On This Day in History August 27

August 27 – Events:

  • 479 BC – Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan commander of the Greek army in the Battle of Plataea. Along the with the Greek victory on the same day in the Battle of Mycale, the Persian invasion of Greece ended.
  • 410 – Visigothic sack of Rome ends after three days.
  • 663 – Remnants of the Korean Baekje Kingdom and their Yamato Japanese allies engage the combined naval forces of the Tang Chinese and Silla Koreans on the Geum River in Korea; the outcome is a significant Tang-Silla victory, while the Japanese would not attempt another invasion of Korea until the Imjin War of the late 16th century.
  • 1232 – The Formulary of Adjudications is promulgated by Regent Hojo Yasutoki.
  • 1689 – The Treaty of Nerchinsk is signed by Russia and the Qing empire.
  • 1776 – Battle of Long Island, in present day Brooklyn, New York, British forces under General William Howe defeat Americans under General George Washington.
  • 1793 – French counter-revolution, port of Toulon revolts and admits the British fleet, which lands troops and seizes the port leading to Siege of Toulon.
  • 1798 – United Irishmen and French forces clash with the British army in the Battle of Castlebar, part of the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
  • 1813 – Napoleon defeats the Austrians, Russians and Prussians at the Battle of Dresden.
  • 1828 – The Russians defeat the Turks at the Battle of Akhalzic.
  • 1859 – Petroleum discovered in Titusville, Pennsylvania. World’s first successful oil well.
  • 1861 – Union forces attack Cape Hatteras, North Carolina
  • 1883 – Krakatoa, an Indonesian volcano, erupts. It is one of the most violent volcanic events in modern times.
  • 1896 – Anglo-Zanzibar War: the shortest war in world history (09:00 to 09:45) between the United Kingdom and Zanzibar.
  • 1900 – British defeat Boer commandos at Bergendal.
  • 1920 – Radio Argentina begins regularly scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires, considered the world’s first public broadcast station.
  • 1928 – Kellogg-Briand Pact, outlawing war, signed by sixty nations.
  • 1939 – First flight of the Heinkel He 178, the first modern jet aircraft.
  • 1952 – Reparation negotiations between West Germany and Israel end in Luxembourg; West Germany to pay 3 billion Deutschmark.
  • 1957 – The Constitution of Malaysia came into force.
  • 1962 – Mariner 2 launched to Venus.
  • 1969 – The first installment of the Otoko wa Tsurai yo (It’s Tough Being a Man) movies is released in Japan. Director and screenplay writer Yoji Yamada went on to make 48 installments of the series, which is recognized in the Guinness Book of World Records as the longest running movie series.
  • 1979 – An IRA bomb kills Lord Mountbatten and 3 others on holiday in Sligo, Republic of Ireland. Another near Warrenpoint, Northern Ireland kills 18 British soldiers.
  • 1985 – The Nigerian government is peacefully overthrown by Army Chief of Staff Major General Ibrahim Babangida.
  • 1990 – The British Broadcasting Corporation launches BBC Radio Five Live at 9am GMT with a mixture of sports, news, and children’s programming.
  • 1991 – The European Community recognizes the independence of the Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
  • 1991 – Moldova declares independence from the USSR.
  • 1993 – The Florida Department of Transportation decides to cease producing its distinctive colored U.S. Highway shields so that it can make use of Federal funds for those signs.
  • 1993 – The Rainbow Bridge, connecting Tokyo’s Shibaura and the island of Odaiba, is completed.
  • 2000 – Ostankino Tower in Moscow catches fire, three people are killed.
  • 2003 – Mars makes its closest approach to Earth in nearly 60,000 years, passing approximately 34,646,416 miles (55,758,006 kilometers) from Earth.
  • 2006 – Comair Flight 5191 crashed en route from Blue Grass Airport in Lexington, Kentucky, to Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia. Forty-nine of the 50 people aboard the flight were confirmed dead in the hours following the crash

August 27 – Birthdays:

  • 1407 – Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Japanese shogun (d. 1425)
  • 1471 – George, Duke of Saxony (d. 1539)
  • 1487 – Anna of Brandenburg, queen of Denmark (d. 1514)
  • 1637 – Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore, Governor of the Province of Maryland (d. 1715)
  • 1665 – John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, English politician (d. 1751)
  • 1669 – Anne Marie of Orléans, queen of Italy (d. 1728)
  • 1698 – Baal Shem Tov, Founder of the Chasiddic movement {d. 1760)
  • 1677 – Otto Ferdinand von Abensberg und Traun, Austrian field marshal (d. 1748)
  • 1724 – John Joachim Zubly, Swiss-born Continental Congressman (d. 1781)
  • 1730 – Johann Georg Hamann, German philosopher (d. 1788)
  • 1770 – Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher (d. 1831)
  • 1809 – Hannibal Hamlin, Vice President of the United States of America (d. 1891)
  • 1858 – Giuseppe Peano, Italian mathematician (d. 1932)
  • 1865 – James Henry Breasted, American Egyptologist (d. 1935)
  • 1865 – Charles G. Dawes, 30th Vice President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate (d. 1951)
  • 1870 – Amado Nervo, Mexican poet (d. 1919)
  • 1871 – Theodore Dreiser, American author (d. 1945)
  • 1874 – Carl Bosch, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1940)
  • 1875 – Katharine McCormick, American women’s rights activist (d. 1967)
  • 1877 – Charles Rolls, Co-founder of Rolls-Royce (d. 1910)
  • 1877 – Ernst Wetter, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1963)
  • 1882 – Samuel Goldwyn, Hollywood producer (d. 1974)
  • 1884 – Vincent Auriol,French President (d. 1966)
  • 1886 – Rebecca Helferich Clarke, English composer and violist (d. 1979)
  • 1886 – Eric Coates, English composer (d. 1957)
  • 1890 – Man Ray, photographer and artist (d. 1976)
  • 1896 – Faina Ranevskaya, Russian actress (d. 1984)
  • 1898 – Gaspard Fauteux, French Canadian parliamentarian (d. 1963)
  • 1899 – C. S. Forester, British author (d. 1966)
  • 1899 – Byron Foulger, American actor (d. 1970)
  • 1904 – Norah Lofts, British author (d. 1983)
  • 1904 – John Hay Whitney, American financier (d. 1982)
  • 1906 – Ed Gein, American serial killer (d. 1984)
  • 1908 – Don Bradman, Australian cricketer (d. 2001)
  • 1908 – Lyndon B. Johnson, 36th President of the United States (d. 1973)
  • 1908 – Kurt Wegner, German artist (d. 1985)
  • 1909 – Lester Young, American musician (d. 1959)
  • 1909 – Sylvère Maes, Belgian cyclist (d. 1966)
  • 1911 – Kay Walsh, British actress (d. 2005)
  • 1912 – Gloria Guinness, Mexican socialite and writer(d.1980)
  • 1913 – Nina Schenk von Stauffenberg, wife of Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (d. 2006)
  • 1915 – Norman F. Ramsey, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1916 – Martha Raye, American actress (d. 1994)
  • 1917 – Peanuts Lowrey, American baseball player (d. 1986)
  • 1919 – Murray Grand, American songwriter and cabaret singer (d. 2007)
  • 1921 – Leo Penn, American film director (d. 1998)
  • 1925 – Darry Cowl, French actor (d. 2006)
  • 1926 – Pat Coombs, English actress (d. 2002)
  • 1926 – Kristen Nygaard, Norwegian mathematician (d. 2002)
  • 1927 – Jimmy C. Newman, American singer
  • 1928 – Mangosuthu Buthelezi, South African politician
  • 1929 – Ira Levin, American author (d. 2007)
  • 1931 – Sri Chinmoy, Indian guru (d. 2007)
  • 1931 – Joe Cunningham, American baseball player
  • 1932 – Antonia Fraser, British author
  • 1935 – Frank Yablans, American film producer
  • 1935 – Ernie Broglio, American baseball player
