On This Day in History January 27

January 27 – Events:

  • 98 – Trajan becomes Roman Emperor after the death of Nerva.
  • 1142 – Wrongful execution of noted Song Dynasty General Yue Fei.
  • 1186 – Henry VI, the son and heir of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, weds Constance of Sicily.
  • 1343 – Pope Clement VI issues the Bull Unigenitus.
  • 1593 – Vatican opens 7 year trial against scholar Giordano Bruno.
  • 1606 – Gunpowder Plot: The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins, and ending in their execution on January 31.
  • 1695 – Mustafa II becomes the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul on the death of Ahmed II. Mustafa rules until his death in 1703.
  • 1785 – The University of Georgia is founded, the first public university in the United States.
  • 1825 – U.S. Congress approves Indian Territory (in what is present-day Oklahoma), clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Indians on the “Trail of Tears.”
  • 1870 – The first women’s fraternity,Kappa Alpha Theta, is formed at DePauw University.
  • 1888 – In Washington, D.C., the National Geographic Society is founded.
  • 1909 – The Young Left is founded in Norway.
  • 1918 – The first hostilities occurred in the Finnish Civil War.
  • 1939 – First flight of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning.
  • 1944 – World War II: The two-year Siege of Leningrad is lifted.
  • 1945 – World War II: The Red Army arrives at the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp in Poland.
  • 1951 – Nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site begins with a one-kiloton bomb dropped on the Frenchman Flats.
  • 1951 – David Morrissey, Australian anthropologist, artist, and humanitarian activist is born.
  • 1967 – Apollo program: Apollo 1 – Astronauts Gus Grissom, Edward White and Roger Chaffee are killed in a fire during a test of the spacecraft at the Kennedy Space Center.
  • 1967 – More than sixty nations sign the Outer Space Treaty banning nuclear weapons in space.
  • 1973 – Paris Peace Accords officially end the Vietnam War. Colonel William Nolde falls, becoming the conflict’s last recorded American combat casualty.
  • 1983 – Pilot shaft of the Seikan Tunnel, the world’s longest subaqueous tunnel (53.85 km) between the Japanese islands of Honshu and Hokkaido breaks through.
  • 1996 – Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara deposes the first democratically elected president of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane, in a military coup.
  • 1996 – Germany first observes International Holocaust Remembrance Day.

January 27 – Birthdays:

