On This Day in History November 23

November 23 – Events:

  • 800 – Charlemagne arrives at Rome to examine the alleged crimes of Pope Leo III.
  • 1227 – Polish Prince Leszek I the White is assassinated at an assembly of Piast dukes at Gasawa.
  • 1248 – Conquest of Seville by the Christian troops under King Ferdinand III of Castile.
  • 1499 – Pretender to the throne Perkin Warbeck is hanged for reportedly attempting to escape from the Tower of London. He had invaded England in 1497, claiming to be the lost son of King Edward IV of England.
  • 1531 – The Second war of Kappel results in the dissolution of the Protestant alliance in Switzerland.
  • 1644 – Areopagitica, a pamphlet decrying censorship, and written by John Milton is published.
  • 1654 – French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense mystical vision that marks him for life.
  • 1844 – Independence of the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Chattanooga begins – Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant reinforce troops at Chattanooga, Tennessee and counter-attack Confederate troops.
  • 1867 – The Manchester Martyrs were hanged in Manchester, England for rescuing two Irish men from jail.
  • 1869 – In Dumbarton, Scotland, the clipper Cutty Sark is launched – one of the last clippers ever to be built, and the only one still surviving to this day.
  • 1876 – Corrupt Tammany Hall leader William Marcy Tweed (better known as Boss Tweed) is delivered to authorities in New York City after being captured in Spain.
  • 1889 – The first jukebox goes into operation at the Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco.
  • 1890 – King William III of the Netherlands dies without a male heir and a special law is passed to allow his daughter Princess Wilhelmina to become leader.
  • 1903 – Colorado Governor James Peabody sends the state militia into the town of Cripple Creek to break up a miners’ strike.
  • 1914 – The US Army retreats from Mexico.
  • 1934 – An Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission in the Ogaden discovers an Italian garrison at Walwal, which lay well within Ethiopian territory. This leads to the Abyssinia Crisis.
  • 1936 – The first edition of Life is published.
  • 1943 – World War II: The Deutsche Opernhaus on Bismarckstraße in the Berlin neighborhood of Charlottenburg is destroyed. It will eventually be rebuilt in 1961 and be called the Deutsche Oper Berlin.
  • 1943 – World War II: Tarawa and Makin atolls fall to American forces.
  • 1946 – The Workers Party of South Korea is founded.
  • 1954 – For the first time, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the peak it reached just before the 1929 crash.
  • 1955 – The Cocos Islands are transferred from the control of the United Kingdom to Australia.
  • 1959 – General Charles de Gaulle, President of France, declares in a speech in Strasbourg his vision for a “Europe, from the Atlantic to the Urals.”
  • 1962 – United Airlines Flight 297 crashes killing all 17 on-board.
  • 1971 – The representatives of the People’s Republic of China first attended the United Nations, including the United Nations Security Council, as China’s representatives
  • 1976 – Apneist Jacques Mayol is the first man to reach a depth of 100 m undersea without breathing equipment.
  • 1979 – In Dublin, Ireland, Irish Republican Army member Thomas McMahon is sentenced to life in prison for the assassination of Lord Mountbatten.
  • 1980 – A series of earthquakes in southern Italy kills approximately 4,800 people.
  • 1981 – Iran-Contra Affair: Ronald Reagan signs the top secret National Security Decision Directive 17 (NSDD-17), giving the Central Intelligence Agency the authority to recruit and support Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
  • 1985 – Gunmen hijack EgyptAir Flight 648 while en route from Athens to Cairo. When the plane lands in Malta, Egyptian commandos storm the hijacked jetliner, but 60 people die in the raid.
  • 1990 – The first all woman expedition to the south pole (3 Americans, 1 Japanese and 12 Russians), sets off from Antarctica on the 1st leg of a 70 day, 1287 kilometre ski trek.
  • 1993 – Rachel Whiteread wins both the £20,000 Turner Prize award for best British modern artist and the £40,000 K Foundation art award for the worst artist of the year.
  • 1996 – Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 is hijacked, then crashes into the Indian Ocean off the coast of Comoros after running out of fuel, killing 123.
  • 1996 – The Republic of Angola officially joins the World Trade Organization.
  • 1998 – Agreement between Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen and his rival, prince Norodom Ranariddh.
  • 2001 – Convention on Cybercrime is signed in Budapest, Hungary.
  • 2003 – Georgian president Eduard Shevardnadze resigns following weeks of mass protests over flawed elections.
  • 2005 – Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, elected president of Liberia, is the first woman to lead an African country.
  • 2007 – MS Explorer, a cruise liner carrying 154 people, sank in the Antarctic Ocean south of Argentina after hitting an iceberg near the South Shetland Islands.
  • 2007 – A boating accident claims the lives of several contestants in the 2007 Cambodia Tonle Sap competition, including Reuben Kee.
  • 2007 – Australian retailer Coles Group ceased trading, transferring ownership to Wesfarmers Limited; making it the most expensive and biggest takeover in Australian history.