  • 1936 – Joel Kovel, American politician
  • 1937 – Alice Coltrane, American jazz musician (d. 2007)
  • 1937 – Tommy Sands, American actor and singer
  • 1940 – Sonny Sharrock, American jazz guitarist (d. 1994)
  • 1942 – Daryl Dragon, American keyboardist (Captain & Tennille)
  • 1942 – Brian Peckford, Canadian politician
  • 1943 – Tuesday Weld, American actress
  • 1945 – G. W. Bailey, American actor
  • 1947 – Barbara Bach, American actress
  • 1947 – Harry Reems, American actor
  • 1948 – Pavlos Sidiropoulos, Greek musician (d. 1990)
  • 1949 – Jeff Cook, vocals, guitar, keyboards, bass, fiddle, banjo and mandolin for Alabama
  • 1950 – Charles Fleischer, American actor
  • 1951 – Mack Brown, University of Texas Head Football Coach
  • 1951 – Buddy Bell, American baseball player-manager
  • 1952 – Paul “Pee-Wee Herman” Reubens, American actor
  • 1953 – Alex Lifeson, Canadian guitarist (Rush)
  • 1953 – Peter Stormare, Swedish-born actor
  • 1954 – John Lloyd, British former tennis player
  • 1954 – Derek Warwick, British race car driver
  • 1955 – Diana Scarwid, American actress
  • 1955 – Robert Richardson, American cinematographer
  • 1955 – Laura Fygi, Dutch singer
  • 1957 – Bernhard Langer, German golfer and two-time Masters champion
  • 1958 – Sergei Krikalev, Russian cosmonaut
  • 1958 – Tom Lanoye, Belgian author
  • 1958 – Normand Brathwaite, Canadian comedian and television and radio host
  • 1959 – Gerhard Berger, Austrian race car driver and F1 team co-owner (Scuderia Toro Rosso)
  • 1959 – Juan Fernando Cobo, Colombian artist
  • 1961 – Tom Ford, American fashion designer
  • 1961 – Yolanda Adams, American gospel singer
  • 1962 – Adam Oates, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1962 – Vic Mignogna, American voice actor
  • 1963 – Downtown Julie Brown, Welsh TV personality and former MTV VJ
  • 1965 – Wayne James, Zimbabwean cricketer
  • 1966 – Juhan Parts, Prime Minister of Estonia
  • 1967 – Bob Nastanovich, American musician (Pavement, Silver Jews)
  • 1969 – Reece Shearsmith, British actor and comedian
  • 1969 – Chandra Wilson, American actress
  • 1970 – Peter Ebdon, English snooker player
  • 1970 – Tony Kanal, English-born musician (No Doubt)
  • 1970 – Jeff Kenna, Irish footballer
  • 1970 – Jim Thome, American baseball player
  • 1971 – Julian Cheung, Hong Kong actor and singer
  • 1972 – Mike Smith, Canadian actor
  • 1972 – Dalip Singh, Indian professional wrestler
  • 1972 – Denise Lewis, English heptathlete
  • 1973 – Carlene Begnaud, American professional wrestler
  • 1973 – Cory Bowles, Canadian actor
  • 1973 – Danny Coyne, Welsh footballer
  • 1973 – Dietmar Hamann, German footballer
  • 1974 – José Vidro, Puerto Rican baseball player
  • 1975 – Jonny Moseley, American skier
  • 1975 – Mark Rudan, Australian footballer
  • 1976 – Sarah Chalke, Canadian actress
  • 1976 – Carlos Moyà, Spanish tennis player
  • 1976 – Steve Taylor, British writer
  • 1976 – Milano Collection Akihito Terui, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1976 – Mark Webber, Australian race car driver
  • 1977 – Deco, Portuguese footballer
  • 1978 – Mase, American rapper
  • 1979 – Giovanni Capitello, American filmmaker/actor
  • 1979 – Tian Liang, Chinese diver
  • 1979 – Sarah Neufeld, Canadian musician (Arcade Fire)
  • 1983 – Wilson Chen, Taiwanese actor
  • 1984 – David Bentley, English footballer
  • 1984 – Sulley Muntari, Ghanaian footballer
  • 1985 – Alexandra Nechita, Artist
  • 1986 – Mario, American R&B singer
  • 1988 – Alexa Vega, American actress

