On This Day in History April 6

April 6 – Events:

  • 402 – Stilicho stymies the Visigoths under Alaric in the Battle of Pollentia.
  • 1320 – The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath.
  • 1327 – The poet Petrarch first sees his idealized love, Laura, in the church of Saint Clare in Avignon.
  • 1385 – John, Master of the Order of Aviz, is made king John I of Portugal.
  • 1652 – Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp at the Cape of Good Hope, which eventually becomes Cape Town.
  • 1667 – An earthquake devastates Dubrovnik, then an independent city-state.
  • 1782 – Rama I succeeds King Taksin of Thailand, who was overthrown in a coup d’état.
  • 1793 – During the French Revolution, the Committee of Public Safety becomes the executive organ of the republic, and the period known as the Reign of Terror begins.
  • 1808 – John Jacob Astor incorporates the American Fur Company.
  • 1814 – Napoleon abdicates. He is then exiled to Elba.
  • 1830 – The Mormon church is organized by Joseph Smith, Jr. and others at Fayette, New York.
  • 1832 – Indian Wars: Black Hawk War begins – The Sauk warrior Black Hawk enters into war with the United States.
  • 1860 – Joseph Smith III, creates the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints by reorganizing the previous church organized by his father, Joseph Smith, Jr.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Shiloh begins – In Tennessee, forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant meet Confederate troops led by General Albert Sidney Johnston.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Battle of Sayler’s Creek – Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia fights its last major battle while in retreat from Richmond, Virginia.
  • 1866 – The Grand Army of the Republic, an American patriotic organization composed of Union veterans of the American Civil War, is founded. It lasts until 1956.
  • 1869 – Celluloid is patented.
  • 1895 – Oscar Wilde is arrested (in Cadogan Hotel, London) after losing a libel case against the John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry.
  • 1896 – In Athens, the opening of the first modern Olympic Games 1,500 years after being banned by Roman Emperor Theodosius I.
  • 1903 – The Kishinev pogrom in Kishinev (Bessarabia) begins, forcing tens of thousands of Jews to later seek refuge in Israel and the Western world.
  • 1909 – Robert Peary allegedly reaches the North Pole.
  • 1911 – Dedë Gjon Luli Dedvukaj, Leader of the Malësori Albanians, raises the Albanian flag in the town of Tuzi, Montenegro, for the first time after Gjergj Kastrioti (Skenderbeg).
  • 1917 – World War I: United States declares war on Germany.
  • 1919 – Gandhi orders a General Strike.
  • 1923 – The first Prefects Board in Southeast Asia is formed in Victoria Institution, Malaysia.
  • 1924 – The first successful flight (with stops) completely around the world begins.
  • 1926 – Walter Varney Airlines makes first commercial flight (Varney is the root company of United Airlines).
  • 1930 – Gandhi raises a lump of mud and salt and declares, “With this, I am shaking the foundations of the British Empire.” Thus he starts Salt Satyagraha.
  • 1936 – Tupelo-Gainesville Outbreak: Another tornado from the same storm system as the Tupelo tornado hits Gainesville, Georgia, killing 203.
  • 1941 – World War II: Operation Castigo begins; Germany invades Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Greece.
  • 1947 – The first Tony Awards are presented for theatrical achievements.
  • 1957 – Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis buys the Hellenic National Airlines (TAE) and founds Olympic Airlines.
  • 1965 – Launch of Early Bird, the first communications satellite to be placed in synchronous orbit.
  • 1968 – In Richmond, Indiana’s downtown district, a double explosion kills 41 and injures 150.
  • 1970 – Newhall Incident: Four California Highway Patrol officers are killed.
  • 1972 – Vietnam War: Easter Offensive – American forces begin sustained air strikes and naval bombardments.
  • 1973 – Launch of Pioneer 11
  • 1984 – Members of Cameroon’s Republican Guard unsuccessfully attempt to overthrow the government headed by Paul Biya.
  • 1992 – A general strike is declared by communist groups in Nepal.
  • 1994 – The Rwandan Genocide begins when the aircraft carrying Rwandan president Juvénal Habyarimana and Burundian president Cyprien Ntaryamira is shot down.
  • 1998 – Pakistan tests medium-range missiles capable of hitting India.
  • 2004 – Rolandas Paksas becomes the first president of Lithuania to be peacefully removed from the post by impeachment.
  • 2005 – Kurdish leader Jalal Talabani becomes the Iraqi president; Shiite Arab Ibrahim al-Jaafari is named premier the next day.

April 6 – Birthdays:

  • 1483 – Raphael, Italian painter and architect (d. 1520)
  • 1613 – Stjepan Gradic, Croatian philosopher and scientist (d. 1683)
  • 1632 – Maria Leopoldine of Austria, Holy Roman Empire Empress (d. 1649)
  • 1651 – André Dacier, French classical scholar (d. 1722)
  • 1664 – Arvid Horn, Swedish statesman (d. 1742)
  • 1671 – Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, French poet (d. 1741)
  • 1725 – Pasquale Paoli, Corsican patriot and military leader (d. 1807)
  • 1812 – Alexander Herzen, Russian writer (d. 1870)
  • 1815 – Robert Volkmann, German composer (d. 1883)
  • 1818 – Aasmund Olavsson Vinje, Norwegian poet (d. 1870)
  • 1820 – Nadar, French photographer (d. 1910)
  • 1823 – Joseph Medill, journalist and mayor of Chicago (d. 1899)
  • 1826 – Gustave Moreau, French painter (d. 1898)
  • 1841 – Karl Binding, German jurist (d. 1920)
  • 1849 – John William Waterhouse, British painter (d. 1917)
  • 1851 – Guillaume Bigourdan, French astronomer (d. 1932)
  • 1878 – Erich Mühsam, German author (d. 1934)
  • 1884 – Walter Huston, Canadian-born actor (d. 1950)
  • 1890 – Anthony Fokker, Dutch designer of aircraft (d. 1939)
  • 1892 – Donald Wills Douglas, Sr., American industrialist (d. 1981)
  • 1892 – Lowell Thomas, American travel writer (d. 1981)
  • 1901 – Pier Giorgio Frassati, Italian Catholic (d. 1925)
  • 1902 – Veniamin Kaverin, Russian writer (d. 1989)
  • 1903 – Mickey Cochrane, American baseball player (d. 1962)
  • 1903 – Harold Edgerton, American electrical engineer (d. 1990)
  • 1909 – Hermann Lang, German race car driver (d. 1987)
  • 1909 – William M. Branham, American evangelist (d. 1965)
  • 1911 – Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen, German biochemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1979)
  • 1918 – Alfredo Ovando Candía, Bolivian president (d. 1982)
  • 1920 – Edmond H. Fischer, Swiss-American biochemist, Nobel laureate
  • 1926 – Sergio Franchi, Italian-born singer and actor (d. 1990)
  • 1926 – Gil Kane, Latvian-born cartoonist (d. 2000)
  • 1926 – Ian Paisley, Northern Irish politician
  • 1927 – Gerry Mulligan, American musician (d. 1996)
  • 1928 – James D. Watson, American geneticist, Nobel laureate
  • 1929 – Joi Lansing, American model and actress (d. 1972)
  • 1929 – André Previn, German-born composer and conductor
  • 1931 – Ivan Dixon, American actor and director
  • 1933 – Roy Goode, British lawyer
  • 1933 – Eduardo Malapit, American Democratic politician (d. 2007)
  • 1934 – Anton Geesink, Dutch judoka
  • 1937 – Merle Haggard, American musician
  • 1937 – Billy Dee Williams, American actor
  • 1938 – Paul Daniels, English magician
  • 1938 – Roy Thinnes, American actor
  • 1939 – André Ouellet, French Canadian politician
  • 1940 – Pedro Armendáriz Jr., Mexican actor
  • 1941 – Phil Austin, American comedian
  • 1941 – Don “The Snake” Prudhomme, American drag racer
  • 1941 – Gheorghe Zamfir, Romanian musician
  • 1942 – Barry Levinson, American film producer/director
  • 1944 – Felicity Palmer, English soprano
  • 1945 – Neal Boortz, American talk radio personality
  • 1947 – John Ratzenberger, American actor
  • 1949 – Horst Ludwig Störmer, German-born physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1951 – Bert Blyleven, Dutch-born baseball player
  • 1952 – Udo Dirkschneider, German singer (Accept and U.D.O.)
  • 1952 – Marilu Henner, American actress
  • 1952 – Michel Larocque, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1992)
  • 1955 – Keith Hunter Jesperson, Canadian-born serial killer
  • 1955 – Michael Rooker, American actor
  • 1956 – Dilip Vengsarkar, Indian cricketer and administrator
  • 1960 – Warren Haynes, American guitarist, singer and songwriter (The Allman Brothers Band, Gov’t Mule)
  • 1964 – Phil Gayle, English news presenter
  • 1965 – Frank Black, American singer/songwriter (Pixies)
  • 1967 – Mika Koivuniemi, Finnish ten-pin bowler
  • 1968 – Affonso Giaffone, Brazilian racing driver
  • 1969 – Jack Canfora, American playwright
  • 1969 – Bison Dele, American basketball player (disappeared 2002)
  • 1969 – Ari Meyers, Puerto Rican-born American actress
  • 1969 – Philipp Peter, Austrian racing driver
  • 1969 – Paul Rudd, American actor
  • 1969 – Bret Boone, Baseball Player
  • 1970 – Olaf Kölzig, South African-born ice hockey player
  • 1970 – Huang Xiaomin, Chinese swimmer
  • 1971 – Lou Merloni, American baseball player
  • 1972 – Jason Hervey, American actor
  • 1973 – Donnie Edwards, American football player
  • 1973 – Rie Miyazawa, Japanese actress/singer
  • 1973 – Prashanth, Indian actor
  • 1973 – Sun Wen, Chinese footballer
  • 1973 – Gina Yashere, English comedian
  • 1974 – Adithya, Indian actor
  • 1974 – Robert Kovac, Croatian footballer
  • 1975 – Zach Braff, American actor
  • 1975 – Hal Gill, Ice Hockey Defenseman for the Pittsburgh Penguins
  • 1976 – Candace Cameron, American actress
  • 1976 – Georg Hólm, Icelandic musician
  • 1977 – Andy Phillips, American Baseball Player
  • 1978 – Tim Hasselbeck, American football player
  • 1978 – Myleene Klass, British singer (Hear’Say)
  • 1978 – Blaine Neal, American baseball player
  • 1981 – Robert Earnshaw, Zambian born, Welsh international footballer
  • 1982 – Michael Guy Chislett, American/Australian musician
  • 1982 – Ilan Hall, Israeli-American chef
  • 1983 – Diora Baird, American actress
  • 1983 – Jade Seah, Singaporean model, host and actress
  • 1984 – Max Bemis, American musician/songwriter (Say Anything)
  • 1985 – Garrett Zablocki, (Senses Fail)
  • 1987 – Levi Porter, English footballer
  • 1987 – Hilary Rhoda, American supermodel
  • 1988 – Mike Bailey, English actor
  • 1988 – Fabrice Muamba, Anglo-Congolese footballer
  • 2007 – Princess Haalah bint Hashim, Princess of Jordan

April 6 – Deaths:

  • 1147 – Frederick II, Duke of Swabia (b. 1090)
  • 1199 – King Richard I of England (b. 1157)
  • 1199 – Pierre Basile, French soldier
  • 1362 – James I, Count of La Marche, French soldier (b. 1319)
  • 1490 – King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary
  • 1520 – Raphael, Italian painter and architect (b. 1483)
  • 1528 – Albrecht Dürer, German artist (b. 1471)
  • 1551 – Joachim Vadian, Swiss humanist (b. 1484)
  • 1571 – John Hamilton, Scottish prelate and politician
  • 1590 – Francis Walsingham, English spymaster
  • 1605 – John Stow, English historian
  • 1655 – David Blondel, French Protestant clergyman (b. 1591)
  • 1686 – Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, English royalist statesman (b. 1614)
  • 1707 – Willem van de Velde, the younger, Dutch painter (b. 1633)
  • 1755 – Richard Rawlinson, English minister and antiquarian (b. 1690)
  • 1825 – Vladimir Borovikovsky, Russian painter (b. 1757)
  • 1829 – Niels Henrik Abel, Norwegian mathematician (b. 1802)
  • 1833 – Adamantios Korais, Greek humanist scholar (b. 1748)
  • 1838 – José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva, Brazilian statesman and geologist (b. 1763)
  • 1862 – Albert Sidney Johnston, American Confederate general (b. 1803)
  • 1883 – Benjamin Wright Raymond, American politician (b. 1801)
  • 1906 – Alexander Kielland, Norwegian author (b. 1849)
  • 1933 – Elizabeth Bacon Custer, wife of George Armstrong Custer (b. 1842)
  • 1935 – Edwin Arlington Robinson, American poet (b. 1869)
  • 1953 – Idris Davies, Welsh poet (b. 1905)
  • 1961 – Jules Bordet, Belgian immunologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1870)
  • 1963 – Otto Struve, Russian-born astronomer (b. 1897)
  • 1970 – Sam Sheppard, American accused murderer (b. 1923)
  • 1970 – Maurice Stokes, American basketball player (b. 1933)
  • 1971 – Igor Stravinsky, Russian composer (b. 1882)
  • 1974 – Willem Marinus Dudok, Dutch architect (b. 1884)
  • 1974 – Hudson Fysh, Australian aviator and businessman (b.1895)
  • 1976 – Sidney Franklin, American bullfighter (b. 1903)
  • 1992 – Isaac Asimov, Russian-born author (b. 1920)
  • 1994 – Juvénal Habyarimana, Rwandan politician (b. 1937)
  • 1994 – Cyprien Ntaryamira, Burundian politician (b. 1956)
  • 1996 – Greer Garson, Irish actress (b. 1904)
  • 1998 – Wendy O. Williams, American singer (Plasmatics) (b. 1949)
  • 1998 – Tammy Wynette, American singer (b. 1942)
  • 1999 – Red Norvo, American jazz vibraphonist (b. 1908)
  • 2000 – Habib Bourguiba, Tunisian politician (b. 1903)
  • 2001 – Charles Pettigrew, American singer (b. 1963)
  • 2003 – David Bloom, American reporter (b. 1963)
  • 2003 – Babatunde Olatunji, Nigerian drummer (b. 1927)
  • 2003 – Gerald Emmett Cardinal Carter, Canadian religious figure (b. 1912)
  • 2004 – Larisa Bogoraz, Soviet dissident (b. 1929)
  • 2004 – Niki Sullivan, American guitarist (The Crickets) (b. 1937)
  • 2005 – Rainier III, Prince of Monaco (b. 1923)
  • 2006 – Maggie Dixon, American college basketball coach (b. 1977)

