On This Day in History December 1

December 1 – Events:

  • 800 – Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican.
  • 1167 – The Lombard League is formed in northern Italy.
  • 1420 – Henry V of England enters Paris.
  • 1640 – End of the Iberian Union: Portugal acclaims as King João IV of Portugal, thus ending a 60 year period of personal union of the crowns of Portugal and Spain and the end of the rule of the House of Habsburg (also called the Philippine Dynasty). The Spanish Habsburgs do not recognize Portugal’s new dinasty, the House of Braganza, until 1668.
  • 1768 – The slave ship Fredensborg sinks off Tromøy in Norway.
  • 1821 – The first constitution of Costa Rica is issued.
  • 1822 – Peter I is crowned as Emperor of Brazil.
  • 1824 – U.S. presidential election, 1824: Since no candidate received a majority of the total electoral college votes in the election, the United States House of Representatives is given the task to decide the winner (as stipulated by the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution).
  • 1826 – French philhellene Fabvier forces his way through the Turkish cordon and ascends the Acropolis of Athens, which had been under siege.
  • 1864 – In his State of the Union Address President Abraham Lincoln reaffirms the necessity of ending slavery as ordered ten weeks earlier in the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • 1884 – American Old West: Near Frisco, New Mexico, deputy sheriff Elfego Baca holds off a gang of 80 Texan cowboys who want to kill him for arresting Charles McCarthy.
  • 1913 – The Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line.
  • 1913 – Crete, having obtained self rule from Turkey after the first Balkan war, is annexed by Greece.
  • 1918 – Transylvania unites with Romania, following the incorporation of Bessarabia (March 27) and Bukovina (November 28). National Council of Romanians in Banat had voted for union with the Kingdom of Romania. National Council of Romanians in Transylvania had voted for union with the Kingdom of Romania.
  • 1918 – Iceland becomes a sovereign state, yet remains a part of the Danish kingdom.
  • 1918 – The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is proclaimed.
  • 1919 – Lady Astor becomes first female member of the British Parliament to take her seat   (she had been elected to that position on November 28).
  • 1925 – World War I aftermath: The final Locarno Treaty is signed in London, establishing post-war territorial settlements.
  • 1934 – In the Soviet Union, Politburo member Sergei Kirov is shot dead at the Communist Party headquarters in Leningrad by Leonid Nikolayev.
  • 1941 – World War II: Fiorello LaGuardia, Mayor of New York City and Director of the Office of Civilian Defense, signs the Administrative Order 9, creating the Civil Air Patrol.
  • 1952 – The New York Daily News reports the first successful sexual reassignment operation.
  • 1955 – American Civil Rights Movement: In Montgomery, Alabama, seamstress Rosa Parks refuses to give her bus seat to a white man and is arrested for violating the city’s racial segregation laws, an incident which leads to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
  • 1958 – Central African Republic becomes independent from France.
  • 1958 – The Our Lady of the Angels School Fire in Chicago, Illinois kills 92 children and three nuns.
  • 1959 – Cold War: Antarctic Treaty signed , which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on that continent.
  • 1960 – Paul McCartney and Pete Best arrested then deported from Hamburg, Germany for accusation of attempted arson.
  • 1961 – The independent Republic of West Papua is proclaimed in modern-day Western New Guinea.
  • 1961 – Paul McCartney and Pete Best arrested then deported from Hamburg, Germany for accusation of attempted arson.
  • 1963 – Nagaland becomes the 16th state of India.
  • 1964 – Vietnam War: U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson and his top-ranking advisers meet to discuss plans to bomb North Vietnam.
  • 1965 – The Border Security Force is formed in India as a special force to guard the borders.
  • 1969 – Vietnam War: The first draft lottery in the United States is held since World War II.
  • 1971 – Cambodian Civil War: Khmer Rouge rebels intensify assaults on Cambodian government positions, forcing their retreat from Kompong Thmar and nearby Ba Ray.
  • 1971 – Indian Army occupies part of Kashmir.
  • 1973 – Papua New Guinea gains self government from Australia.
  • 1974 – TWA Flight 514, a Boeing 727, crashes northwest of Dulles International Airport killing all 92 people on-board.
  • 1974 – Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 6231, crashes northwest of John F. Kennedy International Airport.
  • 1981 – A Yugoslavian Inex Adria Aviopromet DC-9 crashes in Corsica killing all 180 people on-board.
  • 1982 – At the University of Utah, Barney Clark becomes the first person to receive a permanent artificial heart.
  • 1987 – NASA announces the names of four companies that have been awarded contracts to help build Space Station Freedom.
  • 1988 – Benazir Bhutto is appointed Prime Minister of Pakistan.
  • 1989 – Right-wing military rebel Reform the Armed forces Movement (RAM) attempts to oust Philippine President Corazon Aquino in a failed bloody coup d’ etat.
  • 1989 – Cold War: East Germany’s parliament abolishes the constitutional provision granting the communist party the leading role in the state.
  • 1990 – Channel Tunnel sections started from the United Kingdom and France meet 40 meters beneath the seabed.
  • 1991 – Cold War: Ukrainian voters overwhelmingly approve a referendum for independence from the Soviet Union.
  • 1998 – Exxon announces a $73.7 billion USD deal to buy Mobil, thus creating Exxon- Mobil, the world’s largest company.
  • 2001 – Captain Bill Compton brings Trans World Airlines Flight 220, an MD-83, into St. Louis International Airport bringing to an end 76 years of TWA operations following TWA’s purchase by American Airlines.

