On This Day in History August 25

August 25 – Events:

  • 1248 – The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III, the Archbishop of Utrecht.
  • 1537 – The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, is formed.
  • 1580 – Battle of Alcântara. Spain defeats Portugal.
  • 1609 – Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.
  • 1718 – New Orleans, Louisiana is founded.
  • 1758 – Seven Years’ War: Frederick II of Prussia defeats the Russian army at the Battle of Zorndorf.
  • 1768 – James Cook begins his first voyage.
  • 1814 – Washington, D.C. is burned and White House is destroyed by British forces during the War of 1812.
  • 1825 – Uruguay declares its independence from Brazil.
  • 1830 – The Belgian Revolution begins.
  • 1835 – The New York Sun perpetrates the Great Moon Hoax.
  • 1894 – Shibasaburo Kitasato discovers the infectious agent of the bubonic plague and publishes his findings in The Lancet.
  • 1910 – Yellow Cab is founded.
  • 1912 – The Kuomintang, the Chinese nationalist party, is founded.
  • 1916 – The United States National Park Service is created.
  • 1920 – Polish-Soviet War: Battle of Warsaw, started on August 13, now ends. The Red Army is defeated.
  • 1921 – The first skirmishes of the Battle of Blair Mountain occur.
  • 1942 – World War II: Battle of Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea.
  • 1942 – World War II: Second day of the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. A Japanese naval transport convoy headed towards Guadalcanal is turned-back by Allied air attack, losing one destroyer and one transport sunk, and one light cruiser heavily damaged.
  • 1944 – World War II: Paris is liberated by the Allies.
  • 1945 – Ten days after World War II ended with Japan announcing its surrender, armed supporters of the Communist Party of China killed Baptist missionary John Birch, regarded by a portion of the American right as the first victim of the Cold War.
  • 1950 – President Harry Truman orders the US Army to seize control of the nation’s railroads to avert a strike.
  • 1981 – Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Saturn
  • 1989 – Tadeusz Mazowiecki chosen as the first non-communist Prime Minister in Central and Eastern Europe.
  • 1989 – Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Neptune, the outermost planet in the Solar System.
  • 1989 – Mayumi Moriyama becomes Japan’s first female cabinet secretary.
  • 1991 – Belarus declares independence from the Soviet Union.
  • 1997 – Egon Krenz, the former East German leader, was convicted of a shoot-to-kill Berlin Wall policy.
  • 2003 – The Tli Cho land claims agreement is signed between the Dogrib First Nations and the Canadian federal government in Rae-Edzo (now called Behchoko).
  • 2007 43 people killed by bomb blast in Hyderabad, India.

August 25 – Birthdays:

  • 1530 – Tsar Ivan IV of Russia (d. 1584)
  • 1561 – Philippe van Lansberge, Dutch astronomer (d. 1632)
  • 1624 – François de la Chaise, French confessor of Louis XIV of France (d. 1709)
  • 1662 – John Leverett the Younger, American educator (d. 1724)
  • 1719 – Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo, French painter (d. 1795)
  • 1724 – George Stubbs, British painter (d. 1806)
  • 1741 – Karl Friedrich Bahrdt, German theologian (d. 1792)
  • 1744 – Johann Gottfried Herder, German writer (d. 1803)
  • 1767 – Antoine Louis Léon de Richebourg de Saint-Just, French revolutionary and writer (d. 1794)
  • 1772 – King William I of the Netherlands (d. 1843)
  • 1786 – King Ludwig I of Bavaria (d. 1868)
  • 1796 – James Lick, American land baron (d. 1876)
  • 1802 – Nikolaus Lenau, Austrian poet (d. 1850)
  • 1803 – Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, the Duque de Caxias, Brazilian military leader
  • 1819 – Allan Pinkerton, American private detective (d. 1884)
  • 1836 – Bret Harte, American writer (d. 1902)
  • 1841 – Emil Theodor Kocher, Swiss medical researcher; Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1917)
  • 1845 – King Ludwig II of Bavaria (d. 1886)
  • 1867 – James W. Gerard, American jurist and diplomat (d. 1951)
  • 1868 – Nikolaos Levidis, Greek shooter
  • 1882 – Seán T. O’Kelly, Irish politician (d. 1966)
  • 1893 – Henry Trendley Dean, American dental researcher (d. 1962)
  • 1898 – Helmut Hasse, German mathematician (d. 1975)
  • 1900 – Hans Adolf Krebs, German physician and biochemist; Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1981)
  • 1902 – Stefan Wolpe, German-born composer (d. 1972)
  • 1903 – Árpád Élo, Hungarian physicist (d. 1992)
  • 1905 – Faustina Kowalska, Polish mystic (d. 1938)
  • 1909 – Ruby Keeler, Canadian singer and actress (d. 1993)
  • 1909 – Michael Rennie, English actor (d. 1971)
  • 1911 – Vo Nguyen Giap (Võ Nguyên Giáp), Vietnamese general and statesman
  • 1912 – Erich Honecker, East German politician (d. 1994)
  • 1913 – Walt Kelly, American cartoonist (d. 1973)
  • 1913 – Bob Crosby, American bandleader (d. 1993)
  • 1913 – Don DeFore, American actor (d. 1993)
  • 1915 – Walter Trampler, American violist (d. 1997)
  • 1916 – Van Johnson, American actor
  • 1916 – Frederick Chapman Robbins, American pediatrician and virologist; Nobel Prize laureate  (d. 2003)
  • 1916 – Saburo Sakai, Japanese aviator (d. 2000)
  • 1917 – Mel Ferrer, American actor
  • 1918 – Leonard Bernstein, American conductor and composer (d. 1990)
  • 1918 – Richard Greene, English actor (d. 1985)
  • 1919 – George Wallace, American politician (d. 1998)
  • 1921 – Monty Hall, Canadian-born game show host
  • 1921 – Brian Moore, Irish-born writer (d. 1999)
  • 1921 – Bryce Mackasey, Canadian politician (d. 1999)
  • 1925 – Thea Astley, Australian writer, (d. 2004)
  • 1927 – Althea Gibson, American tennis player (d. 2003)
  • 1928 – Herbert Kroemer, German-born physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1928 – Darrell Johnson, American baseball player (d. 2004)
  • 1930 – Sean Connery, Scottish actor
  • 1930 – Graham Jarvis, Canadian actor (d. 2003)
  • 1930 – Bruce Allpress, New Zealand actor
  • 1931 – Hal Fishman, Los Angeles based local news anchor. (d. 2007)
  • 1931 – Regis Philbin, American television host
  • 1933 – Wayne Shorter, American jazz musician
  • 1933 – Tom Skerritt, American actor
  • 1934 – Lise Bacon, French Canadian politician
  • 1935 – Charles Wright, American poet
  • 1938 – David Canary, American actor
  • 1938 – Frederick Forsyth, English author
  • 1939 – John Badham, American film director
  • 1940 – José Van Dam, Belgian baritone
  • 1944 – Anthony Heald, American actor
  • 1944 – Conrad Black, newspaper magnate
  • 1944 – Jacques Demers, Canadian hockey coach
  • 1946 – Rollie Fingers, American baseball player
  • 1946 – Charles Ghigna (Father Goose), American poet and Children’s Author
  • 1946 – Charlie Sanders, American football player
  • 1949 – Martin Amis, English novelist
  • 1949 – John Savage, American actor
  • 1949 – Gene Simmons, Israeli-born musician (Kiss)
  • 1949 – Fariborz Lachini, Canadian-Iranian composer
  • 1950 – Charles Fambrough, American jazz musician
  • 1951 – Rob Halford, English singer (Judas Priest)
  • 1951 – Bill Handel, American radio personality
  • 1952 – Geoff Downes, English keyboardist (Buggles, Yes, Asia)
  • 1954 – Elvis Costello, English musician
  • 1956 – Henri Toivonen, Finnish rally driver
  • 1958 – Tim Burton, American film director
  • 1960 – Ashley Crow, American actress
  • 1961 – Billy Ray Cyrus, American singer and actor
  • 1961 – Joanne Whalley, British actress
  • 1962 – David Packer, American actor
  • 1962 – Vivian Campbell, Irish musician (Def Leppard, Whitesnake, Dio)
  • 1964 – Maxim Kontsevich, Russian mathematician
  • 1964 – Blair Underwood, American actor
  • 1964 – Vassilios Kotronias, Greek chess grandmaster
  • 1964 – Marti Noxon, American television writer and producer
  • 1965 – Mia Zapata, American singer (The Gits) (d. 1994)
  • 1966 – Albert Belle, American Major League Baseball player
  • 1966 – Derek Sherinian, American keyboardist
  • 1967 – Jeff Tweedy, American singer (Wilco)
  • 1968 – Rafet El Roman, Turkish singer and composer
  • 1968 – Yuri Mitsui, Japanese actress, model and racing driver
  • 1968 – Stuart Murdoch, Scottish musician (Belle & Sebastian)
  • 1968 – Rachael Ray, American chef and television personality
  • 1968 – Spider One, American musician (Powerman 5000)
  • 1969 – Cameron Mathison, Canadian actor
  • 1970 – Robert Horry, American basketball player
  • 1970 – Jo Dee Messina, American country music singer
  • 1970 – Claudia Schiffer, German model
  • 1971 – Mike Lockwood, professional wrestler (d. 2003)
  • 1971 – Thalia Sodi, Mexican actress and singer
  • 1972 – Marvin Harrison, American football player
  • 1973 – Fatih Akin, Turkish-German film director
  • 1973 – Olavi Mikkonen, Swedish heavy metal guitarist (Amon Amarth)
  • 1974 – Eric Millegan, American actor
  • 1974 – Dave Luza, Dutch comedian
  • 1974 – Pablo Ozuna, Dominican baseball player
  • 1976 – Alexander Skarsgård, Swedish actor
  • 1977 – Sophie Cadieux, Quebec actress
  • 1977 – Diego Corrales, American boxer (d. 2007)
  • 1977 – Jonathan Togo, American actor
  • 1978 – Kel Mitchell, American actor
  • 1979 – Marlon Harewood, English footballer
  • 1980 – Neal Musser, American baseball player
  • 1981 – Rachel Bilson, American actress
  • 1981 – Clare Oliver, Australian cancer activist (d. 2007)
  • 1983 – James Righton, Musician (Klaxons)
  • 1983 – James Rossiter, British racing driver
  • 1983 – Janet Chow, Miss Hong Kong 2006 Runner-Up
  • 1987 – Stacey Farber, Canadian actress
  • 1987 – Blake Lively, American actress
  • 1987 – Justin Upton, American baseball player
  • 1987 – James Wesolowski, Australian soccer player
  • 1987 – Liu Yifei, Chinese actress and singer
  • 1988 – Angela Park, Brazilian golfer
  • 1988 – Raymond Quinn, English singer
  • 1992 – Miyabi Natsuyaki, Japanese singer
  • 1994 – Josh Flitter, American actor
  • 1997 – Holly Gibbs, English child actor
  • 1998 – China Anne McClain, American actress

August 25 – Deaths:

  • 383 – Gratian, Roman Emperor
  • 471 – Gennadius I, Patriarch of Constantinople
  • 1192 – Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1142)
  • 1270 – King Louis IX of France (b. 1214)
  • 1282 – Thomas Cantilupe, English saint
  • 1330 – Sir James Douglas, Scottish soldier (b. 1286)
  • 1482 – Margaret of Anjou, queen of Henry VI of England (b. 1429)
  • 1554 – Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, English politician (b. 1473)
  • 1632 – Thomas Dekker, English dramatist
  • 1650 – Richard Crashaw, English poet
  • 1688 – Henry Morgan, Welsh privateer
  • 1699 – King Christian V of Denmark (b. 1646)
  • 1711 – Edward Villiers, 1st Earl of Jersey, English politician
  • 1742 – Carlos Seixas, Portuguese composer (b. 1704)
  • 1774 – Niccolò Jommelli, Italian composer (b. 1714)
  • 1776 – David Hume, Scottish philosopher and historian (b. 1711)
  • 1792 – Jacques Cazotte, French writer (b. 1719)
  • 1822 – William Herschel, German-born astronomer (b. 1738)
  • 1867 – Michael Faraday, English scientist (b. 1791)
  • 1900 – Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher (b. 1844)
  • 1900 – Kuroda Kiyotaka, Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1840)
  • 1904 – Henri Fantin-Latour, French painter (b. 1836)
  • 1904 – William Hall, Canadian Royal Naval sailor (b. 1827)
  • 1908 – Henri Becquerel, French physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1852)
  • 1925 – Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, Austro-Hungarian field marshal (b. 1852)
  • 1938 – Aleksandr Kuprin, Russian writer (b. 1870)
  • 1939 – Babe Siebert, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1904)
  • 1942 – George Edward Alexander Windsor, Duke of Kent (b. 1902)
  • 1945 – John Birch, American intelligence officer and missionary (b. 1918)
  • 1950 – Earl Caddock, professional wrestler (b. 1888)
  • 1956 – Alfred Kinsey, American research biologist (b. 1894)
  • 1967 – Stanley Bruce, eighth Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1883)
  • 1967 – Paul Muni, Polish actor (b. 1895)
  • 1967 – George Lincoln Rockwell, American Nazi Party leader (b. 1918)
  • 1971 – Ted Lewis, American musician and entertainer (b. 1890)
  • 1976 – Eyvind Johnson, Swedish writer, Nobel laureate (b. 1900)
  • 1979 – Stan Kenton, American musician and bandleader (b. 1911)
  • 1980 – Gower Champion, American dancer, actor, and choreographer (b. 1919)
  • 1984 – Truman Capote, American author (b. 1924)
  • 1984 – Waite Hoyt, American baseball player (b. 1899)
  • 1984 – Viktor Chukarin, Soviet gymnast (b. 1921)
  • 1985 – Samantha Smith, American social activist (b. 1972)
  • 1990 – Morley Callaghan, Canadian writer (b. 1903)
  • 1999 – Rob Fisher, English musician (b. 1956)
  • 2000 – Carl Barks, American cartoonist (b. 1901)
  • 2000 – Jack Nitzsche, American record producer (b. 1937)
  • 2001 – Aaliyah, American singer and actress (b. 1979)
  • 2001 – Carl Brewer, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1938)
  • 2001 – Ken Tyrrell, former race driver and founder of Tyrrell Racing (b. 1924)
  • 2001 – Philippe Léotard, French actor and singer (b. 1940)
  • 2002 – Dorothy Hewett, Australian writer (b. 1923)
  • 2005 – Peter Glotz, German politician (b. 1939)
  • 2007 – Ray Jones, English professional footballer (b. 1988)

August 25 – Holidays:

  • Roman festivals – Opiconsivia held in honor of Ops.
  • Roman Catholic Saints – Genesius of Arles, Saint Louis IX of France, Saint Joseph Calasanz.
  • Uruguay – National Day (independence from Brazil in 1825).