August 27 – Deaths:

  • 542 – Saint Caesarius of Arles
  • 1312 – Arthur II, Duke of Brittany (b. 1262)
  • 1394 – Chokei, Emperor of Japan (b. 1343)
  • 1450 – Reginald West, 6th Baron De La Warr, English politician (b. 1395)
  • 1521 – Josquin Des Prez, Flemish composer
  • 1545 – Piotr Gamrat, Polish Catholic archbishop (b. 1487)
  • 1572 – Claude Goudimel, French composer
  • 1577 – Titian, Italian artist
  • 1590 – Pope Sixtus V (b. 1521)
  • 1635 – Félix Lope de Vega, Spanish poet and playwright (b. 1562)
  • 1664 – Francisco Zurbarán, Spanish painter (b. 1598)
  • 1748 – James Thomson, Scottish poet (b. 1700)
  • 1773 – Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz, Prussian general (b. 1721)
  • 1871 – William Whiting Boardman, American politician (b. 1794)
  • 1875 – William Chapman Ralston, American banker (b. 1826)
  • 1909 – Emil Christian Hansen, Danish fermentation physiologist (b. 1842)
  • 1929 – Herman Potocnik Noordung, Slovenian rocket scientist (b. 1892)
  • 1931 – Frank Harris, Irish author and editor (b. 1856)
  • 1931 – Francis Marion Smith, American borax magnate (b. 1846)
  • 1944 – Georg von Boeselager, German nobleman (b. 1915)
  • 1948 – Charles Evans Hughes, U.S. Supreme Court justice (b. 1862)
  • 1958 – Ernest Lawrence, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1901)
  • 1963 – Garrett Morgan, American inventor (b. 1877)
  • 1963 – W.E.B. DuBois, American civil rights activist and scholar (b. 1868)
  • 1963 – Allama Mashriqi, Pakistani scholar and politician (b. 1888)
  • 1964 – Gracie Allen, American actress and comedienne (b. 1895)
  • 1965 – Le Corbusier, Swiss architect (b. 1887)
  • 1967 – Brian Epstein, English manager of The Beatles (b. 1934)
  • 1968 – Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent (b. 1906)
  • 1969 – Ivy Compton-Burnett, English novelist (b. 1884)
  • 1969 – Erika Mann, German writer and daughter of Thomas Mann (b. 1905)
  • 1971 – Bennett Cerf, American publisher and television personality (b. 1898)
  • 1971 – Margaret Bourke-White, American photo-journalist (b. 1906)
  • 1975 – Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1892)
  • 1976 – Mukesh, Indian playback singer (b. 1923)
  • 1979 – Earl Mountbatten, British admiral and statesman (assassinated) (b. 1900)
  • 1980 – Douglas Kenney, American humorist (b. 1947)
  • 1981 – Valery Kharlamov, Soviet Union ice hockey player (b. 1948)
  • 1984 – Bernard Youens, English actor (b. 1914)
  • 1988 – William Sargant, British psychiatrist (b. 1907)
  • 1990 – Stevie Ray Vaughan, American guitarist (b. 1954)
  • 1996 – Greg Morris, American actor (b. 1933)
  • 1999 – Hélder Câmara, Brazilian Roman Catholic archbishop (b. 1909)
  • 2001 – Abu Ali Mustafa, leader of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (assassinated) (b. 1938)
  • 2001 – Michael Dertouzos, Greek internet pioneer, Director of the M.I.T. Laboratory for Computer Science (b. 1936)
  • 2003 – Pierre Poujade, French politician (b. 1920)
  • 2004 – Willie Crawford, American baseball player (b. 1946)
  • 2005 – Seán Purcell, Gaelic footballer (b. 1929)
  • 2006 – Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Indian film director (b. 1922)
  • 2006 – Maria Capovilla, oldest woman alive from 2004-2006 (b. 1889)
  • 2006 – Jesse Pintado, Mexican-born guitarist (Napalm Death) (b. 1969)
  • 2007 – Emma Penella, Spanish actress (b. 1930)

August 27 – Holidays:

  • Roman Festivals – Volturnalia held in honor of Volturnus.
  • RC Saints – Saint Joseph Calasanctius (Pre-1970 Roman Catholic calendar), Saint Monica of Hippo, Saint Caesarius of Arles, and Saints Rufus and Carpophorus.
  • Moldova – Independence Day (from the USSR, 1991).
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