April 6 – Holidays:

  • Tartan Day, the anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320, a day set aside for the celebration of Scottish influence
  • Chakri Day in Thailand, commemorating the reign of the Chakri Dynasty.
  • In the Roman Catholic Church:
    • Saint Marcellinus of Carthage (d. 413)
    • Sixtus

 

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On This Day in History April 5

April 5 – Events:

  • 456 – St. Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop.
  • 1242 – During a battle on the ice of Lake Peipus, Russian forces, led by Alexander Nevsky, rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights.
  • 1566 – 200 Netherlands noblemen, led by Hendrik van Brederode, force themselves into the presence of Margaret of Parma and present the Petition of Compromise, denouncing the Inquisition in the Netherlands. The Inquisition is suspended and a delegation is sent to Spain to petition Philip II.
  • 1609 – Daimyo (Lord) of the Satsuma clan in Southern Kyushu, Japan, completes his successful invasion of the Ryukyu Kingdom in Okinawa.
  • 1614 – In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe.
  • 1621 – The Mayflower sets sail from Plymouth, Massachusetts on a return trip to Great Britain.
  • 1654 – The Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War, is signed.
  • 1792 – U.S. President George Washington exercises his authority to veto a bill, the first time this power is used in the United States.
  • 1804 – The first recorded meteorite falls in Possil, Scotland (High Possil Meteorite).
  • 1862 – American Civil War: The Battle of Yorktown begins.
  • 1874 – Birkenhead Park, the first civic public park, was opened in Birkenhead.
  • 1879 – Chile declared war on Bolivia and Peru, starting the War of the Pacific.
  • 1897 – The Greco-Turkish War, also called “Thirty Days’ War”, is declared between Greece and the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1923 – Firestone Tire and Rubber Company starts production of balloon- tires.
  • 1930 – In an act of civil disobedience, Mohandas Gandhi breaks British law after marching to the sea and making salt.
  • 1932 – Alcohol prohibition in Finland ended. Alcohol sales started in Alko liquor stores.
  • 1932 – Dominion of Newfoundland: 10,000 rioters seized the Colonial Building leading to the end of self-government.
  • 1936 – Tupelo-Gainesville Outbreak: An F5 tornado kills 233 in Tupelo, Mississippi, United States.
  • 1942 – World War II: Japanese Navy attacks Colombo in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Royal Navy Cruisers HMS Cornwall and HMS Dorsetshire are sunk southwest of the island.
  • 1944 – World War II: 270 inhabitants of the Greek town Kleisoura are executed by the Germans.
  • 1945 – Cold War: Yugoslav leader Josip “Tito” Broz signs an agreement with the USSR to allow “temporary entry of Soviet troops into Yugoslav territory.”
  • 1946 – Soviet troops leave the island of Bornholm, Denmark after an 11 month occupation.
  • 1949 – Fireside Theater debuts on television.
  • 1949 – A fire in a hospital in Effingham, Illinois, United States, kills 77 people and leads to nationwide fire code improvements.
  • 1951 – Ethel and Julius Rosenberg of the United States are sentenced to death for performing espionage for the Soviet Union.
  • 1955 – Winston Churchill resigns as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom amid indications of failing health.
  • 1956 – Fidel Castro declares himself at war with the President of Cuba.
  • 1956 – In Sri Lanka, the Mahajana Eksath Peramuna won the general elections in a landslide and S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike sworn in as the Prime Minister.
  • 1957 – In India, Communists won the first elections in united Kerala and E. M. S. Namboodiripad is sworn in as the first chief minister.
  • 1969 – Vietnam War: Massive antiwar demonstrations occur in many United States cities.
  • 1971 – In Sri Lanka, Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna launches insurrection against the United Front government of Mrs Sirimavo Bandaranaike.
  • 1972 – Vietnam War: North Vietnamese forces invade Binh Long Province, launching a second front of the Nguyen Hue Offensive.
  • 1976 – In the People’s Republic of China, the April Fifth Movement leads to the Tiananmen incident.
  • 1986 – Three people are killed in the Bombing of the La Belle Discotheque in West Berlin, Germany.
  • 1991 – ASA EMB 120 crashes in Brunswick, Georgia, United States, killing all 23 aboard.
  • 1992 – Several hundred-thousand abortion rights demonstrators march in Washington, D.C. United States.
  • 1992 – Alberto Fujimori, president of Peru, dissolved the Peruvian congress by military force.
  • 1992 – Siege of Sarajevo begins when Serb paramilitaries murder peace protesters Suada Dilberovic and Olga Sucic on the Vrbanja Bridge.
  • 1993 – The Child Support Act 1991, administered by the Child Support Agency, comes into effect in the United Kingdom.
  • 1998 – In Japan, the Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge linking Shikoku with Honshu and costing about US$3.8 billion, opens to traffic, becoming the largest suspension bridge in the world.
  • 1999 – Two Libyans suspected of bringing down Pan Am flight 103 in 1988 are handed over for eventual trial in the Netherlands.
  • 2000 – Leeds United football fans clash with Galatasaray SK fans resulting in the death of Christopher Loftus and Kevin Speight from multiple stab wounds.
  • 2007 -Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone named Camerlengo of Holy Roman Church

April 5 – Birthdays:

  • 1288 – Emperor Go-Fushimi of Japan (d. 1336)
  • 1472 – Bianca Maria Sforza, wife of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1510)
  • 1523 – Blaise de Vigenère, French cryptographer (d. 1596)
  • 1588 – Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (d. 1679)
  • 1604 – Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1675)
  • 1622 – Vincenzo Viviani, Italian mathematician (d. 1703)
  • 1649 – Elihu Yale, American benefactor of Yale University (d. 1721)
  • 1692 – Adrienne Lecouvreur, French actress (d. 1730)
  • 1732 – Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French artist (d. 1806)
  • 1784 – Louis Spohr, German violinist (d. 1859)
  • 1816 – Samuel Freeman Miller, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1890)
  • 1827 – Joseph Lister, English surgeon (d. 1912)
  • 1832 – Jules Ferry, French statesman (d. 1893)
  • 1837 – Algernon Charles Swinburne, English poet (d. 1909)
  • 1856 – Booker T. Washington, American educator (d. 1915)
  • 1869 – Sergei Chaplygin, Russian physicist and engineer (d. 1942)
  • 1871 – Mirko Seljan, Croatian explorer (d. 1913?)
  • 1875 – Mistinguett, French vaudeville performer (d. 1956)
  • 1893 – Clas Thunberg, Finnish speed skater (d. 1973)
  • 1900 – Spencer Tracy, American actor (d. 1967)
  • 1901 – Melvyn Douglas, American actor (d. 1981)
  • 1906 – Lord Buckley, American monologist (d. 1960)
  • 1908 – Bette Davis, American actress (d. 1989)
  • 1908 – Herbert von Karajan, Austrian conductor (d. 1989)
  • 1908 – Jagjivan Ram, Indian politician (d. 1986)
  • 1909 – Albert R. Broccoli, American film producer (d. 1996)
  • 1912 – John Le Mesurier, British actor (d. 1983)
  • 1916 – Gregory Peck, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1917 – Robert Bloch, American author (d. 1994)
  • 1920 – Arthur Hailey, American writer (d. 2004)
  • 1920 – Rafique Zakaria, Indian author (d. 2005)
  • 1922 – Tom Finney, English footballer
  • 1922 – Christopher Hewett, British actor (d. 2001)
  • 1922 – Gale Storm, American singer
  • 1923 – Michael V. Gazzo, American actor (d. 1995)
  • 1923 – Nguyen Van Thieu, President of South Vietnam (d. 2001)
  • 1926 – Roger Corman, American film director
  • 1928 – Tony Williams, American singer (The Platters) (d. 1992)
  • 1929 – Hugo Claus, Belgian writer
  • 1929 – Ivar Giaever, Norwegian physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1929 – Nigel Hawthorne, British actor (d. 2001)
  • 1929 – Joe Meek, English record producer
  • 1933 – Larry Felser, American sports columnist
  • 1934 – Frank Gorshin, American actor (d. 2005)
  • 1934 – Roman Herzog, German politician
  • 1934 – Stanley Turrentine, American jazz saxophonist (d. 2000)
  • 1935 – Peter Grant, British music manager (d. 1995)
  • 1936 – John Kelly, Irish republican politician (d. 2007)
  • 1937 – Colin Powell, U.S. Secretary of State
  • 1937 – Allan R. Thieme, American inventor
  • 1939 – Ronald White, American singer and songwriter (d. 1995)
  • 1939 – Crispian St. Peters, British singer
  • 1941 – Michael Moriarty, American actor
  • 1941 – Dave Swarbrick, British folk musician
  • 1942 – Peter Greenaway, Welsh film director
  • 1943 – Max Gail, American actor
  • 1944 – Pedro Rossello, Puerto Rican politician
  • 1945 – Tommy Smith, English footballer
  • 1946 – Jane Asher, British actress
  • 1947 – Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, 14th President of the Philippines
  • 1948 – Les Binks, British musician, former drummer for Judas Priest
  • 1948 – Dave Holland, British musician (Judas Priest)
  • 1949 – John Berg (actor), American actor (d. 2007)
  • 1949 – Judith Resnik, American astronaut (d. 1986)
  • 1950 – Agnetha Fältskog, Swedish singer (ABBA)
  • 1951 – Dean Kamen, inventor
  • 1952 – Mitch Pileggi, American actor
  • 1954 – Stan Ridgway, American musician (Wall of Voodoo)
  • 1955 – Janice Long, English broadcaster
  • 1955 – Akira Toriyama, Japanese manga artist
  • 1955 – Charlotte de Turckheim, French actress
  • 1956 – Diamond Dallas Page, American professional wrestler
  • 1961 – Lisa Zane, American actress
  • 1962 – Lana Clarkson, American actress (d. 2003)
  • 1964 – Steve Beaton, English darts player
  • 1964 – Christopher “Kid” Reid, American rapper (Kid ‘n Play)
  • 1965 – Cris Carpenter, baseball player
  • 1965 – Mike McCready, American musician (Pearl Jam)
  • 1967 – Gary Gait, Canadian lacrosse player
  • 1968 – Paula Cole, American musician
  • 1970 – Miho Hatori, Japanese singer and songwriter (Cibo Matto)
  • 1971 – Dong Abay, Filipino musician, singer-songwriter
  • 1972 – Krista Allen, American actress
  • 1972 – Tom Coronel, Dutch racing driver
  • 1972 – Pat Green, American singer and songwriter
  • 1972 – Paul Okon, Australian former footballer
  • 1973 – Tony Banks, American football player
  • 1973 – Élodie Bouchez, French actress
  • 1973 – Pharrell Williams, American music producer (The Neptunes)
  • 1974 – Sahaj Ticotin, musician/producer (Ra)
  • 1974 – Uhm Tae Woong, South Korean actor
  • 1975 – John Hartson, Welsh footballer
  • 1976 – Kim Collins, Nevisian sprinter
  • 1976 – Ryan Drese, American baseball player
  • 1976 – Ross Gload, American baseball player
  • 1976 – Simone Inzaghi, Italian footballer
  • 1976 – Fernando Morientes, Spanish footballer
  • 1976 – John Hartson, Welsh footballer
  • 1978 – Franziska van Almsick, German swimmer
  • 1978 – Stephen Jackson, American basketball player
  • 1979 – Timo Hildebrand, German footballer
  • 1980 – Matt Bonner, American basketball player
  • 1980 – Lee Jae Won, South Korean actor, singer, and rapper
  • 1980 – John McLaughlin, American television reporter
  • 1981 – Jorge de la Rosa, Mexican baseball player
  • 1982 – Thomas Hitzlsperger, German footballer
  • 1982 – Matt Pickens, American soccer player
  • 1982 – Alexandre Prémat, French racing driver
  • 1984 – Shin Min-a, South Korean model and actress
  • 1986 – Sumit Chandak, Indian Entrepreneur

April 5 – Deaths:

  • 582 – Eutychius, Patriarch of Constantinople
  • 1168 – Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (b. 1104)
  • 1419 – Vincent Ferrer, Spanish missionary and saint (b. 1350)
  • 1605 – Adam Loftus, English Protestant archbishop in Ireland
  • 1617 – Alonso Lobo, Spanish composer
  • 1673 – François Caron, French explorer (b. 1600)
  • 1676 – John Winthrop, the Younger, American politician (b. 1606)
  • 1693 – Anne, Duchess of Montpensier, French writer (b. 1627)
  • 1695 – George Savile, 1st Marquess of Halifax, English writer (b. 1633)
  • 1697 – King Charles XI of Sweden (b. 1655)
  • 1717 – Jean Jouvenet, French painter (b. 1647)
  • 1735 – William Derham, English minister and writer (b. 1657)
  • 1735 – Samuel Wesley, English poet (b. 1662)
  • 1765 – Edward Young, English poet (b. 1683)
  • 1794 – Georges Danton, French Revolutionary leader (b. 1759)
  • 1794 – Camille Desmoulins, French journalist and politician (b. 1760)
  • 1900 – Joseph Louis François Bertrand, French mathematician (b. 1822)
  • 1923 – George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon, English financier (b. 1866)
  • 1928 – Roy Kilner, English cricketer (b. 1890)
  • 1945 – Karl Otto Koch, German SS-officer (b. 1897)
  • 1946 – Vincent Youmans, American songwriter (b. 1898)
  • 1952 – Charles Collett, GWR Chief mechanical engineer (b. 1871)
  • 1964 – General Douglas MacArthur, American general (b. 1880)
  • 1967 – Hermann Joseph Muller, American geneticist, Nobel laureate (b. 1890)
  • 1967 – Mischa Elman, Ukrainian violinist (b. 1891)
  • 1969 – Ain-Ervin Mere, Estonian Nazi (b. 1903)
  • 1969 – Shelby Storck, American television producer (b. 1917)
  • 1970 – Alfred Henry Sturtevant, American geneticist (b. 1891)
  • 1972 – Brian Donlevy, American actor (b. 1901)
  • 1973 – John Coleman, Australian rules footballer (b. 1928)
  • 1974 – A. Y. Jackson, Canadian painter (b. 1882)
  • 1975 – Chiang Kai-shek, 1st President of the Republic of China (b. 1887)
  • 1976 – Howard Hughes, American aviator (b. 1905)
  • 1976 – Wilder Penfield, Canadian surgeon (b. 1891)
  • 1979 – Eugène Gabritschevsky, Russian biologist and artist (b. 1893)
  • 1981 – Bob Hite, American singer (Canned Heat) (b. 1945)
  • 1982 – Abe Fortas, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (b. 1910)
  • 1983 – Danny Rapp, American musician (Danny & the Juniors) (b. 1941)
  • 1991 – John Tower, American politician (b. 1925)
  • 1991 – Sonny Carter, American astronaut (b. 1947)
  • 1992 – Molly Picon, French actress (b. 1898)
  • 1992 – Sam Walton, American retailer (b. 1918)
  • 1997 – Allen Ginsberg, American poet (b. 1926)
  • 1998 – Cozy Powell, British musician (b. 1947)
  • 1999 – Paul David, French Canadian cardiologist (b. 1919)
  • 2000 – Lee Petty, American race car driver (b. 1914)
  • 2001 – Brother Theodore, German comedian (b. 1906)
  • 2002 – Layne Staley, American musician (Alice in Chains) (b. 1967)
  • 2004 – Heiner Zieschang, German mathematician (b. 1936)
  • 2004 – Slawomir Rawicz, Polish soldier (b. 1915)
  • 2005 – Saul Bellow, Canadian-born writer, Nobel laureate (b. 1915)
  • 2005 – Dale Messick, American comic strip artist (b. 1906)
  • 2005 – Debralee Scott, American actress (b. 1953)
  • 2005 – John Sichel, British film and television director
  • 2006 – Gene Pitney, American singer (b. 1941)
  • 2007 – Mark St. John, American musician (Kiss)(b. 1956)
  • 2007 – Darryl Stingley, American football player (b. 1951)
  • 2007 – Maria Gripe, Swedish writer (b. 1923)
  • 2007 – Leela Majumdar, Bengali writer (b. 1908)
  • 2007 – Poornachandra Tejaswi, Kannada writer (b. 1938)