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On This Day in History August 24

August 24 – Events:

  • 49 BC – Julius Caesar’s general Gaius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River by the Numidians under Attius Varus and King Juba of Numidia. Curio commits suicide to avoid capture.
  • 79 – Mount Vesuvius erupts. The cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae are buried in volcanic ash.
  • 410 – The Visigoths under Alaric begin to pillage Rome for three days.
  • 1215 – Pope Innocent III declares Magna Carta invalid.
  • 1349 – Six thousand Jews are killed in Mainz after being blamed for the bubonic plague.
  • 1391 – Jews massacred in Palma de Mallorca.
  • 1456 – The printing of the Gutenberg Bible is completed.
  • 1511 – Alfonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers the Sultanate of Malacca.
  • 1561 – Willem of Orange marries duchess Anna of Saxony.
  • 1572 – Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre: On the orders of king Charles IX of France, a massacre of Huguenots (French Protestants) begins.
  • 1608 – The first official English representative to India lands in Surat.
  •  1662 – Act of Uniformity requires England to accept the Book of Common Prayer.
  • 1682 – William Penn receives the area that is now the state of Delaware, and adds it to his colony of Pennsylvania.
  • 1690 – Calcutta, India is founded.
  • 1814 – British troops invade Washington, D.C. and burn down the White House and several other buildings.
  • 1816 – The Treaty of St. Louis is signed in St. Louis, Missouri.
  • 1820 – Constitutionalist insurrection at Oporto, Portugal; see Portugal’s crises of the Nineteenth Century.
  • 1821 – The Treaty of Córdoba is signed in Córdoba, now in Veracruz, Mexico, concluding the Mexican War of Independence from Spain.
  • 1831 – Charles Darwin is asked to travel on HMS Beagle.
  • 1857 – The Panic of 1857 begins, setting off one of the most severe economic crises in U.S. history.
  • 1858 – In Richmond, Virginia, 90 blacks are arrested for learning.
  • 1870 – The Wolseley Expedition reaches Manitoba to end the Red River Rebellion.
  • 1875 – Captain Matthew Webb became first person to swim English Channel
  • 1891 – Thomas Edison patents the motion picture camera.
  • 1909 – Workers start pouring concrete for the Panama Canal.
  • 1912 – Alaska becomes a United States territory.
  • 1914 – World War I: German troops capture Namur.
  • 1929 – Turkey and Persia sign a friendship treaty.
  • 1929 – Riots in Palestine of 1929: 18 Jews in Safed, 67 in Hebron, and 22 in Jerusalem killed by Arab Palestinians.
  • 1931 – France and the Soviet Union sign a neutrality/no attack treaty.
  • 1931 – Resignation of the United Kingdom’s Second Labour Government. Formation of the UK National Government.
  • 1932 – Amelia Earhart is the first woman to fly across the United States non-stop (from Los Angeles to Newark, New Jersey).
  • 1936 – The Australian Antarctic Territory is created.
  • 1937 – In the Spanish Civil War, the Basque Army surrenders to the Italian Corpo Truppe Volontarie following the Santoña Agreement.
  • 1939 – The Nazi-Soviet Pact is signed between Adolf Hitler and Josef Stalin.
  • 1942 – World War II: The Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Japanese aircraft carrier Ryujo is sunk and US carrier Enterprise heavily damaged.
  • 1944 – World War II: Allied troops start the attack on Paris.
  • 1949 – The treaty creating NATO goes into effect.
  • 1950 – Edith Sampson becomes the first black U.S. delegate to the UN.
  • 1954 – The Communist Control Act goes into effect. The American Communist Party is outlawed.
  • 1954 – Getúlio Dornelles Vargas, president of Brazil, commits suicide and is succeeded by João Café Filho.
  • 1960 – A temperature of -88°C (-127°F) is measured in Vostok, Antarctica — a world-record low.
  • 1963 – The 200-metre freestyle is swum in less than 2 minutes for the first time by Don Schollander (1:58).
  • 1967 – Led by Abbie Hoffman, a group of hippies temporarily disrupt trading at the NYSE by throwing dollar bills from the viewing gallery, causing a cease in trading as the brokers scramble to grab them up
  • 1968 – France explodes its first hydrogen bomb, thus becoming the world’s fifth nuclear power.
  • 1981 – Mark David Chapman is sentenced to 20 years to life in prison for murdering John Lennon.
  • 1989 – Colombian drug barons declare “total war” on the Colombian government.
  • 1989 – Cincinnati Reds manager Pete Rose is banned from baseball for gambling by Commissioner A. Bartlett Giamatti.
  • 1989 – Voyager 2 passes Neptune.
  • 1990 – A judge rules that Judas Priest are not responsible for the deaths of two youths who committed suicide after listening to the band’s music.
  • 1990 – Sinéad O’Connor refuses to perform at the Garden State Arts Plaza in Holmdel, New Jersey if “The Star-Spangled Banner” is played before her show, as is customary. This began the downfall of her career.
  • 1991 – Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
  • 1991 – Ukraine declares itself independent from the Soviet Union.
  • 1992 – Diplomatic relations are established between the People’s Republic of China and South Korea.
  • 1992 – Hurricane Andrew hits South Florida as a Category 5 Hurricane.
  • 1994 – Initial accord between Israel and the PLO about partial self-rule of the Palestinians on the West Bank.
  • 1998 – The Netherlands is selected as the site for the trial of the two Libyan suspects of the 1988 Pan Am bombing.
  • 1998 – First RFID human implantation tested in the United Kingdom.
  • 2000 – Argon fluorohydride, the first Argon compound ever known, is discovered at the University of Helsinki by Finnish scientists.
  • 2004 – 89 passengers die after two airliners explode after flying out of Domodedovo International Airport, near Moscow. The explosions were caused by suicide bombers from the Russian Republic of Chechnya.
  • 2006 – The International Astronomical Union (IAU) redefines the term “planet” such that Pluto is considered a Dwarf Planet.

August 24 – Birthdays:

  • 1113 – Geoffrey of Anjou, Count of Anjou (d. 1151)
  • 1198 – King Alexander II of Scotland (d. 1249)
  • 1358 – King John I of Castile (d. 1390)
  • 1393 – Arthur III, Duke of Brittany (d. 1458)
  • 1552 – Lavinia Fontana, Italian painter (d. 1614)
  • 1580 – John Taylor, English poet (d. 1654)
  • 1591 – Robert Herrick, English poet (d. 1674)
  • 1635 – Peder Griffenfeld, Danish statesman (d. 1699)
  • 1669 – Alessandro Marcello, Italian composer (d. 1747)
  • 1707 – Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon, English Evangelical Revivalist (d. 1791)
  • 1750 – Letizia Ramolino, mother of Napoleon Bonaparte (d. 1836)
  • 1758 – Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, queen of Denmark and Norway (d. 1794)
  • 1759 – William Wilberforce, English abolitionist (d. 1833)
  • 1772 – King William I of the Netherlands (d. 1840)
  • 1787 – James Weddell, Antarctica explorer (d. 1834)
  • 1817 – Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, Russian writer (d. 1875)
  • 1837 – Théodore Dubois, French composer and teacher (d. 1924)
  • 1845 – James C. Calhoun, brother-in-law of George Armstrong Custer (d. 1876)
  • 1852 – Deacon White, American baseball player (d. 1919)
  • 1863 – Dragutin Lerman, Croatian explorer (d. 1918)
  • 1865 – King Ferdinand I of Romania (d. 1927)
  • 1872 – Max Beerbohm, British caricaturist (d. 1956)
  • 1880 – Joshua Lionel Cowen, American entrepreneur (d. 1965)
  • 1884 – Earl Derr Biggers, American author (d. 1933)
  • 1887 – Harry Hooper, American baseball player (d. 1974)
  • 1890 – Duke Kahanamoku, American swimmer and surfer (d. 1968)
  • 1890 – Jean Rhys, British writer (d. 1979)
  • 1895 – Richard Cardinal Cushing, archbishop of Boston (d. 1970)
  • 1897 – Fred Rose, American songwriter and publishing executive (d. 1954)
  • 1898 – Malcolm Cowley, American literary critic (d. 1989)
  • 1899 – Jorge Luis Borges, Argentine writer (d. 1986)
  • 1899 – Gaylord DuBois, American comic book writer (d. 1993)
  • 1899 – Albert Claude, Belgian biologist, Nobel laureate (d. 1983)
  • 1901 – Preston Foster, American actor (d. 1970)
  • 1902 – Carlo Gambino, Sicilian-born American mafioso (d. 1976)
  • 1902 – Fernand Braudel, French historian (d. 1985)
  • 1904 – Alice White, American actress (d. 1983)
  • 1905 – Siaka Stevens, President of Sierra Leone (d. 1988)
  • 1905 – Arthur Crudup, American singer and guitarist (d. 1976)
  • 1911 – Lofty England, English automotive engineer and race team manager (d.1995)
  • 1912 – Durward Kirby, American television personality (d. 2000)
  • 1915 – James Tiptree, Jr., American writer (d. 1987)
  • 1916 – Hal Smith, American actor (d. 1994)
  • 1916 – Léo Ferré, French composer and singer (d. 1993)
  • 1917 – Dennis James, American game show host (d. 1997)
  • 1918 – Sikander Bakht, Governor of Kerala (d. 2004)
  • 1922 – René Lévesque, Premier of Quebec (d. 1987)
  • 1922 – Howard Zinn, American historian and activist
  • 1923 – Arthur Jensen, American psychologist
  • 1927 – Harry Markowitz, American economist, Nobel laureate
  • 1929 – Yasser Arafat, Palestinian leader (d. 2004)
  • 1934 – Kenny Baker, English actor
  • 1936 – A. S. Byatt, English novelist
  • 1936 – Kenny Guinn, American Governor, Nevada
  • 1937 – Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola, Nigerian politician (d. 1998)
  • 1938 – Halldór Blöndal, Icelandic politician
  • 1938 – David Freiberg, American bassist (Quicksilver Messenger Service and Jefferson Starship)
  • 1938 – Mason Williams, American guitarist and composer
  • 1940 – Francine Lalonde, Quebec politician
  • 1942 – Max Cleland, American politician
  • 1942 – Howard Jacobson, British novelist and newspaper columnist
  • 1943 – John Cipollina, American guitarist (Quicksilver Messenger Service) (d. 1989)
  • 1943 – Pini Zahavi, Israeli football agent
  • 1944 – Bill Goldsworthy, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1996)
  • 1944 – Gregory Jarvis, American astronaut (d. 1986)
  • 1945 – Ken Hensley, English musician (Uriah Heep)
  • 1945 – Vince McMahon, American professional wrestling promoter
  • 1947 – Paulo Coelho, Brazilian author
  • 1947 – Roger De Vlaeminck, Belgian cyclist
  • 1947 – Vladimir Masorin, Russian admiral
  • 1947 – Anne Archer, American Actress
  • 1948 – Jean-Michel Jarre, French musician
  • 1948 – Kim Sung-Il, Chief of Staff of Republic of Korea Air Force
  • 1949 – Joe Regalbuto, American actor
  • 1949 – Charles Rocket, American actor (d. 2005)
  • 1950 – Tim White, American anthropologist
  • 1951 – Orson Scott Card, American writer
  • 1951 – Oscar Hijuelos, Pulitzer Prize winning author
  • 1952 – Mike Shanahan, American football coach
  • 1953 – Ron Holloway, American tenor saxophonist
  • 1954 – Alain Daigle, French Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1955 – Mike Huckabee, Governor/Presidential candidate
  • 1956 – John Culberson, American politician
  • 1956 – Dick Lee, Singaporean singer-songwriter
  • 1957 – Jeffrey Daniel, American dancer and singer (Shalamar)
  • 1957 – Stephen Fry, English comedian and actor
  • 1958 – Steve Guttenberg, American actor
  • 1958 – Tracy Harris, American artist
  • 1958 – Chris Offutt, American author
  • 1959 – Linda Bollea, Wife of Professional wrestler Hulk Hogan
  • 1960 – Cal Ripken, Jr., American baseball player
  • 1960 – Kim Christofte, Danish footballer
  • 1960 – Takashi Miike, Japanese filmmaker
  • 1962 – Craig Kilborn, American talk show host
  • 1962 – David Koechner, American actor
  • 1963 – John Bush, American singer (Anthrax)
  • 1963 – Hideo Kojima, Japanese video game director
  • 1964 – Salizhan Sharipov, Russian cosmonaut
  • 1965 – Marlee Matlin, American actress
  • 1965 – Brian Rajadurai, Sri Lankan cricketer
  • 1965 – Reggie Miller, American basketball player
  • 1967- Michael Thomas, English Footballer
  • 1968 – Shoichi Funaki, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1968 – Andreas Kisser, Brazilian guitarist (Sepultura)
  • 1968 – Benoit Brunet, French Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1970 – Tugay Kerimoglu, Turkish footballer
  • 1971 – Pierfrancesco Favino, Italian actor
  • 1972 – Jean-Luc Brassard, Canadian freestyle skier
  • 1973 – Dave Chappelle, American actor and Comedian
  • 1973 – Inge de Bruijn, Dutch swimmer
  • 1973 – Carmine Giovinazzo, American actor
  • 1973 – Andrew Brunette, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1974 – Jennifer Lien, American actress
  • 1975 – Mark de Vries, Surinamese-Dutch footballer
  • 1976 – Nordin Wooter, Dutch footballer
  • 1977 – Denílson, Brazilian footballer
  • 1977 – Robert Enke, German footballer
  • 1977 – Per Gade, Danish footballer
  • 1977 – John Green, American author
  • 1977 – Jürgen Macho, Austrian footballer
  • 1978 – Rafael Furcal, Dominican baseball player
  • 1978 – Derek Morris, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1979 – Michael Redd, American basketball player
  • 1979 – Elva Hsiao, Taiwanese singer
  • 1980 – Sonja Bennett, Canadian actress
  • 1980 – Michael Keohane, Irish racing driver
  • 1981 – Chad Michael Murray, American actor
  • 1981 – Jiro Wang Dong Cheng, Taiwanese singer, actor
  • 1983 – Marcel Goc, German ice hockey player
  • 1983 – Christopher Parker, British actor
  • 1987 – Jon Scheyer, American basketball player
  • 1987 – Anže Kopitar, Slovenian ice hockey player
  • 1988 – Rupert Grint, English actor
  • 1995 – Runa Tsukishima, Japanese child model
  • 2003 – Alexandre Coste, son of Albert II, Prince of Monaco