  • 1443 – Albert, Duke of Saxony (d. 1500)
  • 1546 – Joachim Friedrich, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1608)
  • 1585 – Hendrick Avercamp, Dutch painter (d. 1634)
  • 1603 – Harbottle Grimston, English politician (d. 1685)
  • 1621 – Thomas Willis, English physician (d. 1675)
  • 1662 – Richard Bentley, English classical scholar (d. 1742)
  • 1687 – Balthasar Neumann, German architect (d. 1753)
  • 1701 – Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim, German historian (d. 1790)
  • 1708 – Anna Petrovna of Russia (d. 1728)
  • 1720 – Samuel Foote, English dramatist (d. 1777)
  • 1741 – Hester Thrale, Welsh diarist (d. 1821)
  • 1756 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer (d. 1791)
  • 1805 – Samuel Palmer, English artist (d. 1881)
  • 1805 – Sophie of Bavaria, archduchess of Austria (d. 1872)
  • 1805 – Maria Anna of Bavaria, queen consort of Saxony (d. 1877)
  • 1806 – Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, Spanish composer (d. 1826)
  • 1814 – Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, French architect (d. 1879)
  • 1823 – Edouard Lalo, French composer (d. 1892)
  • 1826 – Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, Russian writer (d. 1889)
  • 1826 – Richard Taylor, American Confederate general (d. 1879)
  • 1832 – Lewis Carroll, English author (d. 1898)
  • 1836 – Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer (d. 1895)
  • 1841 – Arkhip Kuindzhi, Russian painter (d. 1910)
  • 1848 – Togo Heihachiro, Japanese admiral (d. 1934)
  • 1850 – Samuel Gompers, American labor leader (d. 1924)
  • 1850 – Edward J. Smith, English captain of the Titanic (d. 1912)
  • 1859 – Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany (d. 1941)
  • 1885 – Jerome Kern, American composer (d. 1945)
  • 1885 – Eduard Künneke, German composer (d. 1953)
  • 1885 – Maeda Seison, Japanese painter (d. 1977)
  • 1891 – Ilya Ehrenburg, Russian writer (d. 1967)
  • 1893 – Soong Ching-ling, Chinese wife of Sun Yat-sen (d. 1981)
  • 1895 – Harry Ruby, American composer (d. 1974)
  • 1900 – Hyman Rickover, American admiral (d. 1986)
  • 1901 – Art Rooney, American football team owner (d. 1988)
  • 1901 – Willy Fritsch, German actor (d. 1973)
  • 1903 – John Carew Eccles, Australian neuropsychologist, Nobel Laureate (d. 1997)
  • 1905 – Howard McNear, American actor (d. 1969)
  • 1908 – Oran Page, American musician (d. 1954)
  • 1908 – William Randolph Hearst, Jr., American newspaper magnate (d. 1993)
  • 1912 – Arne Næss, Norwegian philosopher
  • 1918 – Skitch Henderson, English bandleader (d. 2005)
  • 1918 – Elmore James, American blues musician (d. 1963)
  • 1918 – William Seawell, United States Army Brigadier General (d. 2005)
  • 1919 – Ross Bagdasarian, American musician (d. 1972)
  • 1920 – Helmut Zacharias, German violinist (d. 2002)
  • 1920 – John Box, British film production designer and art director (d. 2005)
  • 1921 – Donna Reed, American actress (d. 1986)
  • 1924 – Sabu Dastagir, Indian actor (d. 1963)
  • 1924 – Rauf Denktas, founder of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
  • 1926 – Fritz Spiegl, Austrian journalist (d. 2003)
  • 1926 – Ingrid Thulin, Swedish actress (d. 2004)
  • 1928 – Michael Craig, British actor
  • 1928 – Hans Modrow, a German politician, premier of East Germany
  • 1929 – Gastón Suárez, Bolivian novelist (d. 1984)
  • 1930 – Bobby Blue Bland, American singer
  • 1931 – Mordecai Richler, Canadian author (d. 2001)
  • 1932 – Boris Shakhlin, Soviet gymnast
  • 1933 – Mohamed Al-Fayed, Egyptian billionaire businessman
  • 1934 – George Follmer, American race car driver
  • 1936 – Troy Donahue, American actor (d. 2001)
  • 1936 – Samuel C. C. Ting, American physicist, Nobel Laureate
  • 1937 – John Ogdon, English pianist (d. 1989)
  • 1940 – James Cromwell, American actor
  • 1940 – Terry Harper, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1942 – John Witherspoon, American actor