April 5 – Holidays:

  • Mauritius: Ougadie.
  • Qingming Festival in the Chinese calendar
  • Arbor Day and Hansik in South Korea
  • Saint Vincent Ferrer
  • Saint Irene (d. 304)
  • Saint Ruadhan (d. 584)

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On This Day in History April 4

April 4 – Events:

  • 1581 – Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I.
  • 1655 – The miraculous statue entitled the Infant of Prague is solemnly crowned by command of Cardinal Harrach.
  • 1660 – Declaration of Breda by King Charles II of England.
  • 1721 – Sir Robert Walpole enters office as the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom under King George I.
  • 1812 – U.S. President James Madison enacted a ninety-day embargo on trade with the United Kingdom.
  • 1814 – Napoleon abdicates for the first time.
  • 1818 – The United States Congress adopts the flag of the United States with 13 red and white stripes and one star for each state (then 20).
  • 1841 – William Henry Harrison dies of pneumonia becoming the first President of the United States to die in office and the one with the shortest term served.
  • 1850 – The Great Fire of Cottenham, a large part of the Cambridgeshire village (England) is burnt to the ground under suspicious circumstances.
  • 1850 – Los Angeles, California is incorporated as a city.
  • 1859 – Bryant’s Minstrels debut “Dixie” in New York City in the finale of a blackface minstrel show.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: A day after Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln visits the Confederate capital.
  • 1866 – Alexander II of Russia narrowly escapes an assassination attempt in the city of Kiev.
  • 1887 – Argonia, Kansas elects Susanna M. Salter as the first female mayor in the United States.
  • 1905 – In India, an earthquake near Kangra kills 20,000.
  • 1913 – The Greek aviator Emmanuel Argyropoulos becomes the first pilot victim of the Hellenic Air Force when his plane crashes.
  • 1918 – World War I: Second Battle of the Somme ends.
  • 1930 – The Communist Party of Panama is founded.
  • 1939 – Faisal II becomes King of Iraq.
  • 1945 – World War II: American troops liberate Ohrdruf forced labor camp in Germany.
  • 1945 – World War II: Soviet Army takes control of Hungary.
  • 1949 – Twelve nations sign the North Atlantic Treaty creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
  • 1960 – Senegal independence day.
  • 1965 – The first model of the new Saab Viggen fighter aircraft plane is unveiled.
  • 1964 – The Beatles occupy the top five positions on the Billboard Top 40 Mainstream chart.
  • 1967 – Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence” speech in New York City’s Riverside Church.
  • 1968 – Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated by James Earl Ray at a motel in Memphis, Tennessee.
  • 1968 – Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 6.
  • 1968 – AEK Athens BC becomes the first Greek team to win the European Basketball Cup.
  • 1969 – Dr. Denton Cooley implants the first temporary artificial heart.
  • 1973 – The World Trade Center in New York is officially dedicated.
  • 1975 – Microsoft is founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen.
  • 1975 – Vietnam War: Operation Baby Lift – A United States Air Force C-5A Galaxy crashes near Saigon, South Vietnam shortly after takeoff, transporting orphans – 172 die.
  • 1976 – Prince Norodom Sihanouk resigns as leader of Cambodia and is placed under house arrest.
  • 1979 – President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan is executed.
  • 1983 – Space Shuttle Challenger makes its maiden voyage into space (STS- 6).
  • 1984 – President Ronald Reagan calls for an international ban on chemical weapons.
  • 1988 – Governor Evan Mecham of Arizona is convicted in his impeachment trial and removed from office.
  • 1991 – Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania and six others are killed when a helicopter collides with their plane over an elementary school in Merion, Pennsylvania.
  • 1994 – Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark found Netscape Communications Corporation under the name “Mosaic Communications Corporation.”
  • 1996 – Comet Hyakutake was imaged by the USA Asteroid Orbiter Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous.
  • 2002 – The Angolan government and UNITA rebels sign a peace treaty ending the Angolan Civil War.

April 4 – Birthdays:

  • 186 – Caracalla, Roman emperor (d. 217)
  • 1492 – Ambrosius Blarer, German reformer (d. 1564)
  • 1572 – William Strachey, English writer (d. 1621)
  • 1593 – Edward Nicholas, English statesman (d. 1669)
  • 1646 – Antoine Galland, French archaeologist (d. 1715)
  • 1648 – Grinling Gibbons Dutch-born woodcarver (d. 1721)
  • 1688 – Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, French astronomer (d. 1768)
  • 1718 – Benjamin Kennicott, English churchman and Hebrew scholar (d. 1783)
  • 1772 – Nachman of Breslov, founder of Breslov Hasidut (d. 1810)
  • 1785 – Bettina von Arnim, German writer (d. 1859)
  • 1802 – Dorothea Dix, American social activist (d. 1887)
  • 1819 – Queen Maria II of Portugal (d. 1853)
  • 1821 – Linus Yale, Jr., American inventor and manufacturer (d. 1868)
  • 1826 – Zénobe Gramme, Belgian engineer (d. 1901)
  • 1842 – Edouard Lucas, French mathematician (d. 1891)
  • 1846 – Comte de Lautréamont, French writer (d. 1870)
  • 1858 – Remy de Gourmont, French poet (d. 1915)
  • 1875 – Pierre Monteux, French conductor (d. 1964)
  • 1876 – Maurice de Vlaminck, French painter (d. 1958)
  • 1882 – Kurt von Schleicher, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1934)
  • 1884 – Isoroku Yamamoto, Japanese naval commander (d. 1943)
  • 1888 – Tris Speaker, American baseball player (d. 1958)
  • 1888 – Zdzislaw Zygulski, Sr., Polish literary historian (d. 1975)
  • 1895 – Arthur Murray, American dance teacher (d. 1991)
  • 1896 – Robert E. Sherwood, American playwright (d. 1955)
  • 1897 – Pierre Fresnay, French stage and film actor (d. 1975)
  • 1898 – Agnes Ayres, American actress (d. 1940)
  • 1902 – Louise Leveque de Vilmorin, French actress (d. 1969)
  • 1902 – Stanley G. Weinbaum, American science-fiction author (d. 1935)
  • 1905 – Eugene Bozza, French Modern Composer (d. 1991)
  • 1906 – Bea Benaderet, American actress (d. 1968)
  • 1906 – John Cameron Swayze, American journalist (d. 1995)
  • 1908 – Ernestine Gilbreth Carey, American memoirist (Cheaper by the Dozen) (d. 2006)
  • 1911 – Max Dupain, Australian photographer (d. 1992)
  • 1913 – Frances Langford, American actress (d. 2005)
  • 1914 – Marguerite Duras, French writer (d. 1996)
  • 1915 – Muddy Waters, American musician (d. 1983)
  • 1916 – Edith Fore, old lady in commercial (“I’ve fallen and I can’t get up!”) (d. 1997)
  • 1916 – Mickey Owen, American baseball player (d. 2005)
  • 1916 – David White, American actor (d. 1990)
  • 1918 – George Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe (d. 2007)
  • 1920 – Éric Rohmer, French film director
  • 1922 – Elmer Bernstein, American composer (d. 2004)
  • 1924 – Gil Hodges, American baseball player and manager (d. 1972)
  • 1925 – Claude Wagner, French Canadian politician and judge (d. 1979)
  • 1925 – Emmett Williams, American poet (d. 2007)
  • 1928 – Maya Angelou, American writer
  • 1931 – Bobby Ray Inman, American admiral and intelligence director
  • 1932 – Clive Davis, American record producer
  • 1932 – Estelle Harris, American actress
  • 1932 – Dick Lugar, American politician
  • 1932 – Anthony Perkins, American actor (d. 1992)
  • 1932 – Andrei Tarkovsky, Soviet film director (d. 1986)
  • 1933 – Bill France, Jr., NASCAR pioneer (d. 2007)
  • 1938 – A. Bartlett Giamatti, American university president and Commissioner of Baseball (d. 1989)
  • 1939 – JoAnne Carner, American golfer
  • 1939 – Major Lance, American singer (d. 1994)
  • 1939 – Hugh Masekela, South African musician
  • 1940 – Richard Attwood, British racing driver
  • 1940 – Sharon Sheeley, American songwriter
  • 1942 – Jim Fregosi, American baseball player and manager
  • 1942 – Kitty Kelley, American writer
  • 1944 – Magda Aelvoet, Belgian politician
  • 1944 – Craig T. Nelson, American actor
  • 1945 – Daniel Cohn-Bendit, French political activist
  • 1945 – Caroline McWilliams, American actress
  • 1946 – Dave Hill, English guitarist (Slade)
  • 1946 – Katsuaki Sato, Japanese martial artist
  • 1947 – Ray Fosse, American baseball player and broadcaster
  • 1947 – Luke Halpin, American actor
  • 1947 – Wiranto, Indonesian general
  • 1948 – Michael Blassie, U.S. Air Force officer (d. 1972)
  • 1948 – Berry Oakley, American bassist (The Allman Brothers Band) (d. 1972)
  • 1948 – Abdullah Öcalan, leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party
  • 1948 – Dan Simmons, American writer
  • 1948 – Derek Thompson, Northern Irish actor
  • 1949 – Junior Braithwaite, Jamaican singer (The Wailers) (d. 1999)
  • 1949 – Shing-Tung Yau, Chinese mathematician
  • 1950 – Christine Lahti, American actress
  • 1951 – John Hannah, American football player
  • 1951 – Hun Sen, Prime Minister of Cambodia
  • 1952 – Rosemarie Ackermann, German athlete
  • 1952 – Pat Burns, Canadian ice hockey coach
  • 1952 – Gary Moore, Irish guitarist (Thin Lizzy)
  • 1952 – Gregg Hansford, Australian motorcycle and car racer (d. 1995)
  • 1953 – Robert Bertrand, Canadian politician
  • 1953 – Sammy Wilson, Northern Irish politician
  • 1956 – Tom Herr, American baseball player
  • 1956 – David E. Kelley, American writer and TV producer
  • 1957 – Ali El Haggar, Egyptian singer and actor
  • 1957 – Aki Kaurismäki, Finnish film director
  • 1957 – Graeme Kelling, Scottish musician (Deacon Blue) (d. 2004)
  • 1957 – Kelso, American racehorse (d. 1983)
  • 1957 – Nobuyoshi Kuwano, Japanese musician (Rats & Star)
  • 1958 – Cazuza, Brazilian poet, singer and composer (d. 1990)
  • 1958 – Mary-Margaret Humes, American actress
  • 1960 – Jane Eaglin, English soprano
  • 1960 – Hugo Weaving, Nigerian-born English-Australian actor
  • 1962 – Craig Adams, English musician(The Sisters of Mercy, Mission UK)
  • 1963 – Dale Hawerchuk, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1963 – Graham Norton, Irish talk show host
  • 1964 – Branco, Brazilian footballer and coach
  • 1964 – David Cross, American actor and comedian
  • 1964 – Robbie Rist, American actor
  • 1965 – Robert Downey Jr., American actor
  • 1966 – Nancy McKeon, American actor
  • 1968 – Jennifer Lynch, American director
  • 1970 – Barry Pepper, Canadian actor
  • 1970 – Michael Schwartz, American turntablist, known as Mix Master Mike, DJ for the Beastie Boys
  • 1971 – Yanic Perreault, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1971 – Josh Todd, lead singer of rock band Buckcherry
  • 1971 – John Zandig, American professional wrestler
  • 1972 – Jill Scott, American soul singer
  • 1972 – Magnus Sveningsson, Swedish musician (The Cardigans)
  • 1973 – David Blaine, American illusionist
  • 1973 – Chris McCormack, Australian triathlete
  • 1973 – Loris Capirossi, Italian motorcycle racer
  • 1974 – Dave Mirra, American athlete
  • 1975 – Delphine Arnault, French businesswoman
  • 1975 – Thobias Fredriksson, Swedish cross-country skier
  • 1975 – Pamela Ribon, American author, actress
  • 1975 – Scott Rolen, American baseball player
  • 1976 – Emerson, Brazilian footballer
  • 1977 – Adam Dutkiewicz, American guitarist (Killswitch Engage)
  • 1977 – Stephen Mulhern, Magician, CITV Presenter
  • 1977 – Omarr Ali Hasan Smith, Arena Football League defensive back
  • 1978 – Jason Ellison, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Lemar, English R’n’B singer
  • 1978 – Alan Mahon, Irish footballer
  • 1978 – Sam Moran, Australian entertainer
  • 1978 – Irene Skliva, Greek 1996 Miss World winner
  • 1978 – Aska Yang, Taiwan Singer
  • 1979 – Heath Ledger, Australian actor (d. 2008)
  • 1979 – Roberto Luongo, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1979 – Natasha Lyonne, American actress
  • 1980 – Johnny Borrell, English singer (Razorlight)
  • 1980 – Trevor Moore, American comedian
  • 1980 – Björn Wirdheim, Swedish race car driver
  • 1983 – Fabian Geiser, Swiss footballer
  • 1983 – Doug Lynch, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1983 – Angelle Tymon, American journalist and TV game show host
  • 1984 – Arkady Vyatchanin, Russian swimmer
  • 1986 – Aiden McGeady, Republic of Ireland and Celtic Footballer
  • 1987 – Devon Anderson, English actor
  • 1987 – Sarah Gadon, Canadian actress
  • 1987 – Cameron Maybin, American Baseball Player
  • 1988 – Frank Fielding, English footballer
  • 1991 – Jamie Lynn Spears, American actress
  • 1992 – Alexa Nikolas, American actress
  • 1994 – Risako Sugaya, Japanese singer