August 24 – Deaths:

  • 79 – Pliny the Elder, Roman writer and naturalist (b. 23)
  • 1042 – Michael V, Byzantine Emperor) (b. 1015)
  • 1103 – King Magnus III of Norway (b. 1073)
  • 1217 – Eustace the Monk, French mercenary and pirate (bc. 1170)
  • 1540 – Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola, Italian painter (b. 1503)
  • 1542 – Gasparo Contarini, Italian diplomat and cardinal (b. 1483)
  • 1572 – Victims of the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre:
    • 1572 – Gaspard de Coligny, French Huguenot leader (b. 1519)
    • 1572 – Pierre de la Ramée, French humanist (b. 1515)
    • 1572 – Charles de Téligny, French Huguenot soldier (b. 1535)
    • 1595 – Thomas Digges, English astronomer (b. 1546)
    • 1647 – Nicholas Stone, English sculptor and architect (b. 1586)
    • 1664 – Maria Cunitz, Silesian astronomer (bc. 1610)
    • 1679 – Jean François Paul de Gondi, cardinal de Retz, French churchman and agitator (b. 1614)
    • 1680 – Thomas Blood, Irish-born thief of the British crown jewels (b. 1618)
    • 1683 – John Owen, English non-conformist theologian (b. 1616)
    • 1759 – Ewald Christian von Kleist, German poet (b. 1715)
    • 1779 – Saint Cosmas of Aetolia, Greek Orthodox martyr (b. 1714)
    • 1798 – Thomas Alcock, English clergyman (b. 1709)
    • 1831 – August von Gneisenau, Prussian field marshal (b. 1760)
    • 1832 – Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, French mathematician (b. 1796)
    • 1841 – Theodore Edward Hook, English author (b. 1788)
    • 1888 – Rudolf Clausius, German physicist (b. 1822)
    • 1921 – Nikolay Gumilyov, Russian poet (b. 1886)
    • 1940 – Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, German television pioneer (b. 1860)
    • 1943 – Simone Weil, French philosopher and social activist (b. 1909)
    • 1946 – James Clark McReynolds, U.S. Supreme Court justice (b. 1862)
    • 1954 – Getúlio Vargas, President of Brazil (b. 1882)
    • 1956 – Kenji Mizoguchi, Japanese film director (b. 1898)
    • 1958 – Paul Henry, Northern Irish artist (b. 1876)
    • 1967 – Henry J. Kaiser, American industrialist (b. 1882)
    • 1967 – Lam Bun, Hong Kong radio commentator (murdered) (b. 1930)
    • 1974 – Alexander de Seversky, Russian-American aviation pioneer (b. 1894)
    • 1977 – Buddy O’Connor, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1916)
    • 1978 – Louis Prima, American band leader (b. 1910)
    • 1979 – Hanna Reitsch, German test pilot (b. 1912)
    • 1979 – Sampson Sievers, Russian Orthodox Christian monk and wonder-worker (b. 1898)
    • 1980 – Yootha Joyce, British actress (b. 1927)
    • 1982 – Félix-Antoine Savard, French Canadian catholic priest and novelist (b. 1896)
    • 1985 – Paul Creston, American composer (b. 1906)
    • 1987 – Malcolm Kirk, wrestler (b. 1936)
    • 1990 – Sergei Dovlatov, Russian writer (b. 1941)
    • 1990 – Gailli AbedElrhman, Sudanese writer (b. 1931)
    • 1991 – Bernard Castro, Italian inventor (b. 1904)
    • 1995 – Alfred Eisenstaedt, German-born photographer (b. 1898)
    • 1998 – E.G. Marshall, American actor (b. 1910)
    • 1999 – Alexandre Lagoya, Greek-Italian classical guitarist (b. 1929)
    • 2001 – Jane Greer, American actress (b. 1924)
    • 2002 – Nikolay Guryanov Russian Orthodox Christian mystic and priest (b. 1909)
    • 2003 – Sir Wilfred Thesiger, British explorer (b. 1910)
    • 2004 – Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, Swiss-born psychiatrist (b. 1926)
    • 2005 – Kaleth Morales, Colombian Vallenato singer (b. 1984)
    • 2006 – Léopold Simoneau, French Canadian tenor (b. 1916)
    • 2006 – Cristian Nemescu, Romanian film director (b.1979)
    • 2007 – Andrée P. Boucher, Mayor of Quebec City (b. 1937)

August 24-Holidays

  • Mundus patet: a harvest feast involving the dead.
  • Ukraine: National holiday, independence from the Soviet Union (1991).

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On This Day in History August 23

August 23 – Events:

  • 79 – Mount Vesuvius begins stirring, on the feast day of Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.
  • 1305 – William Wallace, Scottish patriot, is executed for high treason by Edward I of England.
  • 1328 – Battle of Cassel: French troops stop an uprising of Flemish farmers.
  • 1541 – French explorer Jacques Cartier lands near Quebec City in his third voyage to Canada.
  • 1555 – Calvinists are granted rights in the Netherlands.
  • 1595 – Michael the Brave confronts the Ottoman army in the Battle of Calugareni.
  • 1708 – Meidingnu Pamheiba is crowned King of Manipur.
  • 1775 – King George III declares the American colonies exist in a state of open and avowed rebellion.
  • 1784 – Western North Carolina (now eastern Tennessee) declares itself an independent state under the name of Franklin; it wasn’t accepted into the United States, and only lasted for four years.
  • 1793 – French Revolution: a levée en masse was decreed by the National Convention.
  • 1799 – Napoleon leaves Egypt for France en route to seize power.
  • 1813 – At the Battle of Grossbeeren, the Prussians under Von Bülow repulse the French army.
  •  1833 – Slavery abolished in the British colonies.
  • 1839 – The United Kingdom captures Hong Kong as a base as it prepares to war with Qing China. The ensuing 3-year conflict will later be known as the First Opium War.
  • 1864 – The Union Navy captures Fort Morgan, Alabama, thus breaking Confederate dominance of all ports on the Gulf of Mexico.
  • 1866 – Austro-Prussian War ends with the Treaty of Prague.
  • 1889 – First wireless message from a ship to the shore received.
  • 1896 – First Cry of the Philippine Revolution is made in Pugad Lawin (Quezon City), in the province of Manila.
  • 1904 – The automobile tire chain is patented.
  • 1914 – World War I: Japan declares war on Germany and bombs Qingdao, China.
  • 1914 – World War I: the Battle of Mons; the British Army begins withdrawal.
  • 1923 – Capt. Lowell Smith and Lt. John P. Richter performed the first mid-air refueling on De Havilland DH-4B, setting an endurance flight record of 37 hours.
  • 1929 – Hebron Massacre: Arab attack of the Jewish community in the British Mandate of Palestine resulted in 133 Jews killed, 67 in Hebron.
  • 1939 – World War II: Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. In a secret addition to the pact, Baltic states, Finland, Ukraine and Poland are divided between the two nations.
  • 1940 – World War II: The Germans start bombing London.
  • 1942 – World War II: Beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad.
  • 1943 – World War II: Kharkov liberated.
  • 1944 – World War II: Marseille liberated.
  • 1944 – World War II King Michael of Romania dismisses the pro-Nazi government of General Antonescu, who is arrested. Romania switches sides from the Axis to the Allies.
  • 1944 – Freckleton Air Disaster – A United States Army Air Forces B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into a school in Freckleton, England killing 61 people.
  • 1946 – Ordinance No. 46 of the British Military Government constitutes the German Land (state) of Schleswig-Holstein.
  • 1948 – World Council of Churches is formed.
  • 1952 – The Arab League is formed.
  • 1958 – Chinese Civil War: The Second Taiwan Strait crisis begins with the People’s Liberation Army’s bombardment of Quemoy.
  • 1962 – First live television connection between the United States and Europe, via the Telstar satellite.
  • 1966 – Lunar Orbiter 1 takes the first photograph of Earth from orbit around the Moon.
  • 1973 – The Intelsat communication satellite is launched.
  • 1975 – Successful Communist coup in Laos.
  • 1977 – The Gossamer Condor wins the Kremer prize for human powered flight.
  • 1979 – Soviet dancer Alexander Godunov defects to the United States.
  • 1982 – Bachir Gemayel is elected Lebanese President amidst the raging civil war.
  • 1985 – Hans Tiedge, top counter-spy of West Germany, defects to East Germany.
  • 1985 – Famous shipwreck RMS Titanic is found.
  • 1989 – Singing Revolution: two million people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania stand on the Vilnius-Tallinn road, holding hands (Baltic Way).
  • 1989 – All of Australia’s 1,645 domestic airline pilots resign after the airlines threaten to fire them and sue them over a dispute.
  • 1990 – Saddam Hussein appears on Iraqi state television with a number of Western “guests” (actually hostages) to try to prevent the Gulf War.
  • 1990 – Armenia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
  • 1990 – West Germany and East Germany announce that they will unite on October 3.
  • 1996 – Osama bin Laden issues message entitled ‘A declaration of war against the Americans occupying the land of the two holy places.’
  • 2000 – A Gulf Air Airbus A320 crashes into the Persian Gulf near Manama, Bahrain, killing 143.
  • 2000 – Nicaragua becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty. This essentially deprecated the Buenos Aires Convention treaty, because as of this date, all members of the BA Convention were also signatories to Berne.
  • 2005 – TANS Peru Flight 204 crashes near Pucallpa, Peru, killing 41.
  • 2006 – Natascha Kampusch, who was abducted at the age of 10, managed to escape from her captor Wolfgang Priklopil, after 8 years of captivity.

August 23 – Birthdays:

  • 686 – Charles Martel, grandfather of Charlemagne (d. 741)
  • 1486 – Sigismund von Herberstein, Austrian diplomat and historian (d. 1566)
  • 1524 – François Hotman, French lawyer and writer (d. 1590)
  • 1623 – Stanislaw Lubieniecki, Polish astronomer (d. 1675)
  • 1724 – Abraham Yates, American Continental Congressman (d. 1796)
  • 1741 – Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse, French explorer (d. 1788)
  • 1754 – King Louis XVI of France (d. 1793)
  • 1769 – Georges Cuvier, French biologist and statesman (d. 1832)
  • 1783 – William Tierney Clark, English civil engineer (d. 1852)
  • 1785 – Oliver Hazard Perry, U.S. naval officer (d. 1819)
  • 1805 – Anton von Schmerling, Austrian statesman (d. 1893)
  • 1814 – James Roosevelt Bayley, first Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, and the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore (d. 1877)
  • 1829 – Moritz Cantor, German mathematician (d. 1920)
  • 1836 – Marie Henriette of Austria, Queen of the Belgians (d. 1902)
  • 1843 – William Southam, Canadian newspaper publisher (d. 1932)
  • 1846 – Alexander Milne Calder, American sculptor (d. 1923)
  • 1847 – Sarah Frances Whiting, American physicist and astronomer (d. 1927)
  • 1849 – William Ernest Henley, British poet, critic, and editor (d. 1903)
  • 1852 – Arnold Toynbee, English economist and social reformer (d. 1883)
  • 1852 – Clímaco Calderón, President of Colombia. (d. 1913)
  • 1854 – Moritz Moszkowski, Polish/German composer (d. 1925)
  • 1864 – Eleftherios Venizelos, Prime Minister of Greece (d.1936)
  • 1868 – Edgar Lee Masters, American author (d. 1950)
  • 1875 – William Eccles, English radio pioneer (d. 1966)
  • 1875 – Eugene Lanceray, Russian artist (d. 1946)
  • 1880 – Alexander Grin, Russian writer (d. 1932)
  • 1883 – Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV, U.S. general (d. 1953)
  • 1884 – Will Cuppy, American humorist (d. 1949)
  • 1884 – Ogden L. Mills, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, 1927-1932 (d. 1937)
  • 1900 – Ernst Krenek, Austrian-born composer (d. 1991)
  • 1900 – Malvina Reynolds, American folk singer/songwriter (d. 1978)
  • 1901 – John Sherman Cooper, U.S. Senator from Kentucky (d. 1991)
  • 1903 – William Primrose, Scottish violist (d. 1982)
  • 1905 – Constant Lambert, British composer (d. 1951)
  • 1908 – Hannah Frank, Scottish Artist and Sculptor
  • 1910 – Giuseppe Meazza, Italian footballer (d. 1979)
  • 1911 – Birger Ruud, Norwegian athlete (d. 1998)
  • 1912 – Gene Kelly, American dancer and actor (d. 1996)
  • 1917 – Tex Williams, American singer (d. 1985)
  • 1919 – Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin, Russian mathematician (d. 1984)
  • 1921 – Kenneth Arrow, American economist, Bank of Sweden Prize winner
  • 1922 – George Kell, baseball player
  • 1922 – Jean Darling, American child actress
  • 1922 – Pierre Gauvreau, Quebec painter, television writer and producer
  • 1923 – Edgar F. Codd, English computer scientist (d. 2003)
  • 1924 – Ephraim Kishon, Israeli writer (d. 2005)
  • 1924 – Robert Solow, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1925 – Robert Mulligan, American movie and television director
  • 1927 – Dick Bruna, Dutch illustrator
  • 1928 – Marian Seldes, American actress
  • 1929 – Vera Miles, American actress
  • 1930 – Michel Rocard, Prime Minister of France
  • 1931 – Hamilton O. Smith, American microbiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or  Medicine
  • 1932 – Houari Boumedienne, President of Algeria (d. 1978)
  • 1932 – Mark Russell, American comedian, musician, and political commentator
  • 1933 – Robert Curl, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1933 – Pete Wilson, Governor of California
  • 1934 – Barbara Eden, American actress and singer
  • 1934 – Sonny Jurgensen, American football player
  • 1936 – Henry Lee Lucas, American serial killer (d. 2001)
  • 1943 – Nelson DeMille, American novelist
  • 1944 – Antonia Novello, former United States Surgeon General
  • 1946 – Keith Moon, English singer and drummer (The Who) (d. 1978)
  • 1947 – Willy Russell, British playwright
  • 1947 – David Robb, British actor
  • 1948 – Andrei Plesu, Romanian writer, essayist
  • 1948 – Daniel Ruettiger “Rudy”, University of Notre Dame football legend
  • 1949 – Katiana Balanika, Greek actress and singer
  • 1949 – Geoff Capes, English Strongman
  • 1949 – Shelley Long, American actress
  • 1949 – Rick Springfield, Australian singer and actor
  • 1951 – Akhmad Kadyrov, President of Chechnya (d. 2004)
  • 1951 – Queen Noor of Jordan
  • 1951 – Jimi Jamison, American singer (Survivor)
  • 1952 – Vicky Leandros, Greek singer and politician
  • 1953 – Bobby G, British singer (Bucks Fizz)
  • 1954 – Charles Busch, American director, writer, actor and drag queen
  • 1956 – Andreas Floer, German mathematician (d. 1991)
  • 1956 – Valgerd Svarstad Haugland, Norwegian politician
  • 1956 – Skipp Sudduth, American actor
  • 1957 – Tasos Mitropoulos, Greek footballer and politician
  • 1958 – Julio Franco, oldest regular position player in MLB history
  • 1959 – George Kalovelonis, Greek tennis player
  • 1960 – Rodney Alan Greenblat, American graphic artist
  • 1960 – Chris Potter, Canadian actor
  • 1961 – Dean DeLeo, American musician (Stone Temple Pilots)
  • 1961 – Gary Mabbutt, English footballer
  • 1962 – Martin Cauchon, Canadian politician
  • 1963 – Hans-Henning Fastrich, German field hockey player
  • 1963 – Kenny Wallace, American race car driver
  • 1963 – Park Chan-wook, Korean director and screenwriter
  • 1964 – Kong Hee, Singaporean, Founder and Senior Pastor of the City Harvest movement in Asia
  • 1965 – Roger Avary, Canadian-born screenwriter, director, and producer
  • 1966 – Rik Smits, Dutch-American basketball player
  • 1968 – Chris DiMarco, American golfer
  • 1969 – Keith Tyson, English artist
  • 1969 – Jeremy Schaap, American sportswriter
  • 1969 – Geneviève Brouillette, Quebec television and film actress
  • 1970 – Jay Mohr, American actor and comedian
  • 1970 – River Phoenix, American actor (d. 1993)
  • 1971 – Demetrio Albertini, Italian footballer
  • 1971 – BoneCrusher, American rapper
  • 1972 – Martin Grainger, English footballer
  • 1972 – Raul Casanova, Puerto Rican baseball player
  • 1974 – Ray Park, Scottish actor
  • 1974 – Shifty, American musician (Crazy Town)
  • 1974 – Benjamin Limo, Kenyan runner
  • 1974 – Christian Beranek, American graphic novelist and actor
  • 1975 – Eliza Carthy, English singer and fiddler
  • 1975 – Jarkko Ruutu, Finnish ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Scott Caan, American actor
  • 1977 – Douglas Sequeira, Costa Rican footballer
  • 1978 – Kobe Bryant, American basketball player
  • 1978 – Julian Casablancas, American musician
  • 1979 – Edgar Sosa, Mexican boxer
  • 1980 – Denny Bautista, Dominican baseball player
  • 1980 – Rex Grossman, American football player
  • 1981 – Ozzy Lusth, American Survivor contestant
  • 1981 – Stephan Loboué, Ivorian footballer
  • 1981 – Carmen Luvana, American pornographic actress.
  • 1982 – Natalie Coughlin, American swimmer
  • 1982 – YTCracker, American musician
  • 1982 – Scott Palguta, Professional soccer player
  • 1984 – Glen Johnson, English footballer
  • 1986 – Neil Cicierega, American cartoonist and musician
  • 1987 – Nikki Gil, Filipina actress, host and singer
  • 1988 – Daniel Schwaab, German footballer
  • 1995 – Eliza Pineda, Filipina child actress