November 23 – Birthdays:

  • 912 – Otto I the Great, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 973)
  • 1221 – King Alfonso X of Castile (d. 1284)
  • 1402 – Jean de Dunois, French soldier (d. 1468)
  • 1417 – William FitzAlan, 16th Earl of Arundel, English politician (d. 1487)
  • 1553 – Prospero Alpini, Italian physician and botanist (d. 1617)
  • 1616 – John Wallis, English mathematician (d. 1703)
  • 1632 – Jean Mabillon, French palaeographer and diplomat (d. 1707)
  • 1641 – Anthonie Heinsius, Dutch statesman (d. 1720)
  • 1705 – Thomas Birch, English historian (d. 1766)
  • 1715 – Pierre Charles Le Monnier, French astronomer (d. 1799)
  • 1719 – Spranger Barry, Irish actor (d. 1777)
  • 1749 – Edward Rutledge, U.S. statesman (d. 1800)
  • 1760 – François-Noël Babeuf, French revolutionary (d. 1797)
  • 1785 – Jan Roothaan, Dutch priest (d. 1853)
  • 1804 – Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the United States (d. 1869)
  • 1820 – Isaac Todhunter, British mathematician (d. 1884)
  • 1837 – Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Dutch physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1923)
  • 1859 – Billy The Kid, American outlaw (d. 1881(?))
  • 1860 – Hjalmar Branting, Prime Minister of Sweden, and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1925)
  • 1861 – Konstantin Korovin, Russian painter (d. 1939)
  • 1864 – Henry Bourne Joy, American automobile executive (d. 1936)
  • 1869 – Valdemar Poulsen, Danish engineer (d. 1942)
  • 1875 – Anatoly Lunacharsky, Russian literary critic and politician (d. 1933)
  • 1876 – Manuel de Falla, Spanish composer (d. 1946)
  • 1883 – José Clemente Orozco, Mexican painter (d. 1949)
  • 1887 – Eduardo Corrochio, Spanish-born dancer (d. 1943)
  • 1887 – Boris Karloff, British actor (d. 1969)
  • 1887 – Henry Moseley, English physicist (d. 1915)
  • 1888 – Harpo Marx, American comedian (d. 1964)
  • 1890 – El Lissitzky, Russian artist and architect (d. 1941)
  • 1892 – Erté, French artist (d. 1990)
  • 1897 – Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Indian writer (d. 1999)
  • 1897 – Karl Gebhardt, Nazi doctor (d. 1948)
  • 1902 – Victor Jory, Canadian actor (d. 1982)
  • 1907 – Lars Leksell, Swedish physician (d. 1986)
  • 1908 – Nelson S. Bond, American science fiction writer (d. 2006)
  • 1909 – Nigel Tranter, British historian and writer (d. 2000)
  • 1912 – George O’Hanlon, American actor (d. 1989)
  • 1914 – Roger Avon, Durham actor (d. 1998)
  • 1914 – Michael Gough, English actor
  • 1915 – John Dehner, American actor (d. 1992)
  • 1920 – Paul Celan, Romanian-born German poet (d. 1970)
  • 1920 – Wayne Thiebaud, American painter
  • 1921 – Fred Buscaglione, Italian singer and actor (d. 1960)
  • 1922 – Manuel Fraga Iribarne, president of Spanish Galicia
  • 1923 – R. L. Burnside, American musician (d. 2005)
  • 1923 – Daniel Brewster, American democrat (d. 2007)
  • 1923 – Billy Haughton, American harness driver and trainer (d. 1986)
  • 1924 – Paula Raymond, American actress (d. 2003)
  • 1924 – Colin Macmillan Turnbull, British-born anthropologist (d. 1994)
  • 1925 – Johnny Mandel, American songwriter
  • 1925 – José Napoleón Duarte, Salvadorian politician (d. 1990)
  • 1926 – Sathya Sai Baba, Indian guru and philosopher
  • 1927 – Guy Davenport, American author, artist, and scholar (d. 2005)
  • 1928 – Jerry Bock, American Broadway composer