April 4 – Deaths:

  • 397 – St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan
  • 636 – Saint Isidore of Seville, Church Father and the proposed patron of Internet
  • 896 – Pope Formosus (b. 816)
  • 1284 – King Alfonso X of Castile (b. 1221)
  • 1292 – Pope Nicholas IV (b. 1227)
  • 1305 – Jeanne of Navarre, wife of Philip IV of France
  • 1536 – Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (b. 1460)
  • 1588 – King Frederick II of Denmark (b. 1534)
  • 1609 – Charles de L’Ecluse, Flemish botanist (b. 1526)
  • 1617 – John Napier, Scottish mathematician (b. 1550)
  • 1643 – Simon Episcopius, Dutch theologian (b. 1583)
  • 1661 – Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven, Scottish soldier
  • 1701 – Joseph Haines, entertainer and author
  • 1743 – Daniel Neal, English historian (b. 1678)
  • 1761 – Theodore Gardelle, Swiss painter and enameler (b. 1722)
  • 1766 – John Taylor, English classical scholar (b. 1704)
  • 1774 – Oliver Goldsmith, English writer (b. 1728)
  • 1792 – James Sykes, American politician (b. 1725)
  • 1807 – Joseph Jérôme Lefrançais de Lalande, French astronomer (b. 1732)
  • 1817 – André Masséna, Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling and Marshal of France (b. 1758)
  • 1841 – William Henry Harrison, 9th President of the United States (b. 1773)
  • 1842 – Jean Moufot, French philosopher and mathematician (b. 1784)
  • 1846 – Solomon Sibley, Senator from Michigan Territory (b. 1769)
  • 1861 – John McLean, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (b. 1785)
  • 1863 – Ludwig Emil Grimm, German painter and engraver (b. 1790)
  • 1864 – Joseph Pitty Couthouy, American naval officer (b. 1808)
  • 1870 – Heinrich Gustav Magnus, German chemist and physicist (b. 1802)
  • 1874 – Charles Ernest Beulé, French archaeologist and politician (b. 1826)
  • 1878 – Richard Brewer, American gunslinger/cowboy (b. 1850)
  • 1879 – Heinrich Wilhelm Dove, German physicist (b. 1803)
  • 1883 – Peter Cooper, American Industrialist, inventor and philanthropist (b. 1791)
  • 1884 – Marie Bashkirtseff, Russian artist and diarist (b. 1860)
  • 1890 – Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau, Quebec politician (b. 1820)
  • 1890 – Edmond Hébert, French geologist (b. 1812)
  • 1919 – William Crookes, English chemist and physicist (b. 1832)
  • 1923 – John Venn, British mathematician (b. 1834)
  • 1929 – Karl Benz, German engine designer, inventor, and automobile engineer (b. 1844)
  • 1931 – André Michelin, French industrialist (b. 1853)
  • 1932 – Wilhelm Ostwald, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1853)
  • 1947 – William O’Donnell, Irish politician (b. ?)
  • 1951 – Al Christie, Canadian film director and producer (b. 1881)
  • 1951 – George Albert Smith, President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS or Mormon Church) (b. 1870)
  • 1953 – King Carol II of Romania (b. 1893)
  • 1957 – E. Herbert Norman, Canadian diplomat (b. 1909)
  • 1958 – Johnny Stompanato, American organized crime figure (b. 1925)
  • 1961 – Simion Stoilow, Romanian mathematician (b. 1873)
  • 1962 – James Hanratty, executed at Bedford Prison, England, for the murder
  • of Michael Gregsten (b. 1936)
  • 1967 – Héctor Scarone, Uruguayan footballer (b. 1898)
  • 1967 – Al Lewis, American songwriter (b. 1901)
  • 1968 – Martin Luther King, Jr., American civil rights activist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1929)
  • 1972 – Adam Clayton Powell Jr., American politician (b. 1908)
  • 1972 – Stefan Wolpe, German-born composer (b. 1902)
  • 1976 – Harry Nyquist, contributor to information theory (b. 1889)
  • 1979 – Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, President and Prime Minister of Pakistan (b. 1928)
  • 1979 – Edgar Buchanan, American actor (b. 1903)
  • 1980 – Red Sovine, American country music singer (b. 1917)
  • 1983 – Gloria Swanson, American actress (b. 1897)
  • 1984 – Oleg Antonov, Soviet airplane engineer (b. 1906)
  • 1985 – Kate Roberts, Welsh nationalist and writer (b. 1891)
  • 1987 – C.L. Moore, American writer (b. 1911)
  • 1987 – Chögyam Trungpa, Tibetan Buddhist master (b. 1939)
  • 1991 – Edmund Adamkiewicz, German footballer (b. 1920)
  • 1991 – Max Frisch, Swiss writer (b. 1911)
  • 1991 – H. John Heinz III, U.S. Senator (b. 1938)
  • 1991 – Forrest Towns, American hurdler (b. 1914)
  • 1992 – Yvette Brind’Amour, French Canadian stage actress and artistic director (b. 1918)
  • 1992 – Arthur Russell, American cellist (b. 1951)
  • 1993 – Alfred Butts, American architect and inventor (Scrabble) (b. 1899)
  • 1995 – Kenny Everett, British radio DJ and television entertainer (b. 1944)
  • 1995 – Priscilla Lane, American singer and actress (b. 1915)
  • 1996 – Barney Ewell, American athlete (b. 1918)
  • 1996 – Larry LaPrise, American songwriter (b. 1913)
  • 1999 – Faith Domergue, American actor (b. 1924)
  • 1999 – Early Wynn, American baseball player (b. 1920)
  • 2001 – Ed “Big Daddy” Roth, American custom car designer (b. 1932)
  • 2002 – Harry L. O’Connor, Czech-born film stuntman
  • 2003 – Anthony Caruso, American actor (b. 1916)
  • 2003 – Resortes, Mexican comedian (b. 1916)
  • 2004 – Alberic Schotte, Belgian cyclist (b. 1919)
  • 2004 – Casey Sheehan, American soldier, son of Cindy Sheehan (b. 1979)
  • 2005 – Edward Bronfman, Canadian businessman (b. 1924)
  • 2007 – Bob Clark, American film director (b. 1941)
  • 2007 – Terry Hall, English ventriloquist (b. 1927)

April 4 – Holidays:

  • International Day for Landmine Awareness and Assistance
  • Lesotho – Heroes’ Day
  • Taiwan and Hong Kong – Children’s Day
  • Liturgical Feast days:
    • Saint Isidore of Seville

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On This Day in History April 3

April 3 – Events:

  • 1043 – Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England.
  • 1077 – Creation of the first Parliament of Friuli.
  • 1559 – The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis treaty is signed, ending the Italian Wars.
  • 1834 – The generals in the Greek War of Independence stand trial for treason.
  • 1860 – The first successful Pony Express run from Saint Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California begins.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America.
  • 1882 – American Old West outlaw Jesse James is killed by Robert Ford for a $5,000 reward.
  • 1885 – Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for his engine design.
  • 1895 – The libel trial instigated by Oscar Wilde begins, eventually resulting in his imprisonment on charges of homosexuality.
  • 1896 – The first publication of La Gazzetta dello Sport newspaper in Italy.
  • 1917 – Vladimir Lenin arrives in Russia from exile, marking the beginning of Bolshevik leadership in the Russian Revolution.
  • 1922 – Joseph Stalin became the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
  • 1929 – RMS Queen Mary is ordered from John Brown & Company Shipbuilding and Engineering by Cunard Line.
  • 1933 – Unsuccessful boycott of Jewish stores in Nazi Germany.
  • 1936 – Bruno Richard Hauptmann is executed for the kidnapping and death of Charles Augustus Lindbergh II, the baby son of world-famous pilot Charles Lindbergh.
  • 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces begin an assault on the United States and Filipino troops on the Bataan Peninsula.
  • 1946 – Japanese Lt. General Masaharu Homma is executed in the Philippines for leading the Bataan Death March.
  • 1948 – President Harry Truman signs the Marshall Plan which authorizes $5 billion in aid for 16 countries.
  • 1948 – In Jeju, South Korea, a civil-war-like period of violence and human rights abuses begins, known as the Jeju massacre.
  • 1948 – First run of the Texas Chief passenger train.
  • 1953 – TV Guide
  • 1955 – The American Civil Liberties Union announces it will defend Allen Ginsberg’s book Howl against obscenity charges.
  • 1956 – Elvis Presley sings “Heartbreak Hotel” on the Milton Berle Show, with an estimated 25% of the United States population viewing.
  • 1956 – The western part of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan is struck by a deadly F5 tornado (known as the Hudsonville-Standale Tornado).
  • 1969 – Vietnam War: U.S. Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird announces that the United States will start to “Vietnamize” the war effort.
  • 1971 – Japanese tokusatsu television series Kamen Rider premieres, marking the beginning of the long-running Kamen Rider
  • 1973 – The first portable cell phone call is placed in New York City.
  • 1974 – The Super Outbreak occurs, the biggest tornado outbreak in recorded history. The death toll is 315, with nearly 5,500 injured.
  • 1975 – Bobby Fischer refuses to play in a chess match against Anatoly Karpov, giving Karpov the title of World Champion by default.
  • 1982 – Great Britain dispatched a naval task force to the south Atlantic to reclaim the disputed Falkland Islands from Argentina.
  • 1996 – Suspected “Unabomber” Theodore Kaczynski is arrested at his Montana cabin.
  • 1996 – A United States Air Force airplane carrying United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown crashes in Croatia, killing all 35 on board.
  • 1997 – Thalit massacre begins in Algeria; all but 1 of the 53 inhabitants of Thalit are killed by guerrillas.
  • 2000 – United States v. Microsoft: Microsoft is ruled to have violated United States antitrust laws by keeping “an oppressive thumb” on its competitors.
  • 2004 – Islamist terrorists involved in the 11 March 2004 Madrid attacks are trapped by the police in their apartment and kill themselves.
  • 2007 – An official new world record for conventional-train speed of 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) is set by a French TGV on the LGV Est high speed line east of Paris.

April 3 – Birthdays:

  • 1151 – Igor Svyatoslavich, Ukrainian prince (d. 1202)
  • 1367 – King Henry IV of England (d. 1413)
  • 1529 – Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1581)
  • 1593 – George Herbert, English poet and orator (d. 1633)
  • 1643 – Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, general of the Holy Roman Empire (d. 1690)
  • 1683 – Mark Catesby, English naturalist (d. 1749)
  • 1693 – George Edwards, English naturalist (d. 1773)
  • 1715 – William Watson, English physician and scientist (d. 1787)
  • 1764 – John Abernathy, English surgeon (d. 1831)
  • 1769 – Christian Günther von Bernstorff, Danish and Prussian statesman and diplomat (d. 1835)
  • 1770 – Theodoros Kolokotronis, Greek general in the Greek War of Independence (d. 1843)
  • 1781 – Bhagwan Swaminarayan (d. 1830)
  • 1783 – Washington Irving, American author (d. 1859)
  • 1806 – Ivan Kireevsky, Russian literary critic and philosopher (d. 1856)
  • 1821 – T. Pelham Dale, Anglican clergyman prosecuted for Ritualist practices in the 1870s (d. 1892)
  • 1822 – Edward Everett Hale, American writer (d. 1909)
  • 1823 – William Marcy Tweed, American political boss (d. 1878)
  • 1880 – Otto Weininger, Austrian philosopher (d. 1903)
  • 1881 – Alcide De Gasperi, Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1954)
  • 1885 – Allan Dwan, Canadian-born American film director (d. 1981)
  • 1885 – Bud Fisher, American cartoonist (Mutt and Jeff) (d. 1954)
  • 1889 – Grigoras Dinicu, Romanian composer and violinist (d. 1949)
  • 1893 – Leslie Howard, English actor (d. 1943)
  • 1893 – Princess Maud of Fife (d. 1945)
  • 1895 – Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Italian composer (d. 1968)
  • 1898 – George Jessel, American comedian (d. 1981)
  • 1898 – Henry Luce, American publisher (d. 1967)
  • 1899 – David Jack, English footballer (d. 1958)
  • 1904 – Iron Eyes Cody, American actor (d. 1999)
  • 1904 – Russel Wright, American industrial designer (d. 1976)
  • 1905 – Robert Frederick Sink, United States Army Officer (d. 1965)
  • 1913 – Per Borten, Premier of Norway (d. 2005)
  • 1916 – Herb Caen, American newspaper columnist (d. 1997)
  • 1918 – Louis Applebaum, Canadian composer, conductor and administrator (d. 2000)
  • 1920 – John Demjanjuk, Ukrainian-born American auto worker, alleged Nazi
  • 1920 – Stan Freeman, American composer and lyricist (d. 2001)
  • 1921 – Robert Karvelas, American actor (d. 1991)
  • 1921 – Darío Moreno, Turkish-Jewish singer and songwriter (d. 1968)
  • 1921 – Jan Sterling, American actress (d. 2004)
  • 1924 – Marlon Brando, American actor (d. 2004)
  • 1924 – Doris Day, American actress
  • 1925 – Tony Benn, British politician
  • 1926 – Alex Grammas, American baseball player
  • 1926 – Gus Grissom, American astronaut (d. 1967)
  • 1928 – Don Gibson, American country musician (d. 2003)
  • 1928 – Kevin Hagen, American actor (d. 2005)
  • 1928 – Jennifer Paterson, English chef and TV personality (Two Fat Ladies) (d. 1999)
  • 1929 – Lee Leonard, American television personality
  • 1930 – Lawton Chiles, U.S. Senator from Florida and Governor of Florida (d. 1998)
  • 1930 – Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of Germany
  • 1930 – Wally Moon, American baseball player
  • 1934 – Jane Goodall, English zoologist
  • 1936 – Scott LaFaro, American musician (d. 1961)
  • 1936 – Jimmy McGriff, American jazz organist
  • 1938 – Jeff Barry, American songwriter and record producer
  • 1941 – Jan Berry, American musician (Jan and Dean) (d. 2004)
  • 1941 – Carl Boenish, American father of BASE jumping (d. 1984)
  • 1941 – Eric Braeden, German-born actor
  • 1941 – Philippé Wynne, American musician (d. 1984)
  • 1942 – Marsha Mason, American actress
  • 1942 – Wayne Newton, American singer
  • 1942 – Marek Perepeczko, Polish actor (d. 2005)
  • 1942 – Billy Joe Royal, American singer
  • 1943 – Jonathan Lynn, British actor and comedy writer
  • 1943 – Mario Lavista, Mexican composer
  • 1943 – Richard Manuel, Canadian musician and songwriter (d. 1986)
  • 1943 – Doreen Tracey, English-born Mouseketeer
  • 1944 – Tony Orlando, American musician
  • 1945 – Catherine Spaak, French actress
  • 1946 – Hanna Suchocka, Poland’s first female prime minister
  • 1946 – Marisa Paredes, Spanish actress
  • 1948 – Arlette Cousture, French-Canadian writer
  • 1948 – Carlos Salinas, President of Mexico
  • 1949 – Lyle Alzado, American football player (d. 1992)
  • 1949 – Richard Thompson, English musician and songwriter
  • 1950 – Sally Thomsett, English actress
  • 1953 – Craig Taubman, Jewish singer
  • 1954 – Elisabetta Brusa, Italian composer
  • 1956 – Miguel Bosé, Spanish musician and actor
  • 1956 – Ray Combs, American game show host and comedian (d. 1996)
  • 1956 – Boris Miljkovic, Serbian TV & theatre director and video artist
  • 1958 – Alec Baldwin, American actor
  • 1958 – Jaya Prada, Indian Actress
  • 1959 – David Hyde Pierce, American actor
  • 1960 – Arjen Anthony Lucassen, Dutch musician (Ayreon)
  • 1960 – Marie Denise Pelletier, Quebec singer
  • 1961 – Eddie Murphy, American actor and comedian
  • 1962 – Mike Ness, American musician (Social Distortion)
  • 1963 – Criss Oliva, American musician (Savatage) (d. 1993)
  • 1963 – Jack Del Rio, American football coach
  • 1963 – Tsuyoshi Sekito, Japanese composer
  • 1964 – Bjarne Riis, Danish cyclist
  • 1964 – Andy Robinson, English rugby player
  • 1965 – Nazia Hassan, First South Asian Pop Singer (d.2000)
  • 1966 – Mina Tominaga, Japanese seiyu (voice actress)
  • 1966 – John de Vries, Australian racing driver
  • 1967 – Brent Gilchrist, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1967 – Mark Skaife, Australian racing driver
  • 1968 – Sebastian Bach, Canadian musician (Skid Row)
  • 1968 – Charlotte Coleman, English actress (d. 2001)
  • 1968 – Jamie Hewlett, English illustrator (Tank Girl and Gorillaz)
  • 1969 – Lance Storm, Canadian professional wrestler
  • 1971 – Picabo Street, American alpine ski champion
  • 1972 – Jennie Garth, American actress
  • 1972 – Sandrine Testud, French Top-10 tennis player
  • 1973 – Matthew Ferguson, Canadian actor
  • 1973 – Jamie Bamber, English actor
  • 1975 – Michael Olowokandi, Nigerian basketball player
  • 1975 – Aries Spears, American comedian
  • 1975 – Mickey Beyer Clausen, Danish entrepreneur and philanthropist
  • 1975 – Shawn Bates, American ice hockey player
  • 1975 – Koji Uehara, Japanese professional baseball pitcher
  • 1975 – Yoshinobu Takahashi, Japanese professional baseball player
  • 1976 – Drew Shirley, American musician (Switchfoot)
  • 1976 – Will Mellor, English actor
  • 1978 – Tommy Haas, German tennis player
  • 1978 – Matthew Goode, English actor
  • 1978 – John Smit, South African rugby player
  • 1981 – Heath Ramsay, Australian Olympic swimmer
  • 1981 – Aaron Bertram, American musician, Suburban Legends
  • 1981 – Matthew Nash, Australian soccer player
  • 1982 – Fler, German rapper
  • 1982 – Iain Fyfe, Australian soccer player
  • 1982 – Kasumi Nakane, Japanese gravure idol
  • 1982 – Cobie Smulders, Canadian actress
  • 1983 – Errol Barnett, English reporter
  • 1984 – Jonathan Blondel, Belgian footballer
  • 1984 – Maxi López, Argentine footballer
  • 1985 – Leona Lewis, English singer
  • 1986 – Amanda Bynes, American actress
  • 1986 – Sergio Sánchez, Spanish footballer
  • 1987 – Sal Zizzo, American soccer player
  • 1987 – Julie Sokolow, American musician
  • 1988 – Peter Hartley, English footballer
  • 1988 – Tim Krul, Dutch footballer
  • 1993 – Dakoda Dowd, American golfer