August 23 – Deaths:

  • 93 – Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman Governor of Britain (b. 40)
  • 634 – Abu Bakr, Arabian caliph
  • 1106 – Magnus, Duke of Saxony
  • 1176 – Emperor Rokujo of Japan (b. 1164)
  • 1305 – William Wallace, Scottish patriot
  • 1387 – King Olav IV of Norway (b. 1370)
  • 1507 – Jean Molinet, French writer (b. 1435)
  • 1519 – Philibert Berthelier, Swiss patriot
  • 1540 – Guillaume Budé, French scholar
  • 1591 – Luis Ponce de León, Spanish poet and mystic (b. 1527)
  • 1618 – Gerbrand Adriaensz Bredero, Dutch writer (b. 1585)
  • 1628 – George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, English statesman (b. 1592)
  • 1652 – John Byron, 1st Baron Byron, English royalist politician (b. 1600)
  • 1706 – Colonel Edward Nott, Esq., British Crown Governor of Virginia (b. 1654)
  • 1723 – Increase Mather, New England Puritan minister (b. 1639)
  • 1806 – Charles Augustin de Coulomb, French physicist (b. 1736)
  • 1813 – Alexander Wilson, Scottish-born ornithologist (b. 1766)
  • 1819 – Oliver Hazard Perry, American naval officer (b. 1785)
  • 1853 – Alexander Calder, first mayor of Beaumont, Texas (b. 1806)
  • 1867 – Auguste-Marseille Barthélemy, French poet (b. 1796)
  • 1892 – Deodoro da Fonseca, 1 President of Brazil (b. 1827)
  • 1926 – Rudolph Valentino, Italian actor (b. 1895)
  • 1927 – Nicola Sacco, Italian anarchist (b. 1891)
  • 1927 – Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Italian anarchist (b. 1888)
  • 1937 – Albert Roussel, French composer (b. 1869)
  • 1955 – Reginald Tate, British actor (b. 1896)
  • 1960 – Oscar Hammerstein II, American lyricist (b. 1895)
  • 1962 – Walter Anderson, German folklorist (b. 1885)
  • 1962 – Hoot Gibson, American actor (b. 1892)
  • 1963 – Glen Gray, American jazz musician and leader of the Casa Loma Orchestra (b. 1900)
  • 1966 – Francis X. Bushman, American actor (b. 1883)
  • 1967 – Georges Berger, Belgian racing driver (b. 1918)
  • 1971 – The original Shamu, Sea World orca
  • 1974 – Roberto Assagioli, Italian psychiatrist (b. 1888)
  • 1982 – Stanford Moore, American biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1913)
  • 1987 – Didier Pironi, French racing car driver (b. 1952)
  • 1989 – Mohammed Abed Elhai, Sudanese writer and academic (b. 1944)
  • 1989 – R. D. Laing, Scottish psychiatrist (b. 1927)
  • 1990 – David Rose, American composer and orchestra leader (b. 1910)
  • 1995 – Dwayne Goettel, Canadian musician (Skinny Puppy)(b. 1964)
  • 1997 – John Kendrew, British molecular biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (b.  1917)
  • 1999 – Norman Wexler, American screenwriter (b.1926)
  • 1999 – James White, Northern Irish writer (b. 1928)
  • 2000 – John Anthony Kaiser, Roman Catholic priest (b. 1932)
  • 2001 – Kathleen Freeman, American actress (b. 1919)
  • 2001 – Peter Maas, American novelist (b. 1929)
  • 2002 – Hoyt Wilhelm, American baseball player (b. 1922)
  • 2003 – Bobby Bonds, American baseball player and manager (b. 1946)
  • 2003 – Jack Dyer, Australian rules footballer (b. 1913)
  • 2003 – John Geoghan, American Catholic priest (b. 1935)
  • 2005 – Brock Peters, American actor (b. 1927)
  • 2005 – Ninjalicious, Canadian author and urban explorer (b. 1973)
  • 2006 – Maynard Ferguson, Canadian jazz trumpeter and bandleader (b. 1928)
  • 2007 – Robert Symonds, American actor (b. 1926)

August 23 – Holidays:

  • Roman festivals – Vulcanalia.
  • RC Saints – Saint Rose of Lima, Philip Benitius
  • Romania – Liberation Day (1944).
  • Swaziland – Umhlanga Day.
  • Ukraine – Flag Day.

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On This Day in History August 22

August 22 – Events:

  • 392 – Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor.
  • 476 – Odoacer is named Rex italiae by his troop.
  • 565 – St. Columba reports seeing a monster in Loch Ness, Scotland.
  • 851 : The army of Erispoe, King of Brittany, defeats that of Charles the Bald, King of the Franks, near the Breton town of Jengland. Beginning of the Breton state.
  • 1138 – Battle of the Standard between Scotland and England.
  • 1485 – The Battle of Bosworth Field death of Richard III and end of the House of Plantagenet.
  • 1559 – Bartolomé Carranza, Spanish archbishop, is arrested for heresy.
  • 1639 – Madras (now Chennai), India, is founded by the British East India Company after buying a sliver of land from local Nayak rulers.
  • 1642 – Charles I calls the English Parliament traitors. Beginning of the English Civil War.
  • 1654 – Jacob Barsimson arrives in New Amsterdam. He is the first known Jewish immigrant to America.
  • 1717 – Spanish troops land on Sardinia.
  • 1770 – James Cook’s expedition lands on the east coast of Australia.
  • 1775 – King George III declares the American colonies to be in open rebellion.
  • 1780 – James Cook’s ship HMS Resolution returns to England (Cook having been killed on Hawaii during  the voyage).
  • 1791 – Beginning of the Haitian Slave Revolution in Saint-Domingue.
  • 1798 – French troops land in Kilcummin harbour, County Mayo, Ireland to aid Wolfe Tone’s United Irishmen’s Irish Rebellion.
  • 1827 – José de La Mar becomes President of Peru.
  • 1831 – Nat Turner’s slave rebellion revolt commences just after midnight in Southampton, Virginia, leading to the deaths of more than 50 whites and several hundred blacks who were killed in retaliation for the uprising.
  • 1848 – The United States annexes New Mexico.
  • 1849 – First air raid in history. Austria launched pilotless balloons against the Italian city of Venice.
  • 1851 – The first America’s Cup is won by the yacht America.
  • 1875 – The Treaty of Saint Petersburg between Japan and Russia is ratified, providing for the exchange of Sakhalin for the Kuril Islands.
  • 1864 – Twelve nations sign the First Geneva Convention. The Red Cross is formed.
  • 1901 – Cadillac Motor Company founded.
  • 1902 – Theodore Roosevelt became the first President of the United States to ride in an automobile.
  • 1902 – The German Luger becomes the official German sidearm for both World Wars.
  • 1910 – Japan illicitly annexes Korea with the signing of the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty. The name Korea was abolished and replaced with the ancient name Joseon.
  • 1911 – Theft of the Mona Lisa is discovered.
  • 1914 – World War I: In Belgium, British and German troops clash for the first time in the war.
  • 1922 – Michael Collins, Commander-in-Chief of the Irish Free State Army is shot dead during an Anti- Treaty ambush at Beal County Cork, during the Irish Civil War.
  • 1926 – Gold discovered in Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • 1932 – The BBC first experiments with television broadcasting.
  • 1941 – World War II: German troops reach Leningrad, leading to the siege of Leningrad.
  • 1942 – World War II: Brazil declared war on Germany and Italy.
  • 1944 – World War II: Thirty-two Spaniards & four French Maquis tackle a German column (1,300 men in 60 lorries, with 6 tanks & 2 self-propelled guns), at La Madeiline, France. Three Maquis are wounded, with 110 Germans killed and 200 wounded.
  • 1944 – World War II: Romania captured by the Soviet Union.
  • 1950 – Althea Gibson becomes the first black competitor in international tennis.
  • 1952 – The penal colony on Devil’s Island is permanently closed.
  • 1962 – An attempt to assassinate French president Charles de Gaulle fails.
  • 1962 – The NS Savannah, the world’s first nuclear-powered cargo ship, completes its maiden voyage.
  • 1963 – Joe Walker in X-15 test plane reaches altitude of 106 km (67 miles).
  • 1966 – Labor movements NFWA and AWOC merge to become the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC), predecessor of the United Farm Workers.
  • 1968 – Pope Paul VI arrives in Bogotá, Colombia. It is the first visit of a pope to Latin America.
  • 1971 – J. Edgar Hoover and John Mitchell announce the arrest of 20 of the Camden 28.
  • 1972 – Rhodesia is expelled by the IOC for its racist policies.
  • 1978 – The Frente Sandinista de Liberacion or FSLN occupies national palace in Nicaragua.
  • 1988 – The Perth Mint issues the first platinum coin, the koala.
  • 1989 – The first ring of Neptune is discovered.
  • 1989 – Nolan Ryan strikes out Rickey Henderson to become the first Major League Baseball pitcher to record 5,000 strikeouts.
  • 1992 – FBI HRT sniper Lon Horiuchi shoots and kills Vicki Weaver during an 11-day siege at her home at Ruby Ridge, Idaho.
  • 2003 – Alabama Chief Justice Roy Moore was suspended after refusing to comply with a federal court order to remove a rock inscribed with the Ten Commandments from the lobby of the Alabama Supreme Court building.
  • 2004 – A version of The Scream and Madonna, two paintings by Edvard Munch, are stolen at gunpoint from a museum in Oslo, Norway.
  • 2007 – The Texas Rangers rout the Baltimore Orioles 30-3, the most runs scored by a team in modern MLB history.
  • 2007 – The Storm botnet, a botnet created by the Storm Worm, sends out a record 57 million e-mails in one day

August 22 – Birthdays:

  • 1601 – Georges de Scudéry, French writer (d. 1667)
  • 1624 – Jean Renaud de Segrais, French writer (d. 1701)
  • 1647 – Denis Papin, French physicist and inventor (d. c. 1712)
  • 1679 – Pierre Guérin de Tencin, French cardinal (d. 1758)
  • 1760 – Pope Leo XII (d. 1829)
  • 1764 – Charles Percier, French architect (d. 1838)
  • 1771 – Henry Maudslay, English inventor (d. 1831)
  • 1773 – Aimé Bonpland, French explorer (d. 1858)
  • 1779 – James Kirke Paulding, American author (d. 1860)
  • 1800 – William S. Harney, U.S. general (d. 1889)
  • 1800 – Samuel David Luzzatto, Italian-Jewish scholar (d. 1865)
  • 1811 – William Kelly, American inventor (d. 1888)
  • 1822 – Virginia Clemm Poe, wife of Edgar Allan Poe (d. 1847)
  • 1827 – Ezra Butler Eddy, Canadian businessman, industrialist and politician (d. 1906)
  • 1834 – Samuel Pierpont Langley, American astronomer (d. 1906)
  • 1836 – Archibald MacNeal Willard, American artist (d. 1918)
  • 1845 – William Lewis Douglas, 42 Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1924)
  • 1848 – Melville E. Stone, American newspaper publisher (d. 1929)
  • 1854 – Milan I, King of Serbia (d. 1901)
  • 1857 – Ned Hanlon, American baseball player and manager (d. 1937)
  • 1860 – Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, German inventor (d. 1940)
  • 1860 – Eleonore of Reuss-Köstritz, tsaritsa of Bulgaria (d. 1917)
  • 1862 – Claude Debussy, French composer (d. 1918)
  • 1867 – Maximilian Bircher-Benner, Swiss physician and nutritionist (d. 1939)
  • 1873 – Alexander Bogdanov, Russian physician and philosopher (d. 1928)
  • 1874 – Max Scheler, German philosopher (d. 1928)
  • 1880 – George Herriman, American cartoonist (d. 1944)
  • 1880 – Gorch Fock, German author and poet (d. 1916)
  • 1887 – Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk, German minister of finance (d. 1977)
  • 1891 – Jacques Lipchitz, Lithuanian-born American sculptor (d. 1973)
  • 1893 – Dorothy Parker, American writer (d. 1967)
  • 1893 – Wilfred Kitching, British Salvation Army general (d. 1977)
  • 1895 – Paul Comtois, French Canadian politician (d. 1966)
  • 1900 – Sergei Ozhegov, Russian lexicographer (d. 1964)
  • 1902 – Leni Riefenstahl, German film director (d. 2003)
  • 1902 – Thomas Pelly, American politician (d. 1973)
  • 1904 – Deng Xiaoping, Premier of the People’s Republic of China (d. 1997)
  • 1908 – Henri Cartier-Bresson, French photographer (d. 2004)
  • 1909 – Julius J. Epstein, American screenwriter (d. 2000)
  • 1909 – Mel Hein, American football player (d. 1992)
  • 1909 – Lucille Ricksen, American actress (d. 1925)
  • 1913 – Bruno Pontecorvo, Italian physicist (d. 1993)
  • 1915 – Hugh Paddick, British actor (d. 2000)
  • 1915 – James Hillier, Co-inventor of the electron microscope (d. 2007)
  • 1915 – Edward Szczepanik, former Polish Prime Minister (d. 2005)
  • 1917 – John Lee Hooker, American guitarist and singer (d. 2001)
  • 1918 – Mary McGrory, American journalist (d. 2004)
  • 1920 – Ray Bradbury, American writer
  • 1920 – Denton Cooley, American heart surgeon
  • 1922 – Micheline Presle, French actress
  • 1925 – James Kirkwood, Jr., American playwright and author (d. 1989)
  • 1928 – Tinga Seisay, Sierra Leonean diplomat and pro-democracy advocate
  • 1928 – Karlheinz Stockhausen, German composer (d. 2007)
  • 1930 – Gilmar, Brazilian football player
  • 1932 – Gerald P. Carr, American astronaut
  • 1934 – Norman Schwarzkopf, U.S. general
  • 1934 – Sir Donald McIntyre, English bass-baritone
  • 1935 – E. Annie Proulx, American author
  • 1936 – Dale Hawkins, American singer and songwriter
  • 1938 – Paul Maguire, American football commentator
  • 1939 – George Reinholt, American actor
  • 1939 – Carl Yastrzemski, baseball player
  • 1940 – Valerie Harper, American actress
  • 1940 – Bill McCartney, former college football coach
  • 1941 – Bill Parcells, American football coach
  • 1942 – Ugur Mumcu, Turkish journalist and writer (d. 1993)
  • 1943 – Masatoshi Shima, Japanese computer scientist
  • 1945 – Ron Dante, American songwriter and record producer (The Archies)
  • 1945 – Erol Gelenbe, Turkish computer scientist and mathematician
  • 1947 – Cindy Williams, American actress
  • 1947 – Donna Godchaux, singer (Grateful Dead)
  • 1948 – Eleonora Brown, Italian actress
  • 1949 – Diana Nyad, American swimmer, world record holder
  • 1949 – Doug Bair, baseball player
  • 1949 – Þórarinn Eldjárn, an Icelandic writer
  • 1949 – Alfred Musema, Rwandan genocidaire
  • 1950 – Ray Burris, baseball player
  • 1952 – Peter Laughner, American singer and guitarist (Rocket From the Tombs, Pere Ubu) (d.  1977)
  • 1953 – Paul Ellering, American wrestling manager
  • 1955 – Will Shetterly, writer
  • 1955 – Chiranjeevi, Telugu film actor
  • 1956 – Paul Molitor, baseball player
  • 1957 – Steve Davis, English snooker player
  • 1958 – Colm Feore, American-born actor
  • 1958 – Lane Huffman, American professional wrestler
  • 1958 – Vernon Reid, American musician (Living Colour)
  • 1959 – Juan Croucier, American musician
  • 1959 – Pia Gjellerup, Danish politician
  • 1961 – Roland Orzabal, British musician (Tears for Fears)
  • 1961 – Debbi Peterson, American singer (The Bangles)
  • 1963 – Tori Amos, American singer/songwriter
  • 1963 – Terry Catledge, American basketball player
  • 1964 – Mats Wilander, Swedish tennis player
  • 1965 – Tom Gibis, American voice actor
  • 1966 – Eric Andolsek, American football player (d. 1992)
  • 1966 – GZA, American rapper
  • 1966 – Rob Witschge, Dutch footballer
  • 1967 – Layne Staley, American musician (Alice in Chains) (d. 2002)
  • 1967 – Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje, British actor
  • 1967 – Ant, American comedian
  • 1967 – Ty Burrell, American actor
  • 1967 – Alfred Gough, American screenwriter
  • 1967 – Yukiko Okada, Japanese singer (d. 1986)
  • 1968 – Paul Colman, Australian guitarist (Newsboys)
  • 1968 – Alexander Mostovoi, Russian footballer
  • 1968 – Horst Skoff, Austrian tennis player
  • 1968 – Rich Lowry, American magazine editor
  • 1970 – Charlie Connelly, English writer
  • 1970 – Giada De Laurentiis, Italian-born American chef and television host
  • 1971 – Richard Armitage, English actor
  • 1971 – Rick Yune, Korean American actor
  • 1972 – Steve Kline, American baseball player
  • 1972 – Okkert Brits, South African pole vaulter
  • 1972 – Max Wilson, Brazilian racing driver
  • 1973 – Kristen Wiig, American comedian
  • 1973 – Howie Dorough, American singer (Backstreet Boys)
  • 1974 – William Kucmierowski, American professional wrestler
  • 1974 – Agustín Pichot, Argentine rugby player
  • 1974 – Stefano Verderi, Italian guitarman
  • 1975 – Clint Bolton, Australian footballer
  • 1975 – Sheree Murphy, British actress
  • 1975 – Rodrigo Santoro, Brazilian actor
  • 1977 – Heiðar Helguson, Icelandic footballer
  • 1977 – Keren Cytter, Israeli visual artist
  • 1977 – Jenna Leigh Green, American actress
  • 1978 – Jeff Stinco, Canadian musician (Simple Plan)
  • 1980 – Christi Shake, American model and actress
  • 1980 – Roland Benschneider, German footballer
  • 1980 – Nicolas Macrozonaris, French-Canadian track-and-field athlete
  • 1981 – Alex Holmes, American football player
  • 1982 – Heather Campbell, Canadian writer
  • 1983 – Theo Bos, Dutch cyclist
  • 1983 – Laura Breckenridge, American actress

August 22 – Deaths:

  • 408 – Stilicho, Roman general (b. 359)
  • 1155 – Konoe, Emperor of Japan (b. 1139)
  • 1188 – Ferdinand II, King of Leon (b. 1137)
  • 1241 – Gregory IX, Italian religious leader, 178th Pope (b. c. 1143)
  • 1280 – Nicholas III, Italian religious leader, 188th Pope (b. c. 1216)
  • 1304 – John II, Count of Hainaut (b. 1247)
  • 1350 – Philip VI, King of France (b. 1293)
  • 1485 – Richard III, King of England (b. 1452)
  • 1553 – John Dudley, English admiral and politician (b. 1501)
  • 1572 – Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland (b. 1528)
  • 1584 – Jan Kochanowski, Polish writer (b. 1530)
  • 1599 – Beatrice Cenci, Italian noblewoman (b. 1577)
  • 1599 – Luca Marenzio, Italian composer (b. c. 1553)
  • 1607 – Bartholomew Gosnold, English explorer and privateer (b. 1572)
  • 1609 – Maharal of Prague, Jewish mystic and philosopher (b. 1525)
  • 1652 – Jacob De la Gardie, Swedish soldier and statesman (b. 1583)
  • 1680 – John George II, Elector of Saxony (b. 1613)
  • 1701 – John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath, English royalist statesman (b. 1628)
  • 1711 – Louis François, duc de Boufflers, French marshal (b. 1644)
  • 1752 – William Whiston, English mathematician (b. 1667)
  • 1773 – George Lyttelton, English writer and politician (b. 1709)
  • 1793 – Louis, 4th duc de Noailles, Marshal of France (b. 1713)
  • 1797 – Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser, Alsatian-born Austrian general (b. 1724)
  • 1806 – Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French artist (b. 1732)
  • 1818 – Warren Hastings, British Governor-General of India (b. 1732)
  • 1828 – Franz Joseph Gall, Austrian neuroscientist (b. 1758)
  • 1850 – Nikolaus Lenau, Austrian poet (b. 1802)
  • 1861 – Xianfeng, Emperor of China (b. 1831)
  • 1891 – Jan Neruda, Czech author (b. 1834)
  • 1903 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1830)
  • 1914 – Giacomo Radini-Tedeschi bishop of Bergamo
  • 1918 – Korbinian Brodmann, German neurologist (b. 1868)
  • 1922 – Michael Collins, Irish revolutionary (b. 1890)
  • 1926 – Charles W. Eliot, American President of Harvard University (b. 1834)
  • 1940 – Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge, English physicist, spiritualist, pioneer in wireless telegraphy (b.  1851)
  • 1942 – Michel Fokine, Russian choreographer and dancer (b. 1880)
  • 1950 – Kirk Bryan, American geologist (b. 1888)
  • 1953 – Jim Tabor, baseball player (b. 1916)
  • 1958 – Roger Martin du Gard, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1881)
  • 1965 – Ellen Church, First American airline stewardess (b. 1904)
  • 1967 – Gregory Goodwin Pincus, American endocrinologist (b. 1903)
  • 1970 – Vladimir Propp, Russian structuralist scholar (b. 1895)
  • 1973 – Louise Huff, American actress (b. 1895)
  • 1974 – Jacob Bronowski, Polish-English mathematician & TV presenter (b. 1908)
  • 1976 – Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, President of Brazil (b. 1902)
  • 1976 – Gina Bachauer, Greek pianist (b. 1913)
  • 1977 – Sebastian Cabot, English-born actor (b. 1918)
  • 1978 – Jomo Kenyatta, first President of Kenya (b. c. 1892)
  • 1979 – James T. Farrell, American novelist (b. 1904)
  • 1980 – James Smith McDonnell, American aircraft manufacturer (b. 1899)
  • 1980 – Alfred Neubauer, German racing team manager (Mercedes Benz) (b. 1891)
  • 1989 – Huey P. Newton, American activist (b. 1942)
  • 1991 – Colleen Dewhurst, Canadian actress (b. 1924)
  • 1994 – Gilles Groulx, French Canadian film director (b. 1931)
  • 2003 – Arnold Gerschwiler, Swiss-born figure skating trainer (b. 1914)
  • 2003 – Generosa Ammon, widow of Ted Ammon (b. 1956)
  • 2003 – Imperio Argentina, Argentinian singer and actress (b. 1906)
  • 2004 – Konstantin Aseev, Russian chess player (b. 1960)
  • 2004 – Daniel Petrie, Canadian-born television and movie director (b. 1920)
  • 2004 – Al Dvorin, American announcer on Elvis Presley’s shows (b. c.1923)
  • 2005 – Luc Ferrari, French composer (b. 1929)
  • 2006 – Bruce Gary, American rock drummer, producer (The Knack) (b. 1951)

August 22 – Holidays:

  • RC feasts – Mary Queen of angels, Immaculate Heart

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On This Day in History August 21

August 21-Events

  • 1192 – Minamoto Yoritomo becomes Seii Tai Shogun and the de facto ruler of Japan.
  • 1680 – Pueblo Indians capture Santa Fe from Spanish during the Pueblo Revolt.
  • 1689 – The Battle of Dunkeld in Scotland.
  • 1760 – The church (later cathedral) of “Our Lady of Candlemas of Mayagüez (Puerto Rico)” is founded, establishing the basis for the founding of the city.
  • 1770 – James Cook formally claims eastern Australia for Great Britain, naming it New South Wales.
  • 1772 – King Gustav III completes his coup d’etat by adopting a new Constitution, ending half a century of parliamentary rule in Sweden and installing him as an enlightened despot.
  • 1810 – Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, is elected Crown Prince of Sweden by the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates.
  • 1821 – Jarvis Island is discovered by the crew of the Eliza Frances.
  • 1831 – Nat Turner leads black slaves and free blacks in a rebellion.
  • 1841 – The Venetian blind is first patented in the United States by John Hampson.
  • 1842 – The city of Hobart, Tasmania, is founded.
  • 1852 – Tlingit Indians destroy Fort Selkirk, Yukon Territory.
  • 1856 – America’s first consul to Japan, Townsend Harris, arrives in Shimoda.
  • 1858 – The Lincoln-Douglas debates begin.
  • 1862 – The Vienna Stadtpark opens its gates.
  • 1863 – Lawrence, Kansas is destroyed by Confederate guerillas Quantrill’s Raiders in the Lawrence Massacre.
  • 1878 – The American Bar Association is founded.
  • 1879 – The Virgin Mary, along with St. Joseph and St. John the Evangelist reportedly appear to the people of Knock, County Mayo, Ireland.
  • 1888 – The first successful adding machine in the United States is patented by William Seward Burroughs.
  • 1911 – The Mona Lisa is stolen by a Louvre employee.
  • 1942 – World War II: The Battle of Stalingrad began.
  • 1942 – World War II: A Nazi flag is installed atop the Mount Elbrus.
  • 1942 – World War II: Allied forces involved in the Guadalcanal campaign defeated an attack by Imperial Japanese Army soldiers in the Battle of the Tenaru.
  • 1944 – Dumbarton Oaks Conference, prelude to the United Nations, begins.
  • 1959 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order proclaiming Hawaii the 50th state of the union.
  • 1963 – Xa Loi Pagoda raids: The Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces loyal to Ngo Dinh Nhu, brother of President Ngo Dinh Diem, vandalizes Buddhist pagodas across the country, arresting thousands and leaving an estimated hundreds dead.
  • 1968 – Soviet Union-dominated Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia, crushing the Prague Spring; on the same day, Nicolae Ceausescu, leader of Communist Romania, publicly condemns the Soviet maneuver, encouraging the Romanian population to arm itself against possible Soviet reprisals.
  • 1968 – James Anderson, Jr. posthumously receives the first Medal of Honor to be awarded to an African American U.S. Marine.
  • 1969 – An Australian, Michael Dennis Rohan, sets the Al-Aqsa Mosque on fire
  • 1971 – A bomb exploded in the Liberal Party campaign rally in Plaza Miranda, Manila, Philippines with several anti-Marcos political candidates injured.
  • 1976 – Operation Paul Bunyan at Panmunjeom, Korea.
  • 1983 – Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. was assassinated at the Manila International Airport (now renamed Ninoy Aquino International Airport).
  • 1986 – Carbon dioxide gas erupts from volcanic Lake Nyos in Cameroon, killing up to 1,800 people within a 20-kilometer range.
  • 1991 – Latvia declares renewal of its full independence after the occupation of Soviet Union.
  • 1991 – Coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev collapses.
  • 1993 – NASA loses contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft.
  • 2001 – NATO decides to send a peace-keeping force to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
  • 2001 – The Red Cross announces a famine is striking Tajikistan, and calls for international financial aid for Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
  • 2007 – Hurricane Dean makes its first landfall in Costa Maya, Mexico with winds at 165 mph. Dean is the first storm since Hurricane Andrew to make landfall as a Category 5.