December 1 – Birthdays:

  • 1081 – Louis VI of France (d. 1137)
  • 1083 – Anna Comnena, Byzantine historian (d. 1153)
  • 1521 – Takeda Shingen, Japanese warlord (d. 1573)
  • 1525 – Tadeáš Hájek, Czech physician and astronomer (d. 1600)
  • 1580 – Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, French astronomer (d. 1637)
  • 1690 – Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke, Lord Chancellor of England (d. 1764)
  • 1716 – Etienne-Maurice Falconet, French sculptor (d. 1791)
  • 1743 – Martin Heinrich Klaproth, German chemist (d. 1817)
  • 1761 – Marie Tussaud, French creator of wax sculptures (Madame Tussauds) (d. 1850)
  • 1766 – Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin, Russian writer (d. 1826)
  • 1792 – Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky, Russian mathematician (d. 1856)
  • 1844 – Alexandra of Denmark, Danish Queen Consort of Edward VII of the United Kingdom (d. 1925)
  • 1869 – Eligiusz Niewiadomski, Polish assassin of Gabriel Narutowicz (d. 1923)
  • 1873 – Valery Bryusov, Russian poet (d. 1924)
  • 1884 – Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, German painter (d. 1976)
  • 1886 – Rex Stout, American author (d. 1975)
  • 1895 – Henry Williamson, English author (d. 1977)
  • 1896 – Georgy Zhukov, Russian general & Marshal of the Soviet Union (d. 1974)
  • 1901 – Ilona Feher, Hungarian-Jewish violinist (d. 1988)
  • 1905 – Alexander Wilson, Canadian and Notre Dame athlete (d. 1994)
  • 1908 – Georgios Kasassoglou, Greek musician (d. 1984)
  • 1910 – Alicia Markova, English ballerina (d. 2004)
  • 1911 – Walter Alston, American baseball manager (d. 1984)
  • 1911 – Calvin Griffith, Canadian-born baseball executive (d. 1999)
  • 1912 – Minoru Yamasaki, American architect (d. 1986)
  • 1913 – Mary Martin, American actor and singer (d. 1990)
  • 1917 – Marty Marion, American baseball player and manager
  • 1922 – Vsevolod Bobrov, Soviet ice hockey player (d. 1979)
  • 1922 – Paul Picerni, American actor
  • 1923 – Stansfield Turner, American admiral and CIA director
  • 1923 – Morris, Belgian cartoonist (Lucky Luke) (d. 2001)
  • 1925 – Martin Rodbell, American scientist, Nobel laureate (d. 1998)
  • 1926 – Robert Symonds, American actor (d. 2007)
  • 1928 – Emily McLaughlin, American actress (d. 1991)
  • 1930 – Joachim Hoffmann, German historian (d. 2002)
  • 1931 – Jimmy Lyons, American musician (d. 1986)
  • 1931 – Jim Nesbitt, singer (d. 2007)
  • 1932 – Matt Monro, English singer (d. 1985)
  • 1933 – Fujiko F. Fujio, Japanese cartoon artist (d. 1996)
  • 1933 – Lou Rawls, American singer (d. 2006)
  • 1934 – Billy Paul, American singer
  • 1935 – Woody Allen, American film director, actor, and comedian
  • 1937 – Muriel Costa-Greenspon, American mezzo-soprano (d. 2005)
  • 1937 – Chuck Low, American actor
  • 1937 – Vaira Vike-Freiberga, 6th President of Latvia
  • 1938 – Sandy Nelson, American drummer
  • 1939 – Lee Trevino, American golfer
  • 1940 – Richard Pryor, American actor, comedian (d. 2005)