April 3 – Deaths:

  • 963 – William III, Duke of Aquitaine (b. 915)
  • 1287 – Pope Honorius IV
  • 1350 – Eudes IV, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1295)
  • 1606 – Charles Blount, 1st Earl of Devon, English politician (b. 1563)
  • 1680 – Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire (b. 1630)
  • 1682 – Bartolomé Estéban Murillo, Spanish painter (b. 1618)
  • 1691 – Jean Petitot, Swiss enamel painter (b. 1608)
  • 1695 – Melchior d’Hondecoeter, Dutch painter
  • 1717 – Jacques Ozanam, French mathematician (b. 1640)
  • 1728 – James Anderson, Scottish lawyer (b. 1662)
  • 1792 – George Pocock, British admiral (b. 1706)
  • 1804 – Jedrzej Kitowicz, Polish priest (b. 1727/1728)
  • 1827 – Ernst Chladni, German physicist (b. 1756)
  • 1849 – Juliusz Slowacki, Polish poet (b. 1809)
  • 1868 – Franz Berwald, Swedish composer and inventor (b. 1796)
  • 1882 – Jesse James, American outlaw (b. 1847)
  • 1897 – Johannes Brahms, German composer (b. 1833)
  • 1901 – Richard D’Oyly Carte, British impresario (b. 1844)
  • 1930 – Emma Albani, Canadian soprano (b. 1847)
  • 1932 – Wilhelm Ostwald, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1853)
  • 1936 – Bruno Hauptmann, German killer of Charles Lindbergh III (b. 1899)
  • 1943 – Conrad Veidt, German actor (b. 1893)
  • 1950 – Carter G. Woodson, African American historian, author, journalist and founder of Black History Month (b. 1875)
  • 1950 – Kurt Weill, German composer (b. 1900)
  • 1952 – Miina Sillanpää, Finnish politician, first female Finnish minister (b. 1866)
  • 1965 – Ernst Kirchweger, Austrian communist and resistance fighter
  • 1971 – Joseph Valachi, American gangster (b. 1904)
  • 1972 – Ferde Grofé, American composer (b. 1882)
  • 1975 – Mary Ure, Scottish actress (b. 1933)
  • 1978 – Ray Noble, English bandleader and composer (b. 1903)
  • 1981 – Juan Trippe, Airline entrepreneur and pioneer, Pan Am founder (b. 1899)
  • 1982 – Warren Oates, American character actor (b. 1928)
  • 1986 – Peter Pears, English tenor (b. 1910)
  • 1987 – Tom Sestak, American football player (b. 1936)
  • 1990 – Sarah Vaughan, American singer (b. 1924)
  • 1991 – Charles Goren, American bridge player, writer, and columnist (b. 1901)
  • 1991 – Graham Greene, English writer (b. 1904)
  • 1993 – Pinky Lee, American comic and children’s television host (b. 1907)
  • 1994 – Frank Wells, American entertainment businessman (b. 1932)
  • 1995 – Alfred J. Billes, Canadian businessman (Canadian Tire) (b. 1902)
  • 1996 – Ron Brown, U.S. Secretary of Commerce (b. 1941)
  • 1996 – Carl Stokes, Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio (b. 1927)
  • 1998 – Mary Cartwright, English mathematician (b. 1900)
  • 1999 – Lionel Bart, English composer (Oliver!) (b. 1930)
  • 2000 – Terence McKenna, American writer and philosopher (b. 1946)
  • 2002 – Fad Gadget, English singer and musician (b. 1956)
  • 2003 – Michael Kelly, American journalist (b. 1957)
  • 2005 – Tony Croatto, Italian-born singer (b. 1940)
  • 2007 – Marion Eames, Welsh novelist (b. 1921)
  • 2007 – Eddie Robinson, American football coach (b. 1919)
  • 2007 – Nina Wang, Asia’s Richest Woman (b. 1937)

April 3 – Holidays:

  • Sizdah be dar (Outdoor thirteen). In Iran, people play jokes on each other on April 3, the thirteenth day of the Persian calendar new year (Norooz).
  • Liturgical feasts:
    • Saint Agape (d. 304)
    • Saint Richard (d. 1253)
    • Saint Sixtus I
    • Saint Mary of Egypt

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On This Day in History April 2

April 2 – Events:

  • 68 – Galba, governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Roman emperors begun with Julius Caesar and Augustus.
  • 1453 – Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Istanbul), which would fall on May 29.
  • 1513 – Juan Ponce de Leon sets foot on Florida becoming the first known European to do so.
  • 1755 – Commodore William James captures pirate fortress of Suvarnadurg on west coast of India.
  • 1792 – The Coinage Act is passed establishing the United States Mint.
  • 1801 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Copenhagen – The British destroy the Danish fleet.
  • 1804 – Forty merchantmen are wrecked when a convoy led by HMS Apollo runs aground off Portugal.
  • 1810 – Napoleon Bonaparte marries Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
  • 1863 – Richmond Bread Riot: Food shortages incite hundreds of angry women to riot in Richmond, Virginia and demand the Confederate government to release emergency supplies.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Siege of Petersburg broken – Union troops capture the trenches around Petersburg, Virginia, forcing Confederate General Robert E. Lee to retreat.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis and most of his Cabinet flee the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.
  • 1900 – The Foraker Act passes through Congress, giving Puerto Ricans limited self-rule.
  • 1902 – Dmitry Sipyagin, Minister of Interior of the Russian Empire, is assassinated by a terrorist in the Marie Palace, St Petersburg.
  • 1902 – “Electric Theatre,” the first full-time movie theater in the United States, opens in Los Angeles, California.
  • 1917 – World War I: The Battle of Vimy Ridge commences when the Canada Corps launches an artillery bombardment of the German trenches. To that time, the biggest artillery bombardment in history.
  • 1917 – World War I: U.S. President Woodrow Wilson asks the U.S. Congress for a declaration of war on Germany.
  • 1917 – The first woman ever elected to the U.S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, takes her seat as a representative from Montana.
  • 1930 – Haile Selassie is proclaimed emperor of Ethiopia.
  • 1945 – The diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Brazil were established.
  • 1962 – The first official Panda crossing is opened outside Waterloo station, London.
  • 1972 – Actor Charlie Chaplin returns to the United States for the first time since being labeled a communist in the early 1950s during the Red Scare.
  • 1972 – Vietnam War: Easter Offensive begins – North Vietnamese soldiers of the 304th Division take the northern half of Quang Tri Province.
  • 1973 – Launch of LexisNexis computerized legal research service.
  • 1975 – Vietnam War: Thousands of civilian refugees flee from the Quang Ngai Province in front of advancing North Vietnamese troops.
  • 1975 – CN Tower completed in Toronto Ontario Canada: reaches 553.33 metres in height, becoming the world’s tallest free-standing structure.
  • 1980 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter signs the Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act in an effort to help the U.S. economy rebound.
  • 1982 – Falklands War: 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands by Argentina.
  • 1984 – Sqn Ldr Rakesh Sharma is launched aboard Soyuz T-11, and becomes the first Indian in space.
  • 1989 – Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev arrives in Havana, Cuba to meet with Fidel Castro in an attempt to mend strained relations.
  • 1991 – First female Premier of a Canadian province takes office. Rita Johnston succeeds William Vander Zalm, who resigned, as Premier of British Columbia.
  • 1992 – In New York, Mafia boss John Gotti is convicted of murder and racketeering and is later sentenced to life in prison.
  • 2002 – Israeli forces surrounded the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem into which armed Palestinians retreated. A siege ensues.
  • 2004 – Islamist terrorists involved in the 11 March 2004 Madrid attacks attempt a thwarted bombing of the Spanish high-speed train AVE near Madrid.
  • 2006 – Over 60 tornadoes breakout, hardest hit is Tennessee with 29 people killed.

April 2 – Birthdays:

  • 742 – Charlemagne (d. 814)
  • 1348 – Andronikos IV Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor (d. 1385)
  • 1527 – Abraham Ortelius, Flemish cartographer and geographer (d. 1598)
  • 1565 – Cornelis de Houtman, Dutch explorer (d. 1599)
  • 1618 – Francesco Maria Grimaldi, Italian mathematician and physicist (d. 1663)
  • 1653 – Prince George of Denmark, prince consort of Anne of England (d. 1708)
  • 1719 – Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim, German poet (d. 1803)
  • 1725 – Giacomo Casanova, Italian adventurer and writer (d. 1798)
  • 1743 – Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President of the United States (d. 1826)
  • 1781 – Bhagwan Swaminarayan, religious leader (d. 1830)
  • 1788 – Francisco Balagtas, Filipino poet (d. 1862)
  • 1798 – August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben, German poet (d. 1874)
  • 1805 – Hans Christian Andersen, Danish writer (d. 1875)
  • 1812 – Louise-Marie of France, queen of Belgium (d. 1850)
  • 1814 – Erastus Brigham Bigelow, American inventor (d. 1879)
  • 1827 – William Holman Hunt, English painter (d. 1910)
  • 1838 – Léon Gambetta, French statesman (d. 1882)
  • 1840 – Émile Zola, French novelist and critic (d. 1902)
  • 1862 – Nicholas Murray Butler, president of Columbia University, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1947)
  • 1867 – Eugen Sandow, German bodybuilder and circus performer (d. 1925)
  • 1869 – Hughie Jennings, American baseball player and manager (d. 1928)
  • 1875 – Walter Chrysler, American automobile pioneer (d. 1940)
  • 1884 – Sir John Squire, British poet, writer, and historian (d. 1958))
  • 1891 – Max Ernst, German painter (d. 1976)
  • 1900 – Roberto Arlt, Argentine writer (d. 1942)
  • 1902 – Jan Tschichold, German typographer (d. 1974)
  • 1903 – Lionel Chevrier, Canadian politician (d. 1987)
  • 1907 – Luke Appling, American baseball player (d. 1991)
  • 1908 – Buddy Ebsen, American actor and dancer (d. 2003)
  • 1910 – Paul Triquet, Canadian military officer (d. 1980)
  • 1912 – Herbert Mills, American singer (The Mills Brothers) (d. 1989)
  • 1914 – Sir Alec Guinness, English actor (d. 2000)
  • 1917 – Dabbs Greer, American actor (d. 2007)
  • 1917 – Lou Monte, American singer (d. 1989)
  • 1920 – Jack Webb, American actor, director, and producer (d. 1982)
  • 1923 – G. Spencer-Brown, English mathematician
  • 1923 – Clifford Scott Green, American Federal Judge
  • 1926 – George MacDonald Fraser, English author
  • 1926 – Sir Jack Brabham, Australian race car driver, three-time F1 world champion and co-founder of eponymous race team
  • 1927 – Carmen Basilio, American boxer
  • 1927 – Ferenc Puskás, Hungarian footballer (d. 2006)
  • 1927 – Kenneth Tynan, English critic and writer (d. 1980)
  • 1928 – Joseph Cardinal Bernardin, American cardinal (d. 1996)
  • 1928 – Serge Gainsbourg, French singer (d. 1991)
  • 1934 – Paul Joseph Cohen, American mathematician (d. 2007)
  • 1934 – Brian Glover, British actor and wrestler (d. 1997)
  • 1937 – Dick Radatz, American baseball player (d. 2005)
  • 1938 – John Larsson, 17th General of The Salvation Army
  • 1938 – Whirlaway, American thoroughbred racehorse, 1941 Triple Crown Winner (d. 1953)
  • 1938 – Booker Little, American jazz trumpeter (d. 1961)
  • 1939 – Marvin Gaye, American singer (d. 1984)
  • 1939 – Lise Thibault, Lieutenant-governor of Quebec
  • 1940 – Penelope Keith, English actress
  • 1941 – Dr. Demento, American radio personality
  • 1942 – Leon Russell, American blues-rock pianist/guitarist session musician
  • 1942 – Hiroyuki Sakai, Japanese chef
  • 1945 – Linda Hunt, American actress
  • 1945 – Reggie Smith, American baseball player
  • 1945 – Don Sutton, American baseball player
  • 1945 – Anne Waldman, American poet
  • 1946 – Kurt Winter, Canadian guitarist (The Guess Who) (d. 1997)
  • 1947 – Emmylou Harris, American singer
  • 1947 – Camille Paglia, American feminist writer
  • 1948 – Dimitris Mitropanos, Greek singer
  • 1949 – Paul Gambaccini, British television presenter
  • 1949 – Pamela Reed, American actress
  • 1949 – Ron Palillo, American actor
  • 1951 – Ayako Okamoto, Japanese golfer
  • 1951 – Moriteru Ueshiba, Japanese martial artist
  • 1952 – Pat Drummond, Australian singer-songwriter
  • 1952 – Thierry Le Luron, French humorist (d. 1986)
  • 1952 – Leon Wilkeson, American rock bassist (Lynyrd Skynyrd) (d. 2001)
  • 1953 – Jim Allister, Northern Irish politician
  • 1953 – David Robinson, American musician
  • 1953 – Debralee Scott, American actress (d. 2005)
  • 1954 – Allan Davis, Australian diplomat
  • 1954 – Susumu Hirasawa, Japanese electropop musician
  • 1955 – Dana Carvey, American actor, SNL
  • 1955 – Michael Stone, British terrorist
  • 1959 – Juha Kankkunen, Finnish race car driver
  • 1959 – Badou Zaki, Morrocan footballer and manager
  • 1960 – Linford Christie, English athlete
  • 1960 – Brad Jones, Australian racing driver
  • 1961 – Christopher Meloni, American actor
  • 1961 – Keren Woodward, English singer (Bananarama)
  • 1962 – Pierre Carles, French documentarist
  • 1962 – Clark Gregg, American actor
  • 1962 – Mark Shulman, American children’s author
  • 1963 – Mike Gascoyne, British engineer
  • 1964 – Pete Incaviglia, American baseball player
  • 1965 – Rodney King, American victim of police brutality
  • 1966 – Bill Romanowski, American football player
  • 1966 – Teddy Sheringham, English footballer
  • 1966 – Garnet Silk, Jamaican singer (d. 1994)
  • 1967 – Greg Camp, American musician (Smash Mouth)
  • 1967 – Helen Chamberlain, British television presenter
  • 1970 – Roselyn Sanchez, Puerto Rican actress
  • 1971 – Todd Woodbridge, Australian tennis player
  • 1971 – ZEEBRA, Japanese hip hop artist
  • 1972 – Chico Slimani, Moroccoan-British singer
  • 1974 – Håkan Hellström, Swedish musician
  • 1975 – Adam Rodriguez, American actor
  • 1976 – Rory Sabbatini, South African golfer
  • 1977 – Michael Fassbender, Actor
  • 1977 – Jelena Abbou, Serbian fitness model
  • 1976 – Andreas Anastasopoulos, Greek shot putter
  • 1978 – John Gall, American baseball player
  • 1979 – Jesse Carmichael, American musician (Maroon 5)
  • 1980 – Carlos Salcido, Mexican footballer
  • 1980 – Adam Fleming, English news reporter
  • 1980 – Ricky Hendrick, NASCAR driver and owner
  • 1981 – Michael Clarke, Australian cricketer
  • 1981 – Bethany Joy Lenz-Galeotti, American actress
  • 1982 – Marco Amelia, Italian World Cup-winning footballer
  • 1982 – Jeremy Bloom, American skier and football player
  • 1982 – Bianca Chatfield, Australian netballer
  • 1982 – Jack Evans, American professional wrestler
  • 1982 – Leyla Milani, Canadian actress and model
  • 1983 – Felix Borja, Ecuadorian footballer
  • 1983 – Yung Joc, American rapper
  • 1983 – Paul Capdeville, Chilean tennis player
  • 1984 – Meryl Cassie, New Zealand actress
  • 1991 – Taylor Henderson, Australian musician

April 2 – Deaths:

  • 1118 – Baldwin I of Jerusalem, King of Jerusalem
  • 1272 – Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1209)
  • 1335 – Duke Henry of Carinthia
  • 1412 – Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo, Spanish traveler and writer
  • 1502 – Prince Arthur Tudor, son of Henry VII of England (b. 1486)
  • 1507 – Francis of Paola, Italian founder of the Order of the Minims (b. 1416)
  • 1657 – Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1608)
  • 1657 – Jean-Jacques Olier – French catholic priest, founder of the Society of Saint-Sulpice (b. 1608)
  • 1720 – Joseph Dudley, colonial Governor of Massachusetts (b. 1647)
  • 1742 – James Douglas, Scottish physician and anatomist (b. 1675)
  • 1747 – Johann Jacob Dillenius, German botanist (b. 1684)
  • 1754 – Thomas Carte, English historian (b. 1686)
  • 1787 – Thomas Gage, British general (b. 1719)
  • 1791 – Mirabeau, French statesman (b. 1749)
  • 1801 – Thomas Dadford Junior, British canal engineer
  • 1803 – Sir James Montgomery, 1st Baronet, Scottish politician and judge (b. 1721)
  • 1817 – Johann Heinrich Jung, German author (b. 1740)
  • 1827 – Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus, German physician and naturalist (b. 1776)
  • 1845 – Philip Charles Durham, Royal Navy Admiral (b. 1763)
  • 1865 – General A. P. Hill, American Confederate general (b. 1825)
  • 1872 – Samuel F. B. Morse, American painter and inventor of the telegraph (b. 1791)
  • 1902 – Esther Morris, suffragist and first female American judge (b. 1814)
  • 1914 – Paul von Heyse, German writer, Nobel laureate (b. 1830)
  • 1922 – Hermann Rorschach, Swiss psychologist (b. 1884)
  • 1928 – Theodore William Richards, American chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 1868)
  • 1930 – Empress Zauditu of Ethiopia (b. 1876)
  • 1936 – Jean-Baptiste Eugène Estienne, French general (b. 1860)
  • 1953 – Hugo Sperrle, German field marshal (b. 1885)
  • 1966 – C. S. Forester, English author (b. 1899)
  • 1972 – Franz Halder, German general (b. 1884)
  • 1972 – Toshitsugu Takamatsu, Japanese Martial Arts Grandmaster (b. 1887)
  • 1972 – Gil Hodges, American baseball player and manager (b. 1924)
  • 1974 – Georges Pompidou, President of France (b. 1911)
  • 1987 – Buddy Rich, American drummer (b. 1917)
  • 1992 – Tomisaburo Wakayama, Japanese actor (b. 1929)
  • 1992 – Juan Gómez González, Spanish footballplayer (b. 1954)
  • 1994 – Betty Furness, American actress (b. 1916)
  • 1995 – Harvey Penick, American golf instructor (b. 1904)
  • 1995 – Hannes Alfvén, Swedish physicist (b. 1908)
  • 1998 – Rob Pilatus, American model and entertainer (Milli Vanilli) (b. 1965)
  • 2000 – Tommaso Buscetta, Sicilian mafioso and pentito (b. 1928)
  • 2001 – Charles Daudelin, Canadian artist (b. 1920)
  • 2001 – Jennifer Syme, American actress (b. 1972)
  • 2003 – Edwin Starr, American singer (b. 1942)
  • 2004 – John Argyris, Greek aeronautical engineer (b. 1913)
  • 2005 – Pope John Paul II (b. 1920)
  • 2006 – Nina Schenk von Stauffenberg, German wife of freedom fighter Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (b. 1913)

April 2 – Holidays:

  • International Children’s Book Day
  • Malvinas Day in Argentina
  • Sizdah be dar in Iran
  • Saint Franciscus of Paola

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On This Day in History April 1

April 1 – Events:

  • 527 – Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne.
  • 1318 – Berwick-upon-Tweed is captured by the Scottish from the English.
  • 1340 – Niels Ebbesen kills Gerhard III of Holstein in his bedroom, ending the 1332-1340 interregnum in Denmark.
  • 1572 – In the Eighty Years’ War, the Watergeuzen capture Brielle from the Spaniards, gaining the first foothold on land for what would become the Dutch Republic.
  • 1789 – In New York City, the United States House of Representatives holds its first quorum and elects Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania as its first House Speaker.
  • 1826 – Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine.
  • 1854 – Hard Times begins serialisation in Charles Dickens magazine, Household Words.
  • 1857 – Herman Melville publishes The Confidence-Man.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Battle of Five Forks – In Siege of Petersburg, Confederate General Robert E. Lee begins his final offensive.
  • 1867 – Singapore becomes a British crown colony.
  • 1873 – The British steamer SS Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, killing 547.
  • 1891 – The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago, Illinois.
  • 1912 – The Greek athlete Konstantinos Tsiklitiras breaks the world record in standing long jump jumping 3.47 meters.
  • 1918 – The Royal Flying Corps is replaced by the Royal Air Force.
  • 1924 – Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years in jail for his participation in the “Beer Hall Putsch.” However, he spends only nine months in jail, during which he writes the book Mein Kampf.
  • 1924 – First revenue flight for Belgium’s Sabena Airlines
  • 1924 – The Royal Canadian Air Force is formed.
  • 1933 – The recently elected Nazis under Julius Streicher organize a one-day boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses in Germany, ushering in the series of anti-Semitic acts that will be known as the Holocaust.
  • 1936 – Orissa Formation of the Indian state orissa(1936), formerly known as UTKAL.
  • 1937 – Aden becomes a British crown colony.
  • 1939 – Generalísimo Francisco Franco of the Spanish State announced the end of the Spanish Civil War, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered.
  • 1941 – The Blockade Runner Badge for German navy is instituted.
  • 1945 – World War II: Operation Iceberg – United States troops land on Okinawa in the last campaign of the war.
  • 1946 – Aleutian Island earthquake: A 7.8 magnitude earthquake near the Aleutian Islands creates a tsunami that strikes the Hawaiian Islands killing 159 (mostly in Hilo, Hawaii).
  • 1946 – Formation of the Malayan Union.
  • 1948 – Cold War: Berlin Airlift – Military forces, under direction of the Soviet-controlled government in East Germany, set-up a land blockade of West Berlin.
  • 1948 – Faroe Islands receive autonomy from Denmark.
  • 1949 – Chinese Civil War: Communist Party of China hold unsuccessful peace talks with the Kuomintang in Beijing, after three years of fighting.
  • 1949 – The twenty-six counties of the Irish Free State become the Republic of Ireland.
  • 1954 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes the creation of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado.
  • 1955 – The EOKA rebellion starts in Cyprus, aiming at the island’s independence from the United Kingdom.
  • 1963 – The Soap Opera General Hospital debuted
  • 1967 – The United States Department of Transportation begins operation.
  • 1969 – The Hawker Siddeley Harrier enters service with the RAF.
  • 1970 – President Richard Nixon signs the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, requiring surgeon general’s warnings on tobacco products and banning cigarette advertisements on television and radio in the United States starting on January 1, 1971.
  • 1973 – Project Tiger, a tiger conservation project, is launched in the Corbett National Park, India.
  • 1974 – In the United Kingdom, the Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties come into being.
  • 1976 – Apple Computer is formed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.
  • 1976 – Conrail takes over operations from six bankrupt railroads in the northeastern U.S..
  • 1978 – Philippine College of Commerce, through a presidential decree, was converted to Polytechnic University of the Philippines.
  • 1979 – Iran’s government becomes an Islamic Republic by a 98% vote, overthrowing the Shah officially.
  • 1980 – New York City’s Transit Worker Union 100 goes on strike, lasting 11 days.
  • 1981 – Daylight saving time is introduced in the USSR.
  • 1989 – A new local government tax, the Community Charge (commonly known as the ‘poll tax’), was introduced in Scotland.
  • 1996 – The Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia was created.
  • 1999 – Nunavut is established as a Canadian territory carved from the eastern part of the Northwest Territories.
  • 2001 – An EP-3E United States Navy plane collides with a Chinese People’s Liberation Army fighter jet. The Navy crew makes an emergency landing in Hainan, People’s Republic of China and is detained.
  • 2001 – Former president of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Miloševic surrenders to police special forces, to be tried on charges of war crimes.
  • 2001 – Same-sex marriage comes into force in the Netherlands, which is the first country to allow it.
  • 2002 – The Netherlands legalizes euthanasia, becoming the first nation in the world to do so.

