On This day in History August 26

August 26 – Events:

  • 55 BC – Julius Caesar invades Britain.
  • 1071 – Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert.
  • 1278 – Ladislaus IV of Hungary and Rudolph I of Germany defeat Premysl Ottokar II of Bohemia in the Battle of Marchfield near Dürnkrut in Moravia.
  • 1303 – Ala ud din Khilji won Chittor.
  • 1346 – Hundred Years’ War: The military supremacy of the English longbow over the French combination of crossbow and armored knights is established at the Battle of Crécy.
  • 1466 – A conjure against Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici in Florence, led by Luca Pitti, is discovered.
  • 1498 – Michelangelo commissioned to carve the Pietà.
  •  1526 – Ottoman Empire defeated Hungarian Kingdom in the battle of Mohàcs.
  • 1748 – The first Lutheran denomination in North America, the Pennsylvania Ministerium, is founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • 1768 – HM Bark Endeavour expedition under Captain James Cook sets sail from England.
  • 1778 – The first ascent of Triglav, the highest mountain of Slovenia.
  • 1789 – Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen approved by Constituent Assembly at Palace of Versailles.
  • 1818 – The first Illinois Constitution was signed in Kaskaskia.
  • 1839 – The ship Amistad is captured off Long Island.
  • 1858 – First news dispatch by telegraph.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: The Second Battle of Bull Run begins.
  • 1883 – Eruption of Mount Krakatoa.
  • 1914 – World War I: Germans defeat Russians in Battle of Tannenberg, a decisive engagement which resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian 2nd Army.
  • 1914 – World War I: The British Expeditionary Force briefly checks the German advance at Le Cateau.
  • 1914 – World War I: The German colony of Togoland is invaded by French and British forces, who take it after 5 days.
  • 1920 – 19th amendment to U.S. Constitution gives women the right to vote.
  • 1922 – Turkish Army started the last attack on Greeks in the Turkish War of Independence.
  • 1924 – Catastrophe of Smyrna, known as the Asia Minor Catastrophe to Greeks, occurs. The Ottoman army expels Greeks and other non-Turks from Asia Minor in systematic ethnic cleansing.
  • 1939 – The first Major League Baseball game is telecast, a double-header between the Cincinnati Reds  and the Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field, in Brooklyn, New York.
  • 1940 – Chad is the first French colony to join the Allies under the administration of Félix Éboué, France’s first black colonial governor.
  • 1942 – Holocaust in Chortkiv, western Ukraine: At 2.30 am the German Schutzpolizei starts driving Jews out of houses, splits in groups of 120, packs them in freight cars and deports 2,000 Jews to Belzec death camp. 500 of the sick and children murdered on the spot.
  • 1944 – World War II: Charles de Gaulle enters Paris.
  • 1957 – The USSR announces the successful test of an ICBM – a “super long distance intercontinental multistage ballistic rocket … a few days ago,” according to the Soviet news agency, TASS.
  • 1968 – The Democratic National Convention opens in Chicago, Illinois.
  • 1972 – Games of the XX Olympiad open in Munich, Germany.
  • 1976 – Raymond Barre becomes Prime Minister of France.
  • 1977 – Charter of the French Language is adopted by the National Assembly of Quebec
  • 1978 – Papal conclave, 1978 (August): Pope John Paul I is elevated to the Papacy.
  • 1978 – Sigmund Jähn becomes first German cosmonaut on board of the Soyuz 31 spacecraft.
  • 1980 – John Birges plants a bomb at Harvey’s Resort Hotel in Stateline, Nevada.
  • 1983 – Flooding destroys most of the old town of Bilbao, Spain.
  • 1987 – President Ronald Wilson Reagan proclaims September 11, 1987 as 9-1-1 Emergency Number Day.
  • 1988 – Merhan Karimi Nasseri arrives at Charles de Gaulle International Airport.
  • 1997 – Beni-Ali massacre in Algeria; 60-100 people killed.
  • 1999 – Michael Johnson breaks the 400 metres world record with a time of 43.18 seconds.
  • 2002 – Earth Summit 2002 begins in Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • 2003 – Columbia Accident Investigation Board releases its final reports on Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.

August 26 – Birthdays:

  • 1469 – Ferdinand II of Naples (d. 1496)
  • 1540 – King Magnus of Livonia (d. 1583)
  • 1676 – Robert Walpole, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1745)
  • 1694 – Elisha Williams, American rector of Yale College (d. 1755)
  • 1728 – Johann Heinrich Lambert, German scientist (d. 1777)
  • 1736 – Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l’Isle, French chemist (d. 1790)
  • 1740 – Joseph Montgolfier, French inventor (d. 1810)
  • 1743 – Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist (d. 1794)
  • 1775 – William Joseph Behr, German writer (d. 1851)
  • 1789 – Abbas Mirza, Prince of Persia (d. 1833)
  • 1792 – Manuel Oribe, Uruguayan political figure (d. 1857)
  • 1826 – Princess Alexandra of Bavaria (d. 1875)
  • 1845 – Mary Ann Nichols, English victim of Jack the Ripper (d. 1888)
  • 1850 – Charles Robert Richet, French physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1935)
  • 1862 – Herbert Booth, American son of William and Catherine Booth (d. 1926)
  • 1873 – Lee DeForest, American inventor (d. 1961)
  • 1874 – Zona Gale, American novelist (d. 1938)
  •  1875 – John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, Scottish novelist, Governor General of Canada (d. 1940)
  • 1880 – Guillaume Apollinaire, French poet and art critic (d. 1918)
  • 1882 – James Franck, German-born physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1964)
  • 1885 – Jules Romains, French author (d. 1972)
  • 1894 – Sparky Adams, Baseball player (d. 1989)
  • 1896 – Ivan Mihailov, Bulgarian revolutionary (d. 1990)
  • 1897 – Yoon Boseon, President of South Korea (d. 1990)
  • 1898 – Peggy Guggenheim, American art collector (d. 1979)
  • 1899 – Rufino Tamayo, Mexican painter (d. 1991)
  • 1900 – Hellmuth Walter, German engineer and inventor (d. 1980)
  • 1901 – Maxwell Taylor, American general (d. 1987)
  • 1901 – Chen Yi, Chinese communist military commander and politician (d. 1972)
  • 1904 – Christopher Isherwood, English-born writer (d. 1986)
  • 1906 – Albert Sabin, American polio researcher (d. 1993)
  • 1908 – W. B. Henning, Prussian-born Iranist (d. 1967)
  • 1908 – Aubrey Schenck, film producer (d. 1999)
  • 1909 – Jim Davis, American actor (d. 1981)
  • 1909 – Gene Moore, baseball player (d. 1978)
  • 1910 – Mother Teresa, Roman Catholic nun, Nobel laureate (d. 1997)
  • 1914 – Julio Cortázar, Argentine writer (d. 1984)
  • 1920 – Brant Parker, American cartoonist (d. 2007)
  • 1921 – Benjamin Bradlee, American journalist
  • 1922 – Irving R. Levine, American journalist
  • 1923 – Wolfgang Sawallisch, German conductor and pianist
  • 1924 – Alex Kellner, baseball player (d. 1996)
  • 1925 – Jack Hirshleifer, American economist (d. 2005)
  • 1925 – Alain Peyrefitte, French politician and writer (d. 1999)
  • 1927 – B. V. Doshi, Indian architect
  • 1928 – Peter Appleyard, Canadian jazz vibraphonist
  • 1928 – Naïm Kattan, Canadian novelist and essayist
  • 1934 – Tom Heinsohn, American basketball player and commentator
  • 1935 – Geraldine Ferraro, U.S. Vice Presidential candidate
  • 1936 – Yvette Vickers, American actress
  • 1940 – Don LaFontaine, American voice actor
  • 1941 – Barbet Schroeder, Swiss film director
  • 1941 – Akiko Wakabayashi, Japanese actress
  • 1941 – Chris Curtis, English singer and drummer (The Searchers) (d. 2005)
  • 1942 – Vic Dana, American singer
  • 1942 – Dennis Turner, British politician
  • 1944 – Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
  • 1944 – Stephen Greif, English actor
  • 1944 – Maureen Tucker, American musician (The Velvet Underground)
  • 1945 – Tom Ridge, first United States Secretary of Homeland Security
  • 1946 – Valerie Simpson, American singer
  • 1946 – Mark Snow, American composer
  • 1946 – Zhou Ji, Education Minister of the People’s Republic of China
  • 1946 – Chantal Renaud, Quebec singer and actress
  • 1947 – Emiliano Díez, Cuban actor
  • 1950 – Benjamin Hendrickson, American actor (d. 2006)
  • 1950 – Jerome “Pop” Pentsky, American fast food restaurateur
  • 1952 – Bryon Baltimore, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1952 – Michael Jeter, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1952 – Will Shortz, American crossword editor
  • 1953 – Pat Sharkey, Irish footballer
  • 1954 – Efren Reyes, Filipino pool player
  • 1956 – Mark Mangino, American football coach
  • 1957 – Dr. Alban, Nigerian-Swedish singer
  • 1957 – Rick Hansen, Canadian paraplegic athlete
  • 1960 – Branford Marsalis, American saxophonist and bandleader
  • 1960 – Nancy Martinez, Canadian-born singer
  • 1961 – Jeff Parrett, American baseball player
  • 1962 – Bob Mionske, American cyclist and attorney
  • 1965 – Chris Burke, American actor
  • 1965 – Bobby Duncum, Jr., wrestler (d. 2000)
  • 1965 – Jon Hensley, American actor
  • 1966 – Jacques Brinkman, Dutch field hockey player
  • 1966 – Shirley Manson, Scottish singer
  • 1967 – Kelly Madison, porn star
  • 1970 – Olimpiada Ivanova, Russian athlete
  • 1971 – Thalía, Mexican singer
  • 1975 – Morgan Ensberg, American baseball player
  • 1976 – Amaia Montero, Spanish singer (La Oreja de Van Gogh)
  • 1976 – Zemfira, Russian singer
  • 1977 – Saeko Chiba, Japanese seiyuu
  • 1977 – Morris Peterson, American basketball player
  • 1978 – Raja Kashif, Pakistani Singer
  • 1979 – Jamal Lewis, American football player
  • 1979 – Cristian Mora, Ecuadorian footballer
  • 1979 – Rubén Pazos, Spanish footballer
  • 1980 – Macaulay Culkin, American actor
  • 1980 – Chris Pine, American actor
  • 1980 – Brendan Harris, American baseball player
  • 1981 – Jesse Martin, Australian yachtsman
  • 1981 – Petey Williams, Canadian professional wrestler
  • 1983 – Félix Porteiro, Spanish racing driver
  • 1986 – Cassie Ventura, American singer
  • 1988 – Danielle Savre, American actress
  • 1988 – Princess Maria Laura of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este
  • 1988 – Evan Ross, American actor
  • 1990 – Lil’ Chris, British singer
  • 1993 – Keke Palmer, American actress