August 21 – Birthdays:

  • 1165 – King Philip II of France (d. 1223)
  • 1535 – Shimazu Yoshihiro, Japanese samurai and warlord (d. 1619)
  • 1567 – Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva and saint (d. 1622)
  • 1597 – Roger Twysden, English antiquarian and royalist (d. 1672)
  • 1643 – King Afonso VI of Portugal (d. 1683)
  • 1660 – Hubert Gautier, French scientist and civil engineer (d. 1737)
  • 1665 – Giacomo F. Maraldi, French-Italian astronomer (d. 1729)
  • 1670 – James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, French military leader (d. 1734)
  • 1725 – Jean-Baptiste Greuze, French painter (d. 1805)
  • 1754 – William Murdoch, Scottish inventor (d. 1839)
  • 1754 – Banastre Tarleton, British soldier and politician (d. 1833)
  • 1765 – William IV of the United Kingdom (d. 1837)
  • 1789 – Augustin Louis Cauchy, French mathematician (d. 1857)
  • 1798 – Jules Michelet, French historian (d. 1874)
  • 1800 – Hiram Walden, American politician (d. 1880)
  • 1801 – Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer, Dutch politician (d. 1876)
  • 1813 – Jean Stas, Belgian chemist (d. 1891)
  • 1816 – Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, French chemist (d. 1856)
  • 1826 – Karl Gegenbaur, German anatomist (d. 1903)
  • 1872 – Aubrey Beardsley, English illustrator (d. 1898)
  • 1891 – Emiliano Mercado del Toro, World’s oldest living man 2004-2007 (d. 2007)
  • 1892 – Charles Vanel, French actor and director (d. 1989)
  • 1904 – William “Count” Basie, American bandleader (d. 1984)
  • 1906 – Friz Freleng, American movie animator (d. 1995)
  • 1908 – M. M. Kaye, British writer (d. 2004)
  • 1909 – Nikolay Bogolyubov, Russian mathematician (d. 1992)
  • 1912 – Toe Blake, National Hockey League player and coach (Montreal Canadiens) (d. 1995)
  • 1915 – Raquel Rastenni, Danish singer (d. 1998)
  • 1918 – Billy Reay, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2004)
  • 1920 – Christopher Robin Milne, inspiration for the Winnie-the-Pooh stories (d. 1996)
  • 1924 – Jack Buck, American sports announcer (d. 2002)
  • 1924 – Chris Schenkel, American sports journalist (d. 2005)
  • 1924 – Jack Weston, American actor (d. 1996)
  • 1925 – Maurice Pialat, French actor and director (d. 2003)
  • 1925 – Jorge Rafael Videla, ex-dictator of Argentina
  • 1928 – Art Farmer, American trumpet player (d. 1999)
  • 1929 – X. J. Kennedy, American poet
  • 1930 – Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (d. 2002)
  • 1930 – Frank Perry, American film director (d. 1995)
  • 1932 – Melvin Van Peebles, American actor and screenwriter
  • 1933 – Janet Baker, English mezzo-soprano
  • 1934 – Paul Panhuysen, Dutch composer, visual and sound artist
  • 1936 – Wilt Chamberlain, American basketball player (d. 1999)
  • 1936 – Radish Tordia, Painter Of Figurative Art From Georgia
  • 1938 – Kenny Rogers, American singer and actor
  • 1937 – Robert Stone, American novelist
  • 1939 – James Burton, American guitarist
  • 1939 – Clarence Williams III, American actor
  • 1939 – Festus Mogae, president of Botswana
  • 1943 – Hugh Wilson, American director, writer and actor
  • 1944 – Jackie DeShannon, American singer
  • 1944 – Peter Weir, Australian film director
  • 1944 – Perry Christie, former prime minister of the Bahamas
  • 1945 – Jerry DaVanon, baseball player
  • 1945 – Basil Poledouris, American film score composer (d. 2006)
  • 1949 – Loretta Devine, American actress
  • 1950 – Patrick Juvet, Swiss singer
  • 1951 – Eric Goles, Chilean mathematician and computer scientist
  • 1951 – Char Margolis, American medium
  • 1951 – Harry Smith, American television journalist
  • 1951 – Margo Kane, Canadian playwright.
  • 1952 – Joe Strummer, British musician and singer (The Clash) (d. 2002)
  • 1952 – Glenn Hughes, British bassist and vocalist (Finders Keepers/Trapeze/Deep Purple)
  • 1954 – Archie Griffin, former American football player and only two-time Heisman Trophy winner.
  • 1954 – Ivan Stang, American writer
  • 1956 – Kim Cattrall, English-born actress
  • 1959 – Jim McMahon, American football player
  • 1961 – David Morales, American disc jockey
  • 1961 – Stephen Hillenburg, American animator and cartoonist
  • 1962 – Jeff Stryker, American actor
  • 1963 – King Mohammed VI of Morocco
  • 1963 – Richmond Arquette, American actor
  • 1964 – Trinity Loren, American actress and model (d. 1998)
  • 1965 – Jim Bullinger, American baseball player
  • 1966 – John Wetteland, Major League Baseball player
  • 1967 – Carrie-Anne Moss, Canadian actress
  • 1967 – Serj Tankian, Armenian-born singer (System of a Down)
  • 1967 – Darren Bewick, AFL footballer
  • 1969 – Josée Chouinard, Canadian figure skater
  • 1970 – Nathan Jones, American professional wrestler
  • 1970 – Erik Dekker, Dutch cyclist
  • 1971 – Liam Howlett, British musician (The Prodigy)
  • 1971 – Matthew Noonan, American Concert Organist
  • 1971 – Robert Harvey, Australian Rules Footballer (St Kilda Football Club)
  • 1973 – Steve McKenna, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1973 – Sergey Brin, Co-founder of Google
  • 1975 – Alicia Witt, American actress
  • 1975 – Simon Katich, Australian cricketer
  • 1976 – Alex Brooks, American ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Jeff Cunningham, Jamaican American soccer player
  • 1978 – Reuben Droughns, American football player
  • 1978 – Jason Marquis, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Alan Lee, Irish footballer
  • 1978 – Lee Gronkiewicz, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Peter Buxton, English rugby union player
  • 1979 – Kelis Rogers-Jones, American singer
  • 1980 – Burney Lamar, American race car driver
  • 1981 – Andreas Glyniadakis, Greek basketball player
  • 1983 – Josh Harrington, American professional BMX rider
  • 1983 – Chantelle Houghton, British TV personality
  • 1983 – Scott McDonald, Australian footballer
  • 1984 – Neil Dexter, South African cricketer
  • 1984 – Alizée Jacotey, French singer
  • 1984 – Melissa Schuman, American actress
  • 1984 – B.J. Upton, American baseball player  
  • 1988 – Louise Setara, English singer-songwriter
  • 1988 – Paris Bennett, American singer and finalist on American Idol 5
  • 1989 – Hayden Panettiere, American actress, model and singer
  • 1996 – Jamia Simone Nash, American singer and actress

August 21 – Deaths:

  • 1157 – King Alfonso VII of Castile (b. 1104/1105)
  • 1153 – Bernard of Clairvaux, French theologian (b. 1090)
  • 1271 – Alphonse of Toulouse, son of Louis VIII of France (b. 1220)
  • 1581 – Sakuma Nobumori, Japanese retainer and samurai (b. 1527)
  • 1614 – Elizabeth Báthory, the world’s most prolific female serial killer (b. 1560)
  • 1627 – Jacques Mauduit, French composer (b. 1557)
  • 1673 – Henry Grey, 1st Earl of Stamford, English soldier
  • 1689 – William Cleland, Scottish poet and soldier
  • 1762 – Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, English writer (b. 1689)
  • 1763 – Charles Wyndham, 2nd Earl of Egremont, British statesman (b. 1710)
  • 1796 – John McKinly, American physician and President of Delaware (b. 1721)
  • 1814 – Benjamin Thompson, American physicist and inventor (b. 1753)
  • 1836 – Claude-Louis Navier, French physicist (b. 1785)
  • 1838 – Adelbert von Chamisso, German writer (b. 1781)
  • 1935 – John Hartley, English tennis player, double winner of Wimbledon (b. 1849)
  • 1940 – Leon Trotsky, Russian revolutionary (b. 1879)
  • 1940 – Ernest Lawrence Thayer, American poet (b. 1863)
  • 1940 – Hermann Obrecht, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1882)
  • 1943 – Henrik Pontoppidan, Danish writer, Nobel Prize (b. 1857)
  • 1947 – Ettore Bugatti, Italian automobile manufacturer (b. 1881)
  • 1951 – Constant Lambert, British composer and conductor (b. 1905)
  • 1957 – Harald Ulrik Sverdrup, Norwegian meteorologist and oceanographer (b. 1888)
  • 1957 – Nels Stewart, professional ice hockey player (b. 1902)
  • 1960 – David Barnard Steinman, American civil engineer and bridge designer (b. 1886)
  • 1964 – Palmiro Togliatti, Italian communist leader (b. 1893)
  • 1978 – Charles Eames, American designer and architect (b. 1907)
  • 1979 – Giuseppe Meazza, Italian footballer (b. 1910)
  • 1981 – Michael Devine, the last man to die in the 1981 Irish hunger strike (b. 1954)
  • 1982 – Sobhuza II, King of Swaziland (b. 1899)
  • 1983 – Benigno Aquino, Jr., Philippine opposition leader (b. 1932)
  • 1988 – Ray Eames, American designer, artist and architect (b. 1912)
  • 1989 – Raul Seixas, Brazilian singer (b. 1945)
  • 1995 – Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Indian-born astrophysicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1910)
  • 1997 – Yuri Nikulin, Russian clown and actor (b. 1921)
  • 2000 – Daniel Lisulo, Prime Minister of Zambia (b. 1930)
  • 2001 – Calum MacKay, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1927)
  • 2003 – Kathy Wilkes, English philosopher and aid worker (b. 1946)
  • 2003 – Wesley Willis, American musician (b. 1963)
  • 2005 – Marcus Schmuck, Austrian mountaineer (b. 1925)
  • 2005 – Robert Moog, American pioneer of electronic music (b. 1934)
  • 2005 – Dahlia Ravikovitch, Israeli poet (b. 1936)
  • 2005 – Martin Dillon, tenor, American opera singer (b. 1957)
  • 2006 – Paul Fentener van Vlissingen, Dutch businessman and philanthropist (b. 1941)
  • 2006 – Ustad Bismillah Khan, Indian musician (b. 1916)
  • 2007 – Siobhan Dowd, British/Irish writer (b. 1960)
  • 2007 – Elizabeth P. Hoisington, American Brigadier General (b. 1918)
  • 2007 – Haley Paige, American pornographic actress (b. 1981)

August 21 – Holidays:

  • Ninoy Aquino Day – special holiday in the Philippines.

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On This Day In History August 20

August 20 – Events:

  • 636 – Battle of Yarmuk: Arab forces led by Khalid bin Walid take control of Syria and Palestine away from the Byzantine Empire, marking the first great wave of Muslim conquests and the rapid advance of Islam outside Arabia.
  • 917 – Battle of Anchialus: Tsar Simeon I of Bulgaria invades Thrace and drives the Byzantines out.
  • 1000 – The foundation of the Hungarian state, Hungary is established as a Christian kingdom by Stephen I of Hungary.
  • 1391 – Konrad von Wallenrode becomes the 24th Hochmeister of the Teutonic Order.
  • 1672 – Former Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt and his brother Cornelis were brutally murdered by an angry mob in The Hague.
  • 1794 – Battle of Fallen Timbers – American troops force a confederacy of Shawnee, Mingo, Delaware, Wyandot, Miami, Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi warriors into a disorganized retreat.
  • 1804 – Lewis and Clark Expedition: The “Corps of Discovery,” exploring the Louisiana Purchase, suffers its only death when Sergeant Charles Floyd dies, apparently from acute appendicitis.
  • 1866 – President Andrew Johnson formally declared the U.S. Civil War over.
  • 1882 – Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture debuts in Moscow.
  • 1888 – Mutineers imprison Emin Pasha at Dufile.
  • 1900 – Japan’s primary school law is amended to provide for four years of mandatory schooling.
  • 1914 – World War I: German forces occupy Brussels.
  • 1920 – The first commercial radio station, 8MK (WWJ), begins operations in Detroit, Michigan.
  • 1926 – Japan’s public broadcasting company, Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) is established.
  • 1938 – Lou Gehrig hits his 23rd career grand slam – a record that still stands.
  • 1940 – Exiled Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky is fatally wounded in Mexico City by an assassin’s ice axe. He dies the next day.
  • 1944 – World War II: The Battle of Romania begins with a major Soviet offensive.
  • 1953 – The Soviet Union publicly acknowledged it had tested a hydrogen bomb.
  • 1955 – In Morocco, a force of Berbers from the Atlas Mountains region of Algeria raid two rural settlements and kill 77 French nationals.
  • 1960 – Senegal breaks from the Mali federation, declaring independence.
  • 1968 – 200,000 Warsaw Pact troops and 5,000 tanks invade Czechoslovakia to end the “Prague Spring” of political liberalization.
  • 1969 – All four Beatles were together in the recording studio for the final time as they finished the Abbey Road LP.
  • 1974 – Congress votes to reduce aid to South Vietnam from $1 Billion to $700 Million. Majority of the cuts were for military supplies.
  • 1975 – Viking Program: NASA launches the Viking 1 planetary probe toward Mars.
  • 1977 – Voyager Program: The United States launches the Voyager 2 spacecraft.
  • 1979 – The East Coast Main Line rail route between England and Scotland is restored when the Penmanshiel Diversion opens.
  • 1982 – Lebanese Civil War: A multinational force lands in Beirut to oversee the PLO withdrawal from Lebanon.
  • 1986 – In Edmond, Oklahoma, U.S. Postal employee Patrick Sherrill guns down 14 of his co-workers and then commits suicide.
  • 1988 – “Black Saturday” of the Yellowstone fire in Yellowstone National Park
  • 1988 – Peru becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.
  • 1988 – Iran-Iraq War: A cease-fire is agreed to after almost eight years of war.
  • 1991 – Collapse of the Soviet Union, August Coup: More than 100,000 people rally outside the Soviet Union’s parliament building protesting the coup aiming to depose President Mikhail  Gorbachev.
  • 1991 – Estonia secedes from the Soviet Union.
  • 1993 – After rounds of secret negotiations in Norway, the Oslo Peace Accords were signed,  followed by a public ceremony in Washington, D.C. the next month.
  • 1997 – Souhane massacre in Algeria; over 60 people killed, 15 kidnapped.
  • 1998 – The Supreme Court of Canada states Quebec cannot legally secede from Canada without the federal government’s approval.
  • 2002 – A group of Iraqis opposed to the regime of Saddam Hussein took over the Iraqi Embassy in Berlin for five hours before releasing their hostages and giving up.