April 1 – Birthdays:

  • 1220 – Emperor Go-Saga of Japan (d. 1272)
  • 1543 – François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières, Constable of France (d. 1626)
  • 1578 – William Harvey, English physician (d. 1657)
  • 1610 – Charles de Saint-Évremond, French soldier (d. 1703)
  • 1640 – Georg Mohr, Danish mathematician (d. 1697)
  • 1647 – John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, English poet (d. 1680)
  • 1697 – Antoine François Prévost, French author and novelist (d. 1763)
  • 1753 – Joseph de Maistre, French diplomat and writer (d. 1821)
  • 1765 – Luigi Schiavonetti, Italian engraver (d. 1810)
  • 1776 – Sophie Germain, French mathematician (d. 1831)
  • 1809 – Nikolai Gogol, Russian writer (d. 1852)
  • 1815 – Otto von Bismarck, 1st Chancellor of Germany (d. 1898)
  • 1815 – Edward Clark, Governor of Texas (d. 1880)
  • 1834 – Big Jim Fisk, American entrepreneur (d. 1872)
  • 1854 – Bill Traylor, American artist (d. 1949)
  • 1856 – Acacio Gabriel Viegas, Indian physician (d. 1933)
  • 1865 – Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, Austrian-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1929)
  • 1866 – Ferruccio Busoni, Italian pianist and composer (d. 1924)
  • 1868 – Edmond Rostand, French dramatist (d. 1918)
  • 1873 – Sergei Rachmaninoff, Russian composer, pianist, and conductor (d. 1943)
  • 1875 – Edgar Wallace, English writer (d. 1932)
  • 1880 – Agha Petros, Assyrian general (d. 1932)
  • 1882 – Paul Anspach, Belgian Olympic champion fencer (d. 1991)
  • 1883 – Lon Chaney, Sr., American actor (d. 1930)
  • 1885 – Wallace Beery, American actor (d. 1949)
  • 1893 – Cicely Courtneidge, English actress and comedian (d. 1980)
  • 1895 – Alberta Hunter, American singer (d. 1984)
  • 1897 – Nita Naldi, American actress (d. 1961)
  • 1898 – William James Sidis, American genius (d. 1944)
  • 1899 – Gustavs Celmins, Latvian politician (d. 1968)
  • 1900 – Robert McDowell, Mayor of Maryborough, Queensland (d. 1988)
  • 1901 – Whittaker Chambers, American writer, editor, and defector (d. 1961)
  • 1902 – Maria Polydouri, Greek poet (d. 1930)
  • 1906 – Aleksandr Yakovlev, Russian engineer and airplane designer (d. 1989)
  • 1908 – Abraham Maslow, American psychologist (d. 1970)
  • 1909 – Eddy Duchin, American popular pianist & bandleader (d. 1951)
  • 1914 – Lor Tok, Thai comedian and actor (d. 2002)
  • 1915 – Otto Wilhelm Fischer, Austrian actor (d. 2004)
  • 1917 – Melville Shavelson, American film director, producer and screenwriter (d. 2007)
  • 1919 – Joseph Murray, American surgeon, Nobel laureate
  • 1920 – Toshiro Mifune, Japanese actor (d. 1997)
  • 1921 – Ken Reardon, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1922 – William Manchester, American historian (d. 2004)
  • 1924 – Brendan Byrne, Governor of New Jersey
  • 1924 – Miodrag Petrovic, Serbian actor (d. 2003)
  • 1926 – Charles Bressler, American tenor
  • 1926 – Anne McCaffrey, American author
  • 1928 – George Grizzard, American actor (d. 2007)
  • 1929 – Milan Kundera, Czech-born writer
  • 1929 – Payut Ngaokrachang, Thai animator
  • 1929 – Jane Powell, American dancer, actress, and singer
  • 1929 – Bo Schembechler, American football coach (d. 2006)
  • 1930 – Grace Lee Whitney, American actress
  • 1931 – Rolf Hochhuth, German writer
  • 1931 – Ita Ever, Estonian actress
  • 1932 – Gordon Jump, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1932 – Debbie Reynolds, American actress
  • 1933 – Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, French physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1933 – Dan Flavin, American artist (d. 1996)
  • 1934 – Don Hastings, American actor
  • 1934 – Rod Kanehl, American baseball player (d. 2004)
  • 1934 – Vladimir Posner, Russian journalist
  • 1935 – Larry McDonald, American politician (d. 1983)
  • 1936 – Jean-Pascal Delamuraz, Swiss politician, president of the Confederation in 1989 and 1996 (d. 1998)
  • 1938 – Ali MacGraw, American actress
  • 1938 – John Quade, American actor
  • 1939 – Phil Niekro, American baseball player
  • 1939 – Rudolph Isley, American singer
  • 1940 – Wangari Maathai, Kenyan environmentalist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1942 – Samuel R. Delany, American author
  • 1942 – Annie Nightingale, British disc jockey
  • 1944 – Rusty Staub, American baseball player
  • 1945 – John Barbata, American drummer
  • 1946 – Ronnie Lane, English musician (d. 1997)
  • 1946 – Arrigo Sacchi, Italian football coach
  • 1947 – Alain Connes, French mathematician
  • 1947 – M, English singer
  • 1947 – Norm Van Lier, American basketball player
  • 1948 – Jimmy Cliff, Jamaican musician
  • 1949 – Gérard Mestrallet, French businessman
  • 1949 – Sammy Nelson, Northern Irish footballer
  • 1949 – Gil Scott-Heron, American musician and composer
  • 1950 – Samuel Alito, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
  • 1952 – Annette O’Toole, American actress
  • 1952 – Bernard Stiegler, French philosopher
  • 1953 – Barry Sonnenfeld, producer and director
  • 1954 – Jeff Porcaro, American drummer (d. 1992)
  • 1955 – Gregg Jarrett, American television anchor
  • 1955 – Humayun Akhtar Khan, Pakistani statesman
  • 1957 – David Gower, English cricketer
  • 1958 – D. Boon, American musician d. 1985)
  • 1960 – Michael Praed, British actor
  • 1962 – Dave Ulliott, English poker player
  • 1964 – Erik Breukink, Dutch cyclist and manager
  • 1964 – Scott Stevens, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1965 – Mark Jackson, American basketball player
  • 1965 – Robert Steadman, English composer
  • 1966 – Chris Evans, English disc jockey
  • 1967 – Phil Demmel, American musician
  • 1970 – Sung Hi Lee, Korean-born model
  • 1971 – Method Man, American rapper
  • 1971 – Shinji Nakano, Japanese race car driver
  • 1972 – Allen and Albert Hughes, American film directors
  • 1972 – Darren McCarty, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1972 – Jesse Tobias, American musician
  • 1973 – Christian Finnegan, American comedian
  • 1973 – Stephen Fleming, New Zealand cricketer
  • 1973 – Joe Francis, American adult video producer
  • 1974 – Richard Christy, American drummer
  • 1974 – Hugo Benjamín Ibarra, Argentine footballer
  • 1974 – Sandra Völker, German swimmer
  • 1975 – George Bastl, Swiss tennis player
  • 1975 – John Butler, Australian singer and musician
  • 1977 – Haimar Zubeldia, Spanish cyclist
  • 1978 – Jean-Pierre Dumont, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1978 – Miroslava Vavrinec, Swiss tennis player
  • 1979 – Ivano Balic, Croatian handballer
  • 1980 – Randy Orton, American professional wrestler
  • 1980 – Bijou Phillips, American actress
  • 1980 – Yuko Takeuchi, Japanese actress
  • 1981 – Antonis Fotsis, Greek basketball player
  • 1981 – Hannah Spearritt, British singer
  • 1981 – Pieter Weening, Dutch cyclist
  • 1981 – Aimee Chan, Miss Hong Kong 2006
  • 1982 – Sam Huntington, American actor
  • 1982 – Gemma Hunt, British children’s television presenter
  • 1982 – Taran Killam, American comedian and actor
  • 1983 – Ólafur Ingi Skúlason, Icelandic footballer
  • 1983 – Sean Taylor, American football player (d. 2007)
  • 1984 – Gilberto Macena, Brazilian footballer
  • 1984 – Olga Rei, Russian television personality
  • 1985 – Josh Zuckerman, American actor
  • 1985 – Shay Doron, Israeli basketball player
  • 1986 – Ireen Wüst, Dutch speed skater
  • 1987 – Ding Junhui, Chinese snooker player
  • 1987 – Li Ting, Chinese diver
  • 1988 – Courtney McCool, American gymnast
  • 1989 – Vietoris Krisztián, German racecar driver

April 1 – Deaths:

  • 1085 – Emperor Shenzong of China (b. 1048)
  • 1132 – St-Hugues, Bishop of Grenoble (b. 1053)
  • 1204 – Eleanor of Aquitaine, mother of Richard I of England and John of England
  • 1205 – King Amalric II of Jerusalem (b. 1145)
  • 1528 – Francisco de Peñalosa, Spanish composer
  • 1580 – Alonso Mudarra, Spanish composer
  • 1621 – Cristofano Allori, Italian painter (b. 1577)
  • 1637 – Niwa Nagashige, Japanese warlord (b. 1571)
  • 1682 – Franz Egon of Fürstenberg, Bishop of Strassburg (b. 1625)
  • 1787 – Floyer Sydenham, English classical scholar (b. 1710)
  • 1791 – Richard Butler American soldier (b. 1743)
  • 1839 – Benjamin Pierce, Governor of New Hampshire (b. 1757)
  • 1865 – Giuditta Pasta, Italian soprano (b. 1797)
  • 1872 – Frederick Maurice, English theologian (b. 1805)
  • 1872 – William Frederick Horry, executed by William Marwood (b. 1843)
  • 1878 – John Corry Wilson Daly, Canadian politician (b. 1796)
  • 1890 – David Wilber, American politician (b. 1820)
  • 1914 – Rube Waddell, American baseball player (b. 1876)
  • 1917 – Scott Joplin, American musician and composer (b. 1868)
  • 1922 – Emperor Karl I of Austria (b. 1887)
  • 1930 – Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner (b. 1837)
  • 1946 – Noah Beery, American actor (b. 1882)
  • 1947 – King George II of Greece (b. 1890)
  • 1950 – Charles R. Drew, American physician (b. 1904)
  • 1965 – Helena Rubinstein, cosmetic manufacturer (b. 1870)
  • 1966 – Flann O’Brien, Irish humorist (b. 1911)
  • 1968 – Lev Davidovich Landau, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1908)
  • 1976 – Max Ernst, German artist (b. 1891)
  • 1979 – Bruno Coquatrix, French music impresario (b. 1910)
  • 1979 – Barbara Luddy, American actress (b. 1908)
  • 1981 – Eua Sunthornsanan, Thai composer and bandleader (b. 1910)
  • 1984 – Marvin Gaye, American singer (b. 1939)
  • 1986 – Erik Bruhn, Danish ballet dancer, choreographer (b. 1928)
  • 1988 – Jim Jordan, American actor (Fibber McGee) (b. 1896)
  • 1991 – Martha Graham, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1894)
  • 1993 – Alan Kulwicki, American race car driver (b. 1954)
  • 1994 – Robert Doisneau, French photographer (b. 1912)
  • 1996 – Florence Buchsbaum, theater director and musician (b. 1926)
  • 1996 – John McSherry, American baseball umpire (b. 1944)
  • 1997 – Norman Carr, British conservationist (b. 1912)
  • 1998 – Gene Evans, American actor (b. 1922)
  • 1998 – Rozz Williams, American musician (Christian Death) (b. 1963)
  • 1999 – Jesse Stone, American record producer (b. 1901)
  • 2000 – Alexander Mackenzie Stuart, Baron Mackenzie-Stuart, president of the European Court of Justice (b. 1924)
  • 2001 – Olivia Barclay, British astrologer (b. 1919)
  • 2001 – Jo-Jo Moore, American baseball player (b. 1908)
  • 2001 – Trinh Cong Son, Vietnamese composer (b. 1939)
  • 2002 – Simo Hayha, Finnish marksman (b. 1905)
  • 2003 – Leslie Cheung, Hong Kong actor and singer (b. 1956)
  • 2004 – Carrie Snodgress, American actress (b. 1946)
  • 2005 – Alexander Brott, Canadian violinist, conductor and composer (b. 1915)
  • 2005 – Harald Juhnke, German entertainer (b. 1929)
  • 2005 – Jack Keller, American songwriter (b. 1936)
  • 2005 – Ioannis Kyrastas, Greek footballer and manager (b. 1952)
  • 2005 – Robert Coldwell Wood, American university president and political appointee (b. 1923)
  • 2006 – In Tam, Cambodian politician (b. 1916)
  • 2007 – Herb Carneal, Major League Baseball radio broadcaster (b. 1923)

April 1 – Holidays:

  • April 1 is known as April Fool’s Day or All Fools’ Day in many countries.
  • Last day of the Assyrian New Year Celebration.
  • Roman Empire – Veneralia celebrated to honor Venus.
  • Brielle celebrates the victory of 1572 over the Spaniards.
  • In San Marino, two Captains Regent, elected by Parliament, take office for six months.
  • Užupis – Residents celebrate their independence on Užupis Day.
  • In the Roman Catholic Church calendar:
    • Saint Hugh of Grenoble
    • Saint Waleric

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On This Day in History March 31

March 31 – Events:

  • 307 – After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Maximian.
  • 1146 – Bernard of Clairvaux preaches his famous sermon in a field at Vézelay, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade. Louis VII is present, and joins the Crusade.
  • 1492 – Queen Isabella of Castille orders her 150,000 Jewish subjects to convert to Christianity or face expulsion.
  • 1717 – A sermon on “The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ” by Benjamin Hoadly, the Bishop of Bangor, provoked the Bangorian Controversy.
  • 1774 – American Revolutionary War: The Kingdom of Great Britain orders the port of Boston, Massachusetts closed in the Boston Port Act.
  • 1822 – The massacre of the population of the Greek island of Chios by soldiers of the Ottoman Empire following a rebellion attempt, depicted by the French artist Eugène Delacroix.
  • 1854 – Commodore Matthew Perry signs the Treaty of Kanagawa with the Japanese government, opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade.
  • 1866 – The Spanish Navy bombs the harbour of Valparaíso, Chile.
  • 1877 – The family with samurai antecedents who responded to the Saigo army in Oita Nakatsu rebels.
  • 1885 – The United Kingdom establishes a protectorate over Bechuanaland.
  • 1889 – The Eiffel Tower is inaugurated.
  • 1906 – The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (later National Collegiate Athletic Association) is established to set rules for amateur sports in the United States.
  • 1909 – Serbia accepts Austrian control over Bosnia-Herzegovina.
  • 1917 – The United States takes possession of the Danish West Indies after paying $25 million to Denmark, and renames the territory the U.S. Virgin Islands.
  • 1918 – Daylight saving time goes into effect in the United States for the first time.
  • 1930 – The Motion Pictures Production Code is instituted, imposing strict guidelines on the treatment of sex, crime, religion and violence in motion pictures for the next thirty eight years.
  • 1931 – An earthquake destroys Managua, Nicaragua, killing 2,000.
  • 1933 – The Civilian Conservation Corps is established with the mission to relieve rampant unemployment.
  • 1942 – In World War II, Japanese forces invade Christmas Island, then a British possession.
  • 1942 – Holocaust in Ivano-Frankivsk (then called Stanislawow), western Ukraine. German Gestapo organize the first deportation of 5.000 Jews from Stanislawow ghetto to Belzec death camp. It was one of the biggest transports to Belzec in the first phase of the camp.
  • 1944 – Japanese Navy Marshal Mineichi Koga dies in the performance of job in the Navy Second Incident.
  • 1946 – The first election is held in Greece after World War II.
  • 1949 – The Dominion of Newfoundland joins Confederation and becomes the 10th Province of Canada.
  • 1951 – The first commercial US made computer, UNIVAC I, was delivered to the United States Census Bureau.
  • 1957 – Elections to the Territorial Assembly of the French colony Upper Volta. After the elections PDU and MDV form a government.
  • 1959 – The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, crosses the border into India and is granted political asylum.
  • 1964 – The Dictatorship in Brazil, under the aegis of general Castello Branco, begins.
  • 1965 – Iberia Airlines Convair 440, crashed into the sea on approach to Tangier killing 47 of 51 occupants.
  • 1966 – The Soviet Union launches Luna 10 which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon.
  • 1968 – President Lyndon B. Johnson announces he will not run for re-election.
  • 1970 – Explorer 1 re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere (after 12 years in orbit).
  • 1970 – Eight terrorists from the Japanese Red Army hijacked Japan Airlines Flight 351 at Tokyo International Airport, wielding samurai swords and carrying a bomb.
  • 1979 – The last British soldier leaves the Maltese Islands. Malta declares its Freedom Day (Jum il-Helsien).
  • 1980 – The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific railroad operate final train after ordered to be liquidated due to bankruptcy and debt owed to creditors.
  • 1986 – A Mexicana Boeing 727 en route to Puerto Vallarta erupts in flames and crashes in the mountains northwest of Mexico City, killing 166.
  • 1986 – Six metropolitan county councils are abolished in England.
  • 1990 – 200,000 protestors took to the streets of London to show their displeasure at the newly introduced Poll Tax.
  • 1991 – The Establishment of Islamic Constitutional Movement – Hadas in Kuwait.
  • 1991 – Georgian independence referendum: nearly 99 per cent of the voters support the country’s independence from the Soviet Union.
  • 1992 – USS Missouri (BB-63), the last active US Navy Battleship, is decommissioned in Long Beach, California.
  • 1994 – The journal Nature reports the finding in Ethiopia of the first complete Australopithecus afarensis
  • 1995 – In Corpus Christi, Texas, Latin superstar Selena Quintanilla Perez is shot and killed by Yolanda Saldivar, the president of her own fan club.
  • 1998 – Netscape releases the code base of its browser under an open-source license agreement; the project is given the code name Mozilla and would eventually be spun off into the non-profit Mozilla Foundation.