August 26 – Deaths:

  • 1278 – King Otakar II of Bohemia
  • 1346 – Killed in the Battle of Crécy:
    • Charles II of Alençon (b. 1297)
    • Louis I of Flanders (b. 1304)
    • John I, Count of Luxemburg (b. 1296)
    • Rudolph, Duke of Lorraine (b. 1320)
    • 1349 – Thomas Bradwardine, Archbishop of Canterbury
    • 1551 – Margareta Leijonhufvud, queen of Gustav I of Sweden (b. 1516)
    • 1572 – Petrus Ramus, French philosopher (b. 1515)
    • 1595 – Antonio, Prior of Crato, claimant to the throne of Portugal (b. 1531)
    • 1666 – Frans Hals, Dutch painter (b. circa 1580)
    • 1714 – Edward Fowler, English Bishop of Gloucester (b. 1632)
    • 1723 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch scientist (b. 1632)
    • 1785 – George Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville, British soldier and politician (b. 1716)
    • 1850 – Louis-Philippe of France (b. 1773)
    • 1865 – Johann Franz Encke, German astronomer (b. 1791)
    • 1908 – Tony Pastor, American vaudeville performer (b. 1837)
    • 1910 – William James, American psychologist (b. 1842)
    • 1915 – John Bunny American comedian (b. 1863)
    • 1930 – Lon Chaney, Sr., American actor (b. 1883)
    • 1944 – Adam von Trott zu Solz, German diplomat (b. 1909)
    • 1945 – Franz Werfel, Austrian writer (b. 1890)
    • 1946 – Jeanie MacPherson, American actress and screenwriter (b. 1887)
    • 1956 – Alfred Wagenknecht, German-born American activist (b. 1881)
    • 1958 – Ralph Vaughan Williams, English composer (b. 1872)
    • 1968 – Kay Francis, American actress (b. 1899)
    • 1974 – Charles Lindbergh, American aviator (b. 1902)
    • 1976 – Lotte Lehmann, German soprano (b. 1888)
    • 1978 – Charles Boyer, French actor (b. 1899)
    • 1978 – José Manuel Moreno, Argentine footballer (b. 1916)
    • 1979 – Mika Waltari, Finnish author (b. 1908)
    • 1980 – Rosa Albach-Retty, German actress (b. 1874)
    • 1980 – Tex Avery, American cartoonist (b. 1908)
    • 1981 – Roger Nash Baldwin, founder of the American Civil Liberties Union (b. 1884)
    • 1981 – Lee Elhardt Hays, American folksinger (b. 1914)
    • 1986 – Ted Knight, American actor (b. 1923)
    • 1987 – Georg Wittig, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1897)
    • 1988 – Carlos Paião, Portuguese singer (b. 1957)
    • 1989 – Irving Stone, American author (b. 1903)
    • 1990 – Minoru Honda, Japanese astronomer (b. 1913)
    • 1992 – Arthur Leigh Allen, American suspected murderer (b. 1933)
    • 1992 – Bob de Moor, Belgian comics artist (b. 1925)
    • 1995 – Ronald White, American singer and songwriter (The Miracles) (b. 1939)
    • 1998 – Frederick Reines, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1918)
    • 2000 – Akbar Adibi, Iranian scientist (b. 1939)
    • 2001 – Louis Muhlstock, Canadian painter (b. 1904)
    • 2003 – Jim Wacker, American football coach (b. 1937)
    • 2004 – Laura Branigan, American singer (b. 1957)
    • 2005 – Denis D’Amour, Canadian guitarist (Voivod) (b. 1960)
    • 2005 – Robert Denning, American interior designer (b. 1927)
    • 2006 – Rainer Barzel, German politician (b. 1924)
    • 2006 – Clyde Walcott, Barbadian West Indies cricketer (b. 1926)
    • 2007 – Gaston Thorn, Luxembourger politician (b. 1928)

August 26 – Holidays:

  • Namibia – Namibia Day or Heroes’ Day.
  • Philippines – National Heroes’ Day.
  • Zanzibar – Sultan’s Birthday.
  • United States – Women’s Equality Day.
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