August 20 – Birthdays:

  • 1517 – Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, French church leader (d. 1586)
  • 1561 – Jacopo Peri, Italian composer (d. 1633)
  • 1625 – Thomas Corneille, French dramatist (d. 1709)
  • 1632 – Louis Bourdaloue, French Jesuit preacher (d. 1704)
  • 1710 – Thomas Simpson, British mathematician (d. 1761)
  • 1719 – Christian Mayer, Czech astronomer (d. 1783)
  • 1719 – Charles-François de Broglie, marquis de Ruffec, French soldier and diplomat (d. 1791)
  • 1776 – Bernardo O’Higgins, South American revolutionary (d. 1842)
  • 1779 – Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Swedish chemist (d. 1848)
  • 1833 – Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President of the United States (d. 1901)
  • 1845 – St. Albert Chmielowski, Polish Catholic Saint (d. 1916)
  • 1847 – Boleslaw Prus, Polish writer (d. 1912)
  • 1856 – Jakub Bart-Cišinski, Sorbian writer (d. 1909)
  • 1860 – Raymond Poincaré, French statesman (d. 1934)
  • 1873 – Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen, Finnish architect (d. 1950)
  • 1881 – Edgar Guest, English poet (d. 1959)
  • 1890 – H. P. Lovecraft, American writer (d. 1937)
  • 1897 – Tarjei Vesaas, Norwegian writer (d. 1970)
  • 1898 – Vilhelm Moberg, Swedish author and historian (d. 1973)
  • 1901 – Salvatore Quasimodo, Italian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1968)
  • 1905 – Jean Gebser, German-born author, linguist, and poet (d. 1973)
  • 1905 – Jack Teagarden, American musician (d. 1964)
  • 1908 – Al Lopez, baseball player and manager (d. 2005)
  • 1910 – Eero Saarinen, Finnish architect (d. 1961)
  • 1913 – Roger Wolcott Sperry, American neurobiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology  or Medicine (d. 1994)
  • 1916 – Paul Felix Schmidt, Estonian–German chess player (d. 1984)
  • 1918 – Jacqueline Susann, American novelist (d. 1974)
  • 1923 – Jim Reeves, American singer (d. 1964)
  • 1926 – Nobby Wirkowski, American and Canadian football player and coach
  • 1927 – Geriatric1927, English video blogger
  • 1927 – Yootha Joyce, English actress (d. 1980)
  • 1930 – Mario Bernardi, Canadian conductor
  • 1932 – Anthony Ainley, British actor (d. 2004)
  • 1932 – Vasily Aksyonov, Russian novelist
  • 1933 – George J. Mitchell, former United States Senator
  • 1934 – Armi Kuusela, Finnish beauty queen
  • 1936 – Hideki Shirakawa, Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1937 – Andrei Konchalovsky, Russian film director
  • 1937 – El Fary, Spanish singer and actor (d. 2007)
  • 1937 – Jim Bowen, English comedian
  • 1938 – Alain Vivien, French politician
  • 1939 – Fernando Poe Jr., Filipino actor and presidential candidate (d. 2004)
  • 1940 – Rubén Hinojosa, American politician
  • 1941 – Slobodan Miloševic, President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia (d. 2006)
  • 1941 – Rich Brooks, American football coach
  • 1941 – Robin Oakley, British journalist
  • 1941 – Jo Ramirez, Mexican motor racing team manager and author
  • 1942 – Isaac Hayes, American singer, songwriter, and actor
  • 1942 – Fred Norman, American baseball player
  • 1943 – Sylvester McCoy, Scottish actor
  • 1944 – Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (d. 1991)
  • 1946 – Connie Chung, American journalist
  • 1946 – Ralf Hütter, German musician (Kraftwerk)
  • 1946 – N.R. Narayana Murthy, Indian businessman
  • 1947 – Alan Lee, English conceptual artist
  • 1948 – Robert Plant, English singer (Led Zeppelin)
  • 1948 – John Noble, Australian actor
  • 1949 – Phil Lynott, Irish musician (d. 1986)
  • 1949 – Nikolas Asimos, Greek composer and singer (d. 1988)
  • 1951 – Greg Bear, American author
  • 1952 – John Hiatt, American musician
  • 1952 – Doug Fieger, American musician (The Knack)
  • 1954 – Tawn Mastrey, American disc jockey, music video producer (d. 2007)
  • 1954 – Al Roker, American television broadcaster
  • 1954 – Don Stark, American actor
  • 1955 – Agnes Chan, Hong Kong singer and writer
  • 1956 – Joan Allen, American actress
  • 1957 – Finlay Calder, Scottish rugby player
  • 1961 – Greg Egan, Australian author
  • 1961 – Joe Pasquale, English comedian
  • 1962 – Sophie Aldred, English actress
  • 1962 – James Marsters, American actor
  • 1962 – Dong-Wook Song, South Korean tennis player
  • 1965 – KRS-One, American rapper
  • 1966 – Dimebag Darrell, American guitarist (Pantera and Damageplan) (d. 2004)
  • 1967 – Andy Benes, baseball player
  • 1967 – Colin Cunningham, American actor
  • 1967 – Terri Poch, American yogini and former professonal wrestler
  • 1968 – Klas Ingesson, former Swedish footballer
  • 1968 – Yuri Shiratori, Japanese voice actress and singer
  • 1969 – Duke Droese, American professional wrestler
  • 1970 – John D. Carmack, American computer game programmer
  • 1970 – Fred Durst, American singer (Limp Bizkit)
  • 1971 – Brad Avery, American musician (guitarist for Third Day)
  • 1971 – Jonathan Ke Quan, Vietnamese American actor
  • 1971 – Steve Stone, English footballer
  • 1971 – David Walliams, British comedian
  • 1973 – Todd Helton, baseball player
  • 1974 – Amy Adams, American actress
  • 1974 – Big Moe, American rapper (d. 2007)
  • 1974 – Maxim Vengerov, Russian violinist
  • 1975 – Marcus Mastin, American author
  • 1975 – Andy Strachan, Australian musician (The Living End)
  • 1976 – Chris Drury, American hockey player
  • 1977 – Felipe Contepomi, Argentine rugby player
  • 1977 – Manuel Contepomi, Argentine rugby player
  • 1977 – Ivar Ingimarsson, Icelandic footballer
  • 1977 – Mayra Veronica, Cuban model and actress
  • 1979 – Cory Sullivan, baseball player
  • 1980 – Rochelle Gadd, British actress
  • 1980 – Corey Carrier, American actor
  • 1981 – Bernard Mendy, French footballer
  • 1982 – Joshua Kennedy, Australian footballer
  • 1982 – Youssouf Hersi, Ethiopian footballer
  • 1982 – Cléber Luis Alberti, Brazilian footballer
  • 1984 – Mirai Moriyama, Japanese actor
  • 1986 – Robert Clark, Canadian actor
  • 1987 – Catalina Ponor, Romanian gymnast
  • 2003 – Prince Gabriel of Belgium

August 20 – Deaths:

  • 535 – Mochta of Louth, disciple of St. Patrick
  • 984 – Pope John XIV
  • 1384 – Geert Groote, Dutch founder of the Brethren of the Common Life (b. 1340)
  • 1572 – Miguel López de Legazpi, Spanish conquistador (b. 1502)
  • 1580 – Jeronymo Osorio, Portuguese historian (b. 1506)
  • 1611 – Tomás Luis de Victoria, Spanish composer (b. 1548)
  • 1639 – Martin Opitz von Boberfeld, German poet (b. 1597)
  • 1643 – Anne Hutchinson, English Puritan preacher (b. 1591)
  • 1648 – Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, English diplomat, poet, and philosopher (b. 1583)
  • 1672 – Johan de Witt, Dutch politician (b. 1625)
  • 1672 – Cornelis de Witt, Dutch politician (b. 1623)
  • 1680 – William Bedloe, English informer (b. 1650)
  • 1701 – Charles Sedley, English playwright (b. 1639)
  • 1707 – Nicolas Gigault, French organist and composer (b. 1627)
  • 1773 – Enrique Florez, Spanish historian (b. 1701)
  • 1811 – Louis Antoine de Bougainville, French explorer (b. 1729)
  • 1823 – Pope Pius VII (b. 1740)
  • 1825 – William Waldegrave, 1st Baron Radstock, Governor of Newfoundland (b. 1753)
  • 1887 – Jules Laforgue, French poet (b. 1860)
  • 1904 – René Waldeck-Rousseau, French statesman (b. 1846)
  • 1912 – William Booth, English founder of the Salvation Army (b. 1829)
  • 1914 – Pope Pius X (b. 1835)
  • 1915 – Paul Ehrlich, German scientist, Nobel laureate (b. 1854)
  • 1917 – Adolf von Baeyer, German chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 1835)
  • 1959 – William Halsey, Jr, American admiral (b. 1882)
  • 1930 – Charles Bannerman, Australian cricketer (b. 1851)
  • 1961 – Percy Williams Bridgman, American physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1882)
  • 1965 – Jonathan Myrick Daniels, Civil Rights Martyr (b. 1939)
  • 1971 – Rashid Minhas, Pakistani Air Force pilot (b. 1951)
  • 1980 – Joe Dassin, American singer (b. 1938)
  • 1982 – Ulla Jacobsson, Swedish actress (b. 1929)
  • 1986 – Milton Acorn, Canadian poet (b. 1923)
  • 1989 – George Adamson, India-born English game warden and lion expert (b. 1906)
  • 1993 – Bernard Delfgaauw, Dutch philosopher (b. 1912)
  • 1997 – Norris Bradbury, American physicist (b. 1909)
  • 1997 – Léon Dion, French-Canadian political scientist (b. 1922)
  • 1998 – Raquel Rastenni, Danish singer (b. 1915)
  • 2001 – Sir Fred Hoyle, English astronomer and science fiction writer (b. 1915)
  • 2001 – Kim Stanley, American actress (b. 1925)
  • 2005 – Thomas Herrion, American football player (b. 1981)
  • 2005 – Krzysztof Raczkowski, Polish drummer (b. 1970)
  • 2006 – Claude Blanchard, French-Canadian singer, comedian and actor (b. 1932)
  • 2006 – Joe Rosenthal, American photographer (b. 1911)
  • 2006 – Cpl Bryan Budd VC, British soldier (Afghanistan) (b. 1977)
  • 2007 – Leona Helmsley, American hotel operator and real estate investor (b. 1920)

August 20 – Holidays:

  • World Union – World Union Day.
  • Roman Catholic saints – Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
  • Hungary – St. Stephen’s day, the main national holiday in Hungary.

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On This Day in History August 19

August 19 – Events:

  • 43 BC – Octavian, later known as Augustus, compels the senate to elect him Consul.
  • 1504 – Battle of Knockdoe.
  • 1561 – An 18-year-old Mary Queen of Scots returns to Scotland, after spending 13 years in France.
  • 1692 – Salem witch trials: In Salem, Massachusetts, Province of Massachusetts Bay five people, one woman and four men, including a clergyman, are executed after being convicted of witchcraft.
  • 1745 – Jacobite Rising, Prince Charles Edward Stuart lands from a French warship in Glenfinnan, raises his standard and marches on London – the start of the Second Jacobite Rebellion known as “the 45.”
  • 1768 – Saint Isaac’s Cathedral is founded in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
  • 1782 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Blue Licks – The last major engagement of the war, almost ten months after the surrender of the British commander Lord Cornwallis following the Siege of Yorktown.
  • 1812 – War of 1812: American frigate USS Constitution defeats the British frigate HMS Guerrière off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada earning her nickname “Old Ironsides.”
  • 1813 – Gervasio Antonio de Posadas joins Argentina’s second triumvirate.
  • 1839 – Presentation of Jacque Daguerre’s new photographic process to the French Academy of Sciences.
  • 1848 – California Gold Rush: The New York Herald breaks the news to the East Coast of the United States of the gold rush in California (although the rush started in January).
  • 1862 – Indian Wars: During an uprising in Minnesota, Lakota warriors decide not to attack heavily-defended Fort Ridgely and instead turn to the settlement of New Ulm, killing white settlers along the way.
  • 1895 – American frontier murderer and outlaw, John Wesley Hardin, is killed by an off-duty policeman in a saloon in El Paso, Texas.
  • 1915 – World War I: The Battle of Van begins
  • 1919 – Afghanistan gains full independence from the United Kingdom.
  • 1927 – Metropolitan Sergius proclaimed the declaration of loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet state.
  • 1934 – The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio.
  • 1934 – The creation of the position Führer approved by the German electorate with 89.9% of the popular vote.
  • 1942 – World War II: Operation Jubilee – The 2nd Canadian Infantry Division leads an allied forces amphibious assault on Dieppe, France.
  • 1944 – World War II: Liberation of Paris – Paris rises against German occupation with the help of Allied troops.
  • 1945 – Vietnam War: Viet Minh led by Ho Chi Minh take power in Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • 1955 – In the Northeast United States, severe flooding caused by Hurricane Diane, claims 200 lives.
  • 1960 – Cold War: In Moscow, downed American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to ten years imprisonment by the Soviet Union for espionage.
  • 1960 – Sputnik program: Sputnik 5 – The Soviet Union launches the satellite with the dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants.
  • 1965 – Japanese prime minister Eisaku Sato becomes the first post-World War II sitting prime minister to visit Okinawa.
  • 1975 – The cricket test match between England and Australia is called off after the pitch is vandalized by supporters of George Davis.
  • 1980 – Saudia Flight 163, a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar burns after making an emergency landing at King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, killing 301 people.
  • 1981 – Gulf of Sidra Incident: United States fighters intercept and shoot down two Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 fighter jets over the Gulf of Sidra.
  • 1987 – Hungerford Massacre: In the United Kingdom, Michael Ryan kills sixteen people with an assault rifle and then commits suicide.
  • 1989 – Polish president Wojciech Jaruzelski nominates Solidarity activist Tadeusz Mazowiecki to be the first non-communist Prime Minister in 42 years.
  • 1989 – Raid on offshore pirate station, Radio Caroline in North Sea by British and Dutch governments.
  • 1990 – Leonard Bernstein conducts his final concert, ending with Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 7.
  • 1991 – Collapse of the Soviet Union, August Coup: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev placed under house arrest while on holiday in the town of Foros, Crimea.
  • 1991 – Hurricane Bob hits the Northeast.
  • 1997 – The Teamsters end their 15-day walkout against United Parcel Service.
  • 1999 – In Belgrade, tens of thousands of Serbians rally to demand the resignation of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia President Slobodan Miloševic.
  • 2002 – A Russian Mi-26 helicopter carrying troops is hit by a Chechen missile outside of Grozny, killing 118 soldiers.
  • 2003 – A car-bomb attack on United Nations headquarters in Iraq kills the agency’s top envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello and 21 other employees.
  • 2003 – A Hamas planned suicide attack on a bus in Jerusalem kills 23 Israelis, 7 of them children in the Jerusalem bus 2 massacre.
  • 2005 – The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins.
  • 2005 – A series of strong storms lash Southern Ontario spawning several tornadoes as well as creating extreme flash flooding within the city of Toronto and its surrounding communities.