March 31 – Birthdays:

  • 250 – Constantius Chlorus, Roman Emperor (d. 306)
  • 1360 – Philippa of Lancaster, queen of Portugal (d. 1415)
  • 1425 – Bianca Maria Visconti, Duchess of Milan (d. 1468)
  • 1499 – Pope Pius IV (d. 1565)
  • 1504 – Guru Angad Dev, second Sikh guru (d. 1552)
  • 1519 – King Henry II of France (d. 1559)
  • 1536 – Ashikaga Yoshiteru, Japanese shogun (d. 1565)
  • 1576 – Louise Juliana of Nassau, Regent of Bohemia (died 1644)
  • 1596 – René Descartes, French mathematician (d. 1650)
  • 1621 – Andrew Marvell, English poet (d. 1678)
  • 1651 – Karl II, Elector Palatine (d. 1685)
  • 1675 – Pope Benedict XIV (d. 1758)
  • 1718 – Marianne Victoria of Borbón, queen regent of Portugal (d. 1781)
  • 1723 – King Frederick V of Denmark (d. 1766)
  • 1730 – Étienne Bézout, French mathematician (d. 1783)
  • 1732 – Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer (d. 1809)
  • 1777 – Charles Cagniard de la Tour, French physicist (d. 1859)
  • 1778 – Coenraad Jacob Temminck, Dutch zoologist (d. 1858)
  • 1794 – Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan, American politician (d. 1852)
  • 1809 – Edward FitzGerald, English poet (d. 1883)
  • 1811 – Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, German chemist and inventor (d. 1899)
  • 1819 – Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1901)
  • 1847 – Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev, Russian mathematician (d. 1878)
  • 1855 – Alfred E. Hunt, founder of Alcoa (d. 1899)
  • 1871 – Arthur Griffith, President of Ireland (d. 1922)
  • 1872 – Alexandra Kollontai, Russian ambassador to Norway (d.1952)
  • 1872 – Serge Diaghilev, Russian ballet impresario (Ballets Russes) (d. 1929)
  • 1876 – Borisav “Bora” Stankovic, Serbian writer (d. 1927)
  • 1878 – Jack Johnson, American boxer (d. 1946)
  • 1884 – Adriaan van Maanen, Dutch-American astronomer (d. 1946)
  • 1885 – Pascin, Bulgarian painter (d. 1930)
  • 1890 – William Lawrence Bragg, English physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1971)
  • 1891 – Victor Varconi, Hungarian film actor (d. 1976)
  • 1893 – Clemens Krauss, Austrian conductor (d. 1954)
  • 1906 – Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Japanese physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1979)
  • 1907 – Eddie Quillan, American actor (d. 1990)
  • 1908 – Red Norvo, American jazz vibraphonist (d. 1999)
  • 1911 – Elisabeth Grümmer, Alsatian soprano (d. 1986)
  • 1914 – Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat and writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1998)
  • 1915 – Albert Hourani, English historian (d. 1993)
  • 1915 – Shoichi Yokoi, Japanese military man (d. 1997)
  • 1916 – Lucille Bliss, American voice actress
  • 1916 – John H. Wood, Jr., American federal judge (d. 1979)
  • 1919 – Frank Akins, American football player (d. 1993)
  • 1922 – Richard Kiley, American actor and singer (d. 1999)
  • 1924 – Leo Buscaglia, American author (d. 1998)
  • 1924 – Charles Guggenheim, American film director/producer (d. 2002)
  • 1925 – Jean Coutu, French Canadian actor (d. 1999)
  • 1926 – John Fowles, English author (d. 2005)
  • 1927 – César Chávez, American labor activist (d. 1993)
  • 1927 – William Daniels, American actor
  • 1928 – Lefty Frizzell, American singer and songwriter (d. 1975)
  • 1928 – Gordie Howe, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1929 – Liz Claiborne, Belgian-born American fashion designer (d. 2007)
  • 1929 – Bertram Fields, American lawyer
  • 1931 – Miller Barber, American golfer
  • 1932 – Nagisa Oshima, Japanese film director
  • 1933 – Nichita Stanescu, Romanian poet (d. 1983)
  • 1934 – Richard Chamberlain, American actor
  • 1934 – Shirley Jones, American singer and actress
  • 1934 – Carlo Rubbia, Italian physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1934 – John D. Loudermilk, American singer and songwriter
  • 1935 – Herb Alpert, American trumpeter and band leader
  • 1935 – Judith Rossner, American author
  • 1936 – Bob Pulford, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1936 – Marge Piercy, American writer
  • 1936 – Dokumamushi Sandayu, Japanese actor
  • 1938 – Sheila Dikshit, Chief Minister of Delhi
  • 1938 – David Steel, Scottish politician
  • 1938 – Michiko Nomura, Japanese voice actor
  • 1938 – Bill Hicke, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2005)
  • 1939 – Zviad Gamsakhurdia, first President of Georgia (d. 1993)
  • 1939 – Volker Schlöndorff, German film director
  • 1940 – Barney Frank, U.S. Representative from Massachusetts
  • 1940 – Patrick Leahy, U.S. Senator from Vermont
  • 1942 – Michael Savage, American talk radio host and commentator
  • 1942 – Ulla Hoffmann, Swedish politician
  • 1943 – Christopher Walken, American actor
  • 1944 – Pascal Danel, French singer and songwriter
  • 1944 – Mick Ralphs, English guitarist (Mott the Hoople, Bad Company)
  • 1945 – Valerie Curtin, American actress, writer, and producer
  • 1945 – Gabe Kaplan, American actor and comedian
  • 1946 – Gonzalo Márquez, Venezuelan baseball player (d. 1984)
  • 1947 – Cesar Gaviria Trujillo, President of Colombia
  • 1948 – Al Gore, Vice President of the United States and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1948 – Rhea Perlman, American actress
  • 1950 – Ed Marinaro, American football player and actor
  • 1950 – András Adorján, Hungarian chess player
  • 1955 – Angus Young, Scottish-born Australian guitarist (AC/DC)
  • 1955 – Robert Vance, New Zealand cricketer
  • 1957 – Marc McClure, American actor
  • 1957 – Alan Duncan, British politician
  • 1959 – Ali McMordie, Irish bassist (Stiff Little Fingers)
  • 1963 – Paul Mercurio, Australian actor/dancer
  • 1964 – Paul Wong Koon-Chung, Hong Kong musician (Beyond)
  • 1965 – Tom Barrasso, American ice hockey player
  • 1965 – Steven T. Seagle, American comic-book writer
  • 1966 – Roger Black, English athlete
  • 1968 – Naoya Ogawa, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1969 – Samantha Brown, American television host
  • 1969 – Steve Smith, American basketball player
  • 1969 – Nyamko Sabuni, Swedish politician
  • 1971 – Pavel Bure, Russian ice hockey player
  • 1971 – Ewan McGregor, Scottish actor
  • 1972 – Hristos Polihroniou, Greek hammer thrower
  • 1972 – Alejandro Amenábar, Spanish film director
  • 1973 – Bold Forbes, Puerto Rican/American thoroughbred racehorse (d. 2000)
  • 1974 – Stefan Olsdal, Swedish bassist (Placebo)
  • 1974 – Benjamin Eicher, Swiss film director
  • 1976 – Josh Saviano, American actor
  • 1976 – Ashton Moore, American porn actress
  • 1977 – Toshiya, Japanese musician (Dir en grey)
  • 1977 – Garth Tander, Australian racing driver
  • 1978 – Stephen Clemence, English footballer
  • 1978 – Jérôme Rothen, French footballer
  • 1978 – Tony Yayo, American rapper
  • 1979 – Josh Kinney, American baseball player
  • 1980 – Chien-Ming Wang, Taiwanese baseball player
  • 1980 – Maaya Sakamoto, Japanese voice actor
  • 1980 – Michael Ryder, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1981 – Maarten van der Weijden, Dutch swimmer
  • 1982 – Lennon Murphy, American rock singer/songwriter
  • 1982 – Philippe Mexès, French footballer
  • 1983 – Paddy McCarthy, Irish footballer
  • 1983 – Vlasios Maras, Greek gymnast
  • 1984 – James Jones, American football player
  • 1987 – Georg Listing, Bassist of Tokio Hotel

March 31 – Deaths:

  • 1074 – Regency Yorimichi Fujiwara of Japan (b. 992)
  • 1204 – Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France and England (b. 1121)
  • 1340 – Ivan I of Russia, Prince of Moscow (b. 1288)
  • 1547 – Francis I of France (b. 1494)
  • 1567 – Philipp I of Hesse (b. 1504)
  • 1621 – Philip III of Spain (b. 1578)
  • 1631 – John Donne, English writer and prelate (b. 1572)
  • 1671 – Anne Hyde, wife of James II of England (b. 1637)
  • 1703 – Johann Christoph Bach, German composer (b. 1642)
  • 1723 – Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon, British-born American statesman (b. 1661)
  • 1727 – Sir Isaac Newton, English mathematician and physicist (b. 1643)
  • 1741 – Pieter Burmann the Elder, Dutch classical scholar (b. 1668)
  • 1783 – Nikita Ivanovich Panin, Russian statesman (b. 1718)
  • 1837 – John Constable, English painter (b. 1776)
  • 1850 – John C. Calhoun, 7th Vice President of the United States (b. 1782)
  • 1855 – Charlotte Brontë, English author (b. 1816)
  • 1877 – Antoine Augustin Cournot, French mathematician (b. 1801)
  • 1880 – Henryk Wieniawski, Polish composer (b. 1835)
  • 1885 – Franz Wilhelm Abt, German composer (b. 1819)
  • 1913 – John Pierpont Morgan, American financier (b. 1837)
  • 1917 – Emil Adolf von Behring, German physician, Nobel laureate (b. 1854)
  • 1915 – Wyndham Halswelle, Scottish athlete (b. 1882)
  • 1927 – Borisav “Bora” Stankovic, Serbian writer (b. 1875)
  • 1931 – Knute Rockne, American football coach (b. 1888)
  • 1945 – Hans Fischer, German chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 1881)
  • 1945 – Anne Frank, German-born diarist (b. 1929)
  • 1952 – Wallace H. White, Jr., American politician (b. 1877)
  • 1956 – Ralph DePalma, Italian-American race car driver (b. 1884)
  • 1968 – Grover Lowdermilk, American baseball player (b. 1885)
  • 1972 – Meena Kumari, Indian actress (b. 1932)
  • 1976 – Paul Strand, American photographer (b. 1890)
  • 1978 – Charles Best, Canadian medical scientist (b. 1899)
  • 1980 – Vladimír Holan, Czech poet (b. 1905)
  • 1980 – Jesse Owens, American athlete (b. 1913)
  • 1981 – Enid Bagnold, British playwright (b. 1889)
  • 1984 – Ronald Clark O’Bryan, American murderer (b. 1944)
  • 1985 – Jeanine Deckers, Belgian nun (b. 1933)
  • 1986 – O’Kelly Isley, Jr., American singer (The Isley Brothers) (b. 1937)
  • 1986 – Jerry Paris, American actor (b. 1925)
  • 1988 – William McMahon, 20th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1908)
  • 1993 – Brandon Lee, American actor (b. 1965)
  • 1993 – Mitchell Parish, American lyricist (b. 1900)
  • 1995 – Selena, American singer (b. 1971)
  • 1996 – Jeffrey Lee Pierce, American singer, songwriter and guitarist (The Gun Club) (b. 1958)
  • 1998 – Bella Abzug, American politician (b. 1920)
  • 1998 – Tim Flock, American race car driver (b. 1924)
  • 1999 – Yuri Knorozov, Russian linguist (b. 1922)
  • 2001 – Clifford Shull, American physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1915)
  • 2002 – Barry Took, British comedian (b. 1928)
  • 2003 – H.S.M. Coxeter, English-born geometer (b. 1907)
  • 2003 – Tommy Seebach, Danish singer (b. 1949)
  • 2003 – Anne Gwynne, American film actress (b. 1918)
  • 2005 – Stanley J. Korsmeyer, American oncologist (b. 1951)
  • 2005 – Frank Perdue, American poultry farmer (b. 1920)
  • 2005 – Terri Schiavo, American figure in right to die case (b. 1963)
  • 2006 – Jackie McLean, American jazz saxophonist (b. 1931 or 1932)
  • 2006 – Angela Devi, American adult model (b. 1975)
  • 2007 – Paul Watzlawick, Communications & Constructivism Theorist (b. 1921)

March 31 – Holidays:

  • New Jersey – Thomas Mundy Peterson Day
  • Freedom Day (Malta)
  • Abdas of Susa
  • Anesius and companions

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