  • 1929 – Hal Lindsey, American evangelist and Christian writer
  • 1930 – Jack McKeon, American baseball manager
  • 1931 – Dervla Murphy, Irish traveller and author
  • 1931 – Gloria Lynne, American singer
  • 1933 – Krzysztof Penderecki, Polish composer
  • 1934 – Robert Towne, American screenwriter and director
  • 1934 – Lew Hoad, Australian tennis player (d. 1994)
  • 1935 – Vladislav Volkov, Soviet cosmonaut (d. 1971)
  • 1936 – Robert Barnard, British mystery writer
  • 1938 – Esko Nikkari, Finnish actor
  • 1939 – Betty Everett, American singer (d. 2001)
  • 1940 – Luis Tiant, Cuban baseball player
  • 1941 – Franco Nero, Italian actor
  • 1942 – Susan Anspach, American actress
  • 1943 – Andrew Goodman, American civil rights activist (d. 1964)
  • 1943 – Sue Nicholls, British actress
  • 1944 – Joe Eszterhas, Hungarian-born film producer and writer
  • 1944 – James Toback, American writer and director
  • 1945 – Keith Hampshire, English singer-songwriter
  • 1945 – Steve Landesberg, American actor
  • 1945 – Dennis Nilsen, Scottish serial killer
  • 1945 – Jerry Harris, American sculptor
  • 1946 – Bobby Rush, American politician
  • 1946 – Giorgos Koudas, Greek footballer
  • 1946 – Diana Quick, English actress
  • 1948 – Bruce Vilanch, American comedy writer
  • 1950 – Chuck Schumer, American politician
  • 1951 – David Rappaport, English actor (d. 1990)
  • 1952 – Bill Troiano, musician
  • 1953 – Francis Cabrel, French singer
  • 1954 – Bruce Hornsby, American musician
  • 1954 – Glenn Brummer, American baseball player
  • 1954 – Ross Brawn, British Honda Racing F1 team principal
  • 1955 – Steven Brust, American author
  • 1955 – Ludovico Einaudi, Italian composer and pianist
  • 1959 – Maxwell Caulfield, British actor
  • 1959 – Dominique Dunne, American actress (d. 1982)
  • 1960 – Robin Roberts, American television reporter
  • 1961 – Merv Hughes, Australian cricketer
  • 1961 – Keith Ablow, American psychiatrist and author
  • 1963 – Joe Ahearne, British television director
  • 1963 – Mamoru Takuma, Japanese mass murderer and rapist (d. 2004)
  • 1964 – Frank Rutherford, Bahamian athlete
  • 1965 – Jennifer Michael Hecht, American poet and historian
  • 1966 – Vincent Cassel, French actor
  • 1966 – Jerry Kelly, American professional golfer
  • 1968 – Hamid Hassani, Iranian lexicographer
  • 1968 – Kirsty Young, Scottish television journalist
  • 1969 – Jonathan Seet, Canadian singer
  • 1970 – Zoë Ball, British television and radio presenter
  • 1970 – Oded Fehr, Israeli actor
  • 1971 – Lisa Arch, American actress
  • 1972 – Chris Adler, American musician (Lamb of God)
  • 1973 – Trick Daddy, American rapper
  • 1974 – Jamie Sharper, American football player
  • 1974 – Saku Koivu, Finnish ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Page Kennedy, American actor
  • 1977 – Myriam Boileau, Canadian diver
  • 1977 – Adam Eaton, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Kayvan Novak, English actor
  • 1979 – Kelly Brook, English actress/model
  • 1980 – David Britz, American nano-technologist
  • 1980 – Jonathan Papelbon, American baseball player
  • 1982 – Colby Armstrong, Canadian ice-hockey player
  • 1982 – Asafa Powell, Jamaican sprinter
  • 1984 – Lucas Grabeel, American actor and singer
  • 1985 – Ahn Hyun-Soo, South Korean short track skater
  • 1992 – Miley Cyrus, American actress and singer (Hannah Montana)