  • 1942 – John Crowley, American author
  • 1944 – Pierre Arditi, French film and stage actor
  • 1944 – Eric Bloom, American musician (Blue Öyster Cult)
  • 1944 – John Densmore, American drummer (The Doors)
  • 1944 – Tahar Ben Jelloun, French writer of Moroccan origin
  • 1944 – Daniel Pennac, French writer born in Morocco
  • 1944 – Michael W. Hagee, 33rd Commandant of the United States Marine Corps
  • 1945 – Bette Midler, American actress
  • 1946 – Gilbert O’Sullivan, Irish singer
  • 1947 – Alain Bashung, French singer
  • 1948 – George Foster, American baseball player
  • 1948 – Tom Wright, English bishop and theologian
  • 1949 – Pablo Escobar, Colombian drug lord (d. 1993)
  • 1949 – Sebastián Piñera, Chilean businessman and presidential candidate
  • 1950 – Keith Thibodeaux, American actor and drummer
  • 1951 – Jaco Pastorius, American bassist (d. 1987)
  • 1951 – Treat Williams, American actor
  • 1954 – Bob Goen, American television host
  • 1954 – Annette Haven, American pornographic actress
  • 1955 – Mark Thompson, American disc jockey and actor
  • 1955 – Verónica Forqué, Spanish actress
  • 1956 – Julee Cruise, American singer and actress
  • 1958 – Javier Aguirre, Mexican footballer and coach
  • 1958 – Charlene Tilton, American actress
  • 1959 – Billy Childish, English painter, writer and musician
  • 1959 – Wally Lewis, Australian rugby league footballer
  • 1960 – Carol Alt, American supermodel
  • 1961 – Jeremy Northam, English actor
  • 1961 – Armin Meiwes, German cannibal
  • 1962 – Sylvie Daigle, Canadian speed skater
  • 1962 – Joe Quesada, American comic book writer and artist, and editor-in-chief at Marvel Comics
  • 1963 – Marco Greco, Brazilian racing driver
  • 1963 – Arjuna Ranatunga, Sri Lankan cricketer
  • 1963 – Nathalie Lambert, Quebec short track speed skater
  • 1964 – Salvatore Schillaci, Italian footballer
  • 1966 – Katherine LaNasa, American actress
  • 1966 – Larry Walker, Canadian baseball player
  • 1967 – Nestor Carbonell, American actor
  • 1970 – Jouko Ahola, Finnish strongman
  • 1970 – Kirk Rueter, American baseball player
  • 1970 – Sarah Silverman, American actress and comedian
  • 1971 – Emily Mortimer, English actress
  • 1971 – Stephanie Finochio, American professional wrestler
  • 1971 – Mika Pohjola, Finnish jazz pianist and composer
  • 1971 – Dolgorsuren Serjbudee, Mongolian professional wrestler
  • 1971 – Peter Van de Veire, Belgian radio-presenter
  • 1972 – Norbert Wójtowicz, Polish historian and theologian
  • 1974 – Costinha, Portuguese footballer
  • 1974 – David Ludwig, American composer
  • 1975 – Sophia Skou, Danish swimmer
  • 1976 – Matthew Shepard, American murder victim (d. 1998)
  • 1977 – Brad Delson, American guitarist (Linkin Park)
  • 1977 – Jared Fogle, American Subway spokesperson
  • 1978 – Mat Kearney, American singer and songwriter
  • 1979 – Ryan Malone, American Hockey Player
  • 1980 – Mohammad Kaif, Indian cricketer
  • 2001 – Aiko, Princess Toshi of Japan

December 1 – Deaths:

  • 1135 – Henry I of England
  • 1241 – Isabella of England, wife of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1214)
  • 1377 – King Magnus II of Sweden (b. 1316)
  • 1433 – Emperor Go-Komatsu of Japan (b. 1377)
  • 1455 – Lorenzo Ghiberti, Italian artist and metal smith (b. 1378)
  • 1521 – Pope Leo X (b. 1475)
  • 1530 – Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands (b. 1480)
  • 1580 – Giovanni Morone, Italian cardinal (b. 1509)
  • 1581 – Edmund Campion, English Jesuit (martyred) (b. 1540)
  • 1581 – Ralph Sherwin, English Catholic saint (b. 1550)
  • 1581 – Alexander Briant, English saint (b. around 1556)
  • 1602 – Kobayakawa Hideaki, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1582)
  • 1633 – Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (b. 1566)
  • 1660 – Pierre d’Hozier, French historian (b. 1592)
  • 1707 – Jeremiah Clarke, English composer (b. 1674)
  • 1709 – Abraham a Sancta Clara, Austrian preacher (b. 1644)
  • 1723 – Susanna Centlivre, English dramatist and actress
  • 1729 – Giacomo F. Maraldi, French-Italian astronomer (b. 1665)
  • 1750 – Johan Gabriel Doppelmayr, German mathematician, astronomer, and cartographer (b. 1671)
  • 1755 – Maurice Greene, English composer (b. 1696)
  • 1767 – Henry Erskine, 10th Earl of Buchan, British Freemason (b. 1710)
  • 1825 – Tsar Alexander I of Russia (b. 1777)
  • 1830 – Pope Pius VIII (b. 1761)
  • 1865 – Abraham Emanuel Fröhlich, Swiss poet (b. 1796)
  • 1866 – George Everest, Welsh surveyor and namesake of Mt. Everest (d. 1790)
  • 1884 – William Swainson (lawyer), second, and last, Attorney-General (New Zealand) of the Crown Colony of New Zealand (b. 1809)
  • 1916 – Charles de Foucauld, French religious leader (b. 1858)
  • 1923 – Virginie Loveling, Belgian writer and poet (b. 1836)
  • 1928 – José Eustasio Rivera, Colombian writer (b. 1888)
  • 1934 – Sergei Kirov, Russian revolutionary (b. 1886)
  • 1943 – Damrong Rajanubhab, Thai prince and historian (b. 1862)
  • 1947 – Aleister Crowley, English occultist (b. 1875)
  • 1947 – G. H. Hardy, English mathematician (b. 1877)
  • 1950 – E. J. Moeran, English composer (b. 1894)
  • 1954 – Fred Rose, American songwriter and music publishing executive (b. 1897)
  • 1964 – J. B. S. Haldane, Scottish geneticist (b. 1892)
  • 1968 – Nicolae Bretan, Romanian opera singer (baryton) and composer born in Transylvania (b. 1887)
  • 1968 – Dario Moreno, Turkish-Jewish singer (b. 1921)
  • 1969 – Magic Sam, American blues guitarist and singer (b. 1937)
  • 1973 – David Ben-Gurion, first Prime Minister of Israel (b. 1886)
  • 1975 – Nellie Fox, American baseball player (b. 1927)
  • 1975 – Anna E. Roosevelt, American radio personality (b. 1906)
  • 1986 – Lee Dorsey, American R&B singer (b. 1924)
  • 1987 – James Baldwin, American writer (b. 1924)
  • 1987 – Punch Imlach, Canadian ice hockey coach and general manager (b. 1918)
  • 1989 – Alvin Ailey, American dancer, choreographer (b. 1931)
  • 1991 – George Joseph Stigler, American economist, Bank of Sweden Prize winner (b. 1911)
  • 1996 – Peter Bronfman, Canadian businessman (b. 1928)
  • 1997 – Stéphane Grappelli, French jazz violinist (b. 1908)
  • 1997 – Michel Bélanger, French Canadian businessman and banker (b. 1929)
  • 1997 – Endicott Peabody, 62 Governor of Massachusetts (b. 1920)
  • 1998 – Freddie Young, British cinematographer (b. 1902)
  • 2002 – Dave McNally, American baseball player (b. 1942)
  • 2003 – Clark Kerr, first Chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley (b. 1911)
  • 2003 – Eugenio Monti, Italian bobsledder (b. 1928)
  • 2004 – Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands (b. 1911)
  • 2006 – Claude Jade, French actress (b. 1948)
  • 2006 – Bruce Trigger, Canadian archaeologist (McGill University) (b. 1937)
  • 2007 – Anton Rodgers, British actor (b. 1933)

December 1 – Holidays:

  • World AIDS Day
  • Costa Rica – Military Abolition Day
  • Ancient Latvia – Barbes Diena observed
  • Feast day of St Eligius
  • Adrian and Natalia of Nicomedia
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