  • 1942 – Kate Wolf, American folk singer and songwriter (d. 1986)
  • 1944 – Peter Akinola, Nigerian religious leader
  • 1944 – Mairéad Corrigan, Irish activist, Nobel Prize Laureate
  • 1944 – Nick Mason, English drummer (Pink Floyd)
  • 1945 – Harold Cardinal, Cree political leader (d. 2005)
  • 1946 – Nedra Talley, American singer (Ronettes)
  • 1947 – Björn Afzelius, Swedish singer (d. 1999)
  • 1947 – Vyron Polydoras, Greek politician
  • 1948 – Jean-Philippe Collard, French pianist
  • 1949 – Ethan Mordden, American author
  • 1950 – Amos Grunebaum, Israeli-born physician
  • 1950 – Derek Acorah, English spirit medium
  • 1951 – Brian Downey, Irish musician (Thin Lizzy)
  • 1951 – David Morrissey Australian anthropologist, artist, and humanitarian
  • involved in forwarding the cause of CSR
  • 1952 – Billy “White Shoes” Johnson, American football player
  • 1954 – Peter Laird, American comic-book artist
  • 1954 – Joko Ninomiya, Japanese martial artist
  • 1955 – Brian Engblom, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1955 – John G. Roberts, 17th Chief Justice of the United States
  • 1955 – Alexander Stuart, British author
  • 1955 – Koji Ushikubo, Japanese racing driver
  • 1956 – Mimi Rogers, American actress
  • 1957 – Janick Gers, British guitarist (Iron Maiden)
  • 1957 – Frank Miller, American comic book artist and writer and film director
  • 1958 – James Grippando, American novelist
  • 1958 – Kadri Mälk, Estonian artist and jewelry designer
  • 1959 – Keith Olbermann, American news presenter
  • 1959 – Göran Hägglund, Swedish politician
  • 1959 – Cris Collinsworth, American football player
  • 1961 – Margo Timmins, Canadian singer (Cowboy Junkies)
  • 1961 – Dina Bonnevie, Filipino actress
  • 1961 – Gillian Gilbert, British musician (New Order)
  • 1961 – Narciso Rodriguez, American fashion designer
  • 1964 – Bridget Fonda, American actress
  • 1965 – Alan Cumming, Scottish actor
  • 1965 – Mike Newell, English football manager
  • 1967 – Bobby Deol, Indian actor
  • 1967 – Byron Mann, Hong Kong actor
  • 1967 – Dave Manson, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1968 – Patrick Blondeau, former French International footballer
  • 1968 – Mike Patton, American singer (Faith No More)
  • 1968 – Tricky, English rapper
  • 1969 – Cornelius, Japanese musician and producer (Flipper’s Guitar)
  • 1969 – Michael Kulas, Canadian singer (James)
  • 1969 – Patton Oswalt, American actor and writer
  • 1970 – Jon Douglas Rainey, American TV personality
  • 1970 – Emmanuel Pahud, French-Swiss flautist
  • 1971 – Fann Wong, Singapore entertainer (Shanghai Knights)
  • 1971 – Lil Jon, American rapper and producer
  • 1971 – Patrice Brisebois, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1972 – Guillermo, Mexican-born American TV personality
  • 1972 – Keith Wood, Irish rugby player
  • 1972 – Mark Owen, English pop singer
  • 1972 – Janine Ilitch, Australian netballer
  • 1974 – Chaminda Vaas, Sri Lankan cricketer
  • 1974 – Andrei Pavel, Romanian tennis player
  • 1976 – Clint Ford, American voice actor
  • 1976 – Ahn Jung-Hwan, Korean football player
  • 1976 – Ruby Lin, Taiwanese actress and singer
  • 1978 – Pete Laforest, Canadian baseball player
  • 1979 – Daniel Vettori, New Zealand cricketer
  • 1979 – Rosamund Pike, British actress
  • 1979 – Mario Fatafehi, American-born Canadian Football League player
  • 1980 – Marat Safin, Russian tennis player
  • 1980 – Chanda Gunn, ice hockey player
  • 1981 – Alicia Molik, Australian tennis player
  • 1983 – Carlo Colaiacovo, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1983 – Gavin Floyd, American baseball player
  • 1983 – Mike Zagurski, American baseball player
  • 1984 – Davetta Sherwood, American actress
  • 1987 – Lily Donaldson, British model
  • 1987 – Katy Rose, American pop singer
  • 1987 – Zuleidy Spanish inventor, famous for inventing the tooth brush
  • 1988 – Kerlon Moura Souza, Brazilian footballer

