy (b. 1801)
  • 1874 – Jonathan Clarkson Gibbs, American politician (b. 1821)
  • 1905 – Simeon Solomon, British artist (b. 1840)
  • 1928 – Alfred Henschke, ps. Klabund, German writer, poet (b. 1890)
  • 1926 – John H. Moffitt, American politician (b. 1843)
  • 1938 – Hugh Trumble, Australian cricketer (b. 1876)
  • 1941 – Paul Sabatier, French chemist, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1854)
  • 1941 – Saint Maximilian Kolbe, Polish martyr (b. 1894)
  • 1943 – Joe Kelley, American baseball player (b. 1871)
  • 1951 – William Randolph Hearst, American newspaper magnate (b. 1863)
  • 1955 – Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress (b. 1861)
  • 1956 – Bertolt Brecht, German writer (b. 1898)
  • 1958 – Frédéric Joliot, French physicist, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1900)
  • 1958 – Konstantin von Neurath, German diplomat (b.1873)
  • 1964 – Johnny Burnette, American Rockabilly singer (b. 1934)
  • 1967 – Bob Anderson, British racing driver (b. 1931)
  • 1972 – Pierre Brasseur, French actor (b. 1905)
  • 1972 – Oscar Levant, American actor (b. 1906)
  • 1972 – Jules Romains, French author (b. 1885)
  • 1978 – Nicolas Bentley, British writer (b. 1907)
  • 1980 – Dorothy Stratten, Canadian actress and model (b. 1960)
  • 1981 – Karl Böhm, Austrian conductor (b. 1894)
  • 1984 – Spud Davis, American baseball player (b. 1904)
  • 1984 – J. B. Priestley, English playwright (b. 1894)
  • 1985 – Gale Sondergaard, American actress (b. 1899)
  • 1988 – Robert Calvert, South African singer (Hawkwind) (b. 1945)
  • 1988 – Enzo Ferrari, Italian car maker (b. 1898)
  • 1991 – Alberto Crespo, Argentine racing driver (b. 1920)
  • 1992 – John Sirica, American judge (b. 1904)
  • 1992 – Tony Williams, American singer (The Platters) (b. 1928)
  • 1994 – Elias Canetti, British-Austrian novelist (b. 1905)
  • 1996 – Tom Mees, American sportscaster (b. 1949)
  • 1999 – Pee Wee Reese, American baseball player (b. 1918)
  • 2000 – Alain Fournier, French-born computer graphics researcher (b. 1943)
  • 2002 – Dave Williams, American singer (Drowning Pool) (b. 1972)
  • 2003 – Helmut Rahn, German footballer (b. 1929)
  • 2004 – Czeslaw Milosz, Polish-born writer, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1911)
  • 2004 – Trevor Skeet, New Zealand-born British politician (b. 1918)
  • 2005 – Coo Coo Marlin, American race car driver (b. 1932)
  • 2006 – Bruno Kirby, American actor (b. 1949)
  • 2007 – Tikhon Khrennikov, Russian composer (b. 1913)

August 14 – Holidays:

  • Morocco – Allegiance of Oued Eddahab or Río de Oro.
  • Pakistan – Independence Day (1947).
  • Paraguay – Flag Day.
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