August 19 – Birthdays:

  • 1342 – Katharine of Bohemia, Duchess of Bavaria (d. 1395)
  • 1398 – Marqués de Santillana, Spanish poet (d. 1458)
  • 1557 – Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1608)
  • 1590 – Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, English soldier (d. 1649)
  • 1596 – Elizabeth Stuart, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (d. 1662)
  • 1621 – Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Dutch painter (d. 1674)
  • 1631 – John Dryden, English poet (d. 1700)
  • 1646 – John Flamsteed, English astronomer (d. 1719)
  • 1686 – Eustace Budgell, English writer (d. 1737)
  • 1686 – Nicola Porpora, Italian composer (d. 1768)
  • 1689 – Samuel Richardson, English writer (d. 1761)
  • 1711 – Edward Boscawen, British admiral (d. 1761)
  • 1743 – Madame du Barry, French courtesan (d. 1793)
  • 1846 – Luis Martín, Spanish Superior-General of the Society of Jesus (d. 1906)
  • 1853 – Aleksei Brusilov, Russian general (d. 1926)
  • 1870 – Bernard Baruch, American financier (d. 1965)
  • 1871 – Orville Wright, American aviation pioneer (d. 1948)
  • 1875 – Stjepan Seljan, Croatian explorer (d. 1936)
  • 1878 – Manuel Quezon, President of the Philippines (d. 1944)
  • 1881 – George Enescu, Romanian composer (d. 1955)
  • 1883 – José Mendes Cabeçadas, 95 Prime Minister of Portugal and 9 President of Portugal (d.  1965)
  • 1883 – Coco Chanel, French clothing designer (d. 1971)
  • 1883 – Elsie Ferguson, American film actress (d. 1961)
  • 1892 – Alfred Lunt, American actor (d. 1977)
  • 1896 – Olga Baclanova, Russian-born actress (d. 1974)
  • 1899 – Charlie Hall, English comedian actor (d. 1959)
  • 1900 – Gilbert Ryle, British philosopher (d. 1976)
  • 1902 – Ogden Nash, American poet (d. 1971)
  • 1903 – James Gould Cozzens, American novelist (d. 1978)
  • 1906 – Philo Farnsworth, American inventor (d. 1971)
  • 1907 – Thruston B. Morton, American politician (d. 1982)
  • 1912 – Austin Dobson, British racing driver (d. 1963)
  • 1913 – Richard Simmons, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1913 – John Argyris, Greek aeronautical engineer, one of the creators of the Finite Element Method (d. 2004)
  • 1914 – Lajos Baróti, Hungarian footballer (d. 2005)
  • 1915 – Ring Lardner Jr, American journalist and screenwriter (d. 2000)
  • 1915 – Alfred Rouleau, French Canadian businessman and administrator (Desjardins Group) (d.  1985)
  • 1919 – Malcolm Forbes, American publisher (d. 1990)
  • 1921 – Gene Roddenberry, American television producer (d. 1991)
  • 1925 – Claude Gauvreau, Canadian playwright (d. 1971)
  • 1926 – Arthur Rock, American venture capitalist
  • 1928 – Bernard Levin, English journalist, author, and broadcaster (d. 2004)
  • 1928 – Norman Brooks, Canadian singer (d. 2006)
  • 1930 – Frank McCourt, Irish-American author
  • 1931 – Willie Shoemaker, American jockey (d. 2003)
  • 1934 – Renee Richards, American physician
  • 1935 – Bobby Richardson, American baseball player
  • 1938 – Diana Muldaur, American actress
  • 1939 – Ginger Baker, English drummer (Cream)
  • 1940 – Johnny Nash, American singer-songwriter
  • 1940 – Jill St. John, American actress
  • 1942 – Fred Thompson, American politician and actor
  • 1943 – Billy J. Kramer, British singer
  • 1944 – Bodil Malmsten, Swedish writer
  • 1944 – Charles Wang, Chinese-born philanthropist
  • 1945 – Ian Gillan, English singer (Deep Purple)
  • 1946 – Bill Clinton, Former American president
  • 1946 – Beat Raaflaub, Swiss conductor
  • 1946 – Dawn Steel, American film producer (d. 1997)
  • 1947 – Dave Dutton, English actor
  • 1947 – Terry Hoeppner, American football coach (d. 2007)
  • 1947 – Gerard Schwarz, American conductor
  • 1948 – Gerald McRaney, American actor
  • 1948 – Tipper Gore, Second Lady of the United States
  • 1950 – Jennie Bond, British journalist
  • 1951 – John Deacon, English musician (Queen)
  • 1952 – Jonathan Frakes, American actor and director
  • 1953 – Nanni Moretti, Italian film actor, director and producer
  • 1953 – Mary Matalin, US political consultant and commentator
  • 1954 – Oscar Larrauri, Argentine racing driver
  • 1955 – Peter Gallagher, American actor
  • 1955 – Ned Yost, American baseball player and manager
  • 1956 – Adam Arkin, American actor
  • 1957 – Li-Young Lee, Indonesia-born American poet
  • 1958 – Anthony Muñoz, American football player
  • 1958 – Gary Gaetti, American baseball player
  • 1958 – Brendan Nelson, Australian politician
  • 1959 – Susan Cummings, Monegasque-born American heiress and convicted murderer
  • 1960 – Morten Andersen, American football player
  • 1960 – Antonio Banderas, Spanish actor
  • 1961 – Jonathan Coe, British author
  • 1962 – Tammy Bruce, American political commentator
  • 1962 – Valérie Kaprisky, French actress
  • 1963 – John Stamos, American actor
  • 1963 – Yip Sai Wing, Hong Kong musician (Beyond)
  • 1963 – Joey Tempest, Swedish singer (Europe)
  • 1964 – Whitney Prescott, American model
  • 1965 – Kyra Sedgwick, American actress
  • 1965 – Kevin Dillon, American actor
  • 1965 – Maria de Medeiros, Portuguese actress and director
  • 1966 – Lee Ann Womack, American musician
  • 1968 – Nikolaos Kaklamanakis, Greek windsurfer
  • 1969 – Nate Dogg, American rapper
  • 1969 – Kirk Herbstreit, American football analyst (College GameDay)
  • 1969 – Emigdio Preciado, Hispanic fugitive on FBI’s Most Wanted list
  • 1969 – Paula Jai Parker, American actress
  • 1969 – Matthew Perry, American actor
  • 1969 – Kazuyoshi Tatsunami, Japanese baseball player
  • 1969 – Patrick Van Horn, American actor
  • 1969 – Clay Walker, American singer
  • 1970 – Fat Joe, American rapper
  • 1971 – João Vieira Pinto, Portuguese football player
  • 1972 – Roberto Abbondanzieri, Argentine footballer
  • 1972 – Sammi Cheng Sau Man, Hong Kong singer and actress
  • 1972 – Chihiro Yonekura, Japanese singer
  • 1973 – Mette-Marit, Crown Princess of Norway
  • 1973 – Callum Blue, British actor
  • 1973 – Marco Materazzi, Italian footballer
  • 1973 – Lilian Garcia, wrestling announcer
  • 1975 – Tracie Thoms, American actress
  • 1977 – Iban Mayo, Spanish cyclist
  • 1978 – Chris Capuano, American baseball player
  • 1979 – Dave Douglas, American musician (Relient K)
  • 1979 – Oumar Kondé, Swiss footballer
  • 1980 – Jun Jin, Korean rapper (Shinhwa)
  • 1980 – Darius Danesh, Scottish singer-songwriter & actor
  • 1980 – Paul Parry, Welsh footballer
  • 1982 – Erika Christensen, American actress
  • 1982 – J. J. Hardy, American baseball player
  • 1983 – Missy Higgins, Australian singer-songwriter
  • 1983 – John McCargo, American football player
  • 1983 – Tammin Sursok, Australian actress & singer
  • 1983 – Mike Conway, British racing driver
  • 1984 – Micah Alberti, American actor
  • 1984 – Alessandro Matri, Italian footballer
  • 1984 – Alex Khadivi, French philosopher, drinker, and all-round good guy
  • 1984 – Ryan Taylor, English footballer
  • 1985 – Megan Rochell, American singer
  • 1986 – Saori Kimura, Japanese volleyball player
  • 1987 – Anaïs Lameche, Swedish singer (Play)
  • 1987 – Ileana D’Cruz, Indian actress
  • 1987 – Richard Stearman, English footballer
  • 1987 – William Blake, Famous mathematician
  • 1988 – Travis Tedford, American actor
  • 1989 – Lil Romeo, American rapper
  • 1998 – Ella Guevara, Filipino child actress

August 19 – Deaths:

  • 14 – Augustus, Roman Emperor (b. 63 BC)
  • 1186 – Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany (b. 1158)
  • 1245 – Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (b. 1195)
  • 1284 – Alphonso, Earl of Chester, son of Edward I of England (b. 1273)
  • 1297 – Saint Louis of Toulouse, French Catholic bishop (b. 1274)
  • 1493 – Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1415)
  • 1580 – Andrea Palladio, Italian architect (b. 1508)
  • 1646 – Alexander Henderson, Scottish theologian
  • 1662 – Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher (b. 1623)
  • 1680 – Jean Eudes, French catholic priest, founder of the Eudists (b. 1601)
  • 1753 – Balthasar Neumann, German architect (b. 1687)
  • 1819 – James Watt, Scottish inventor (b. 1736)
  • 1822 – Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre, French mathematician (b. 1749)
  • 1883 – Jeremiah S. Black, American statesman (b. 1810)
  • 1889 – Auguste Villiers de l’Isle-Adam, French writer (b. 1838)
  • 1895 – John Wesley Hardin, American gunfighter (b. 1853)
  • 1900 – Jean-Baptiste Accolay, Belgian composer (b. 1833)
  • 1914 – Franz Xavier Wernz, German Superior General of the Society of Jesus (b. 1844)
  • 1923 – Vilfredo Pareto, Italian sociologist and economist (b. 1845)
  • 1929 – Sergei Diaghilev, Russian ballet impresario (b. 1872)
  • 1936 – Federico García Lorca, Spanish author (b. 1898)
  • 1944 – Günther von Kluge, German field marshal (b. 1882)
  • 1945 – Tomas Burgos, Chilean philanthropist (b.1875)
  • 1950 – Giovanni Giorgi, Italian physicist (b. 1871)
  • 1954 – Alcide De Gasperi, Prime Minister of Italy (b. 1881)
  • 1957 – David Bomberg, English painter (b. 1890)
  • 1957 – Carl-Gustaf Rossby, Swedish meteorologist (b. 1898)
  • 1959 – Jacob Epstein, American-born sculptor (b. 1880)
  • 1963 – Kathleen Parlow, Canadian violinist (b. 1890)
  • 1967 – Hugo Gernsback, Luxembourg-born editor and publisher (b. 1884)
  • 1968 – George Gamow, Ukrainian-born physicist (b. 1904)
  • 1969 – Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, German architect (b. 1886)
  • 1970 – Pawel Jasienica, Polish historian (b. 1909)
  • 1975 – Mark Donohue, American race car driver and engineer (b.1937)
  • 1975 – Jim Londos, wrestler (b. 1897)
  • 1976 – Alastair Sim, Scottish actor and rector of Edinburgh University (b. 1900)
  • 1977 – Groucho Marx, American comedian and actor (b. 1890)
  • 1979 – Dorsey Burnette, American singer (b. 1932)
  • 1980 – Otto Frank, father of Anne Frank (b. 1889)
  • 1981 – Jessie Matthews, English actress (b. 1907)
  • 1982 – August Neo, Estonian wrestler (b. 1908)
  • 1986 – Hermione Baddeley, English actress (b. 1906)
  • 1994 – Linus Pauling, American chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Peace (b.  1901)
  • 1995 – Pierre Schaeffer, French composer (b. 1910)
  • 2000 – Antonio Pugliese, Italian professional wrestler (b. 1941)  
  • 2001 – Donald Woods, South African journalist and anti-apartheid activist (b. 1933)
  • 2001 – Betty Everett, American singer and pianist (b. 1939)
  • 2003 – Carlos Roberto Reina, President of Honduras (b. 1926)
  • 2003 – Sérgio Vieira de Mello, Brazilian diplomat (b. 1948)
  • 2005 – Bueno de Mesquita, Dutch comedian and actor (b. 1918)
  • 2005 – Mo Mowlam, British politician (b. 1949)

August 19 – Holidays:

  • Roman festivals – Vinalia Rustica celebrated in honor of Venus Libitina commemorating the founding of the oldest known temple to her, on the Esquiline Hill, in 293 BC on this date.
  • Russian and Georgian Orthodox churches celebrate the Saviour’s Transfiguration, popularly known in Russia as the “Apples Feast” (it’s the first day of the year when eating apples is allowed).
  •  Afghanistan – Afghan Independence Day
  • National Day of the Filipino Language, Philippines – Holiday for Quezon City, Quezon Province and other municipalities named after Manuel Quezon.
  • National Aviation Day, USA.

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