January 27 – Deaths:

  • 98 – Nerva, Roman Emperor (b. 35)
  • 1490 – Ashikaga Yoshimasa, Japanese shogun (b. 1435)
  • 1629 – Hieronymus Praetorius, German composer (b. 1560)
  • 1638 – Gonzalo de Céspedes y Meneses, Spanish novelist
  • 1731 – Bartolomeo Cristofori, Italian musical instrument maker (b. 1655)
  • 1740 – Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon, Prime Minister of France (b. 1692)
  • 1814 – Johann Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher (b. 1762)
  • 1816 – Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood, British admiral (b. 1724)
  • 1851 – John James Audubon, French-born naturalist and ornithologist (b. 1789)
  • 1857 – Dorothea Lieven, Russian noblewoman (b. 1785)
  • 1860 – János Bolyai, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1802)
  • 1880 – Edward Middleton Barry, English architect (b. 1830)
  • 1901 – Giuseppe Verdi, Italian composer (b. 1813)
  • 1910 – Thomas Crapper, English inventor (b. 1836)
  • 1919 – Endre Ady, Hungarian poet (b. 1877)
  • 1921 – Maurice Vincent Buckley, Australian soldier (b. 1891)
  • 1927 – Georgios Grivas, Cyprus-born general in the Greek Army
  • 1927 – Blessed Jurgis Matulaitis-Matulevicius (Matulewicz), Lithuanian bishop
  • 1940 – Isaac Babel, Ukrainian writer (b. 1894)
  • 1956 – Erich Kleiber, Argentine conductor (b. 1890)
  • 1967 – Crew of Apollo 1:
    • Roger Chaffee (b. 1935)
    • Virgil “Gus” Grissom (b. 1926)
    • Edward White (b. 1930)
  • 1967 – Alphonse Juin, Marshal of France (b. 1888)
  • 1970 – Rita Angus, New Zealand painter (b. 1908)
  • 1971 – Jacobo Arbenz, President of Guatemala (b. 1913)
  • 1972 – Mahalia Jackson, American singer (b. 1911)
  • 1972 – Richard Courant, German-American mathematician (b. 1888)
  • 1973 – William Nolde, last American combat casualty of Vietnam War (b. 1929)
  • 1975 – Bill Walsh, American producer and writer (b. 1913)
  • 1979 – Qalander Ba Ba Auliya, Sufi master (b. 1898)
  • 1983 – Louis de Funès, French actor (b. 1914)
  • 1986 – Lilli Palmer, German-born actress (b. 1914)
  • 1988 – Massa Makan Diabaté, Malian author (b. 1938)
  • 1989 – Thomas Sopwith, British aviation pioneer (b. 1888)
  • 1993 – André the Giant, French professional wrestler and actor (b. 1946)
  • 1994 – Claude Akins, American actor (b. 1918)
  • 1996 – Ralph Yarborough, American politician (b. 1903)
  • 1997 – Gerald Marks, American songwriter (All of Me) (b. 1900)
  • 2000 – Friedrich Gulda, Austrian pianist (b. 1930)
  • 2001 – Stavros Damianides, Greek musician (b. 1941)
  • 2003 – Henryk Jablonski, President of Poland (b. 1909)
  • 2003 – Louis Archambault, Quebec sculptor (b. 1915)
  • 2004 – Jack Paar, American television show host (b. 1918)
  • 2004 – Salvador Laurel, Vice President of the Philippines (b. 1928)
  • 2006 – Johannes Rau, 8th President of Germany (b. 1931)
  • 2006 – Gene McFadden, American singer and songwriter (b. 1948)
  • 2006 – Jean-Christophe Lafaille, French mountaineer (disappeared) (b. 1965)
  • 2007 – Tige Andrews, American actor (b. 1920)
  • 2007 – Yang Chuan-kwang, Taiwanese athlete (b. 1933)
  • 2008 – Suharto, President of Indonesia (b. 1921)
  • 2008 – Louie Welch, mayor of Houston (b. 1918)

January 27 – Holidays:

  • UN — International Holocaust Remembrance Day
  • United Kingdom — Holocaust Memorial Day.
  • Germany — Gedenktag für die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (Commemoration Day for the Victims of National Socialism).
  • Poland — Dzien Pamieci Ofiar Nazizmu (Memorial Day for the Victims of Nazism).
  • Italy — Giorno della Memoria (Memorial Day).
  • Catholicism — Catholic Schools Week.
  • Serbia — St. Sava Day.
  • Denmark — Auschwitzdag (Auschwitz Day; commemoration day for the victims of the Holocaust and other genocide).
  • Monaco, day of Saint Devota, patron saint
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