November 23 – Deaths:

  • 947 – Berthold, Duke of Bavaria
  • 955 – Edred, King of England (b. c. 923)
  • 1407 – Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans, brother of Charles VI of France (murdered) (b. 1372)
  • 1457 – King Ladislaus Posthumus of Bohemia and Hungary (b. 1440)
  • 1499 – Perkin Warbeck, Flemish imposter (b. 1474)
  • 1503 – Margaret of York, wife of Charles I, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1446)
  • 1572 – Agnolo di Cosimo, Italian artist and poet (b. 1503)
  • 1585 – Thomas Tallis, English composer (b. 1505)
  • 1616 – Richard Hakluyt, English writer (b. 1552)
  • 1682 – Claude Lorrain, French painter (b. 1604)
  • 1763 – Friedrich Graf von Seckendorf, German soldier (b. 1673)
  • 1769 – Constantine Mavrocordatos, Prince of Wallachia and Prince of Moldavia (b. 1711)
  • 1783 – Yoriyuki Arima, Japanese mathematician (b. 1714)
  • 1803 – Roger Newdigate, British politician (b. 1719)
  • 1804 – Richard Graves, British writer (b. 1715)
  • 1807 – Jean-François Rewbell, French politician (b. 1747)
  • 1814 – Elbridge Gerry, Vice President of the United States of America (b. 1744)
  • 1833 – Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, French marshal (b. 1762)
  • 1890 – King William III of the Netherlands (b. 1817)
  • 1902 – Walter Reed, American bacteriologist (b. 1851)
  • 1923 – Urmuz, Romanian writer (b. 1883)
  • 1934 – Giovanni Brunero, Italian cyclist (b. 1895)
  • 1937 – Jagdish Chandra Bose, Indian physicist (b. 1858)
  • 1937 – George Albert Boulenger, Belgian naturalist (b. 1858)
  • 1948 – Hack Wilson, American baseball player (b. 1900)
  • 1966 – Seán T. O’Kelly, President of Ireland (b. 1882)
  • 1970 – Yusof bin Ishak, first President of Singapore (b. 1910)
  • 1972 – Marie Wilson, American actress (b. 1916)
  • 1973 – Sessue Hayakawa, Japanese actor (b. 1889)
  • 1974 – Cornelius Ryan, Irish-born author (b. 1920)
  • 1976 – André Malraux, French author (b. 1901)
  • 1979 – Merle Oberon, British actress (b. 1911)
  • 1979 – Judee Sill, American musician and songwriter (b. 1944)
  • 1983 – Juhan Muks, Estonian artist (b. 1899)
  • 1990 – Roald Dahl, British author (b. 1916)
  • 1990 – Bo Diaz, Venezuelan baseball player (b. 1953)
  • 1991 – Freddie Mercury, British singer, (b. 1946)
  • 1991 – Eric Carr, American drummer (b. 1950)
  • 1992 – Roy Acuff, American country musician (b. 1903)
  • 1992 – Jean-François Thiriart, Belgian politician (b. 1922)
  • 1994 – Art Barr, American professional wrestler (b. 1966)
  • 1994 – Tommy Boyce, American songwriter (b. 1939)
  • 1995 – Louis Malle, French film director (b. 1932)
  • 1995 – Jr. Walker, American musician (b. 1931)
  • 1996 – Mohamed Amin, Kenyan photojournalist (b. 1943)
  • 1996 – Art Porter, Jr., American jazz musician (b. 1961)
  • 1997 – Jorge Más Canosa, anti-Castro activist (b. 1939)
  • 2001 – Bo Belinsky, American baseball player (b. 1936)
  • 2001 – O.C. Smith, American singer (b. 1932)
  • 2002 – Roberto Matta, Chilean painter (b. 1911)
  • 2004 – Pete Franklin, American talk radio host (b. 1928)
  • 2005 – Constance Cummings, American-born British actress (b. 1910)
  • 2005 – Frank Gatski, American football player (b. 1919)
  • 2006 – Nick Clarke, English radio presenter (b. 1948)
  • 2006 – Betty Comden, American lyricist (b. 1917)
  • 2006 – Alexander Litvinenko, Russian spy (b. 1962)
  • 2006 – Philippe Noiret, French actor (b. 1930)
  • 2006 – Anita O’Day, American singer (b. 1919)
  • 2006 – Willie Pep, American boxer (b. 1922)
  • 2007 – Joe Kennedy, American baseball player (b. 1979)
  • 2007 – Óscar Carmelo Sánchez, Bolivian footballer (b. 1971)
  • 2007 – Pat Walsh, New Zealand rugby union footballer (b. 1936)

November 23 – Holidays:

  • R.C. Saints – Pope Clement I
  • Bahá’í Faith – Feast of Qawl (Speech) – First day of the 14th month of the Bahá’í calendar
  • Alexander Nevsky’s feast day in the Russian Orthodox Church
  • Georgia – St George’s Day
  • Japan – Kinro kansha no hi (Labour Thanksgiving Day)
  • Slovenia – Rudolf Maister Day
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