On This Day in History October 25

October 25 – Events:

  • 732 – The army of Charles Martel defeats the Arabs at the Battle of Tours.
  • 1147 – The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a four-month siege.
  • 1147 – Seljuk Turks defeat German crusaders under Conrad III at the Battle of Dorylaeum.
  • 1315 – Adam Banastre, Henry de Lea and William Bradshaw, led an attack on Liverpool Castle.
  • 1415 – The army of Henry V of England defeats the French at the Battle of Agincourt.
  • 1616 – Dutch sea-captain Dirk Hartog makes second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil, at the later-named Dirk Hartog Island off the Western Australian coast.
  • 1747 – British fleet under Admiral Sir Edward Hawke defeats the French at the second battle of Cape Finisterre.
  • 1760 – George III becomes King of Great Britain.
  • 1813 – War of 1812: Canadians and Mohawks defeat the Americans in the Battle of Chateauguay.
  • 1828 – The St Katharine Docks opened in London.
  • 1854 – The Battle of Balaklava during the Crimean War (Charge of the Light Brigade).
  • 1861 – The Toronto Stock Exchange was created.
  • 1875 – The first performance of the Piano Concerto No. 1 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is given in Boston, Massachusetts with Hans von Bülow as soloist.
  • 1900 – The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal.
  • 1912 – Richard Strauss’ opera Ariadne auf Naxos receives its debut performance at the Vienna State Opera.
  • 1917 – Traditionally understood date of the October Revolution, involving the capture of the Winter Palace, Petrograd, Russia.
  • 1924 – The forged Zinoviev Letter is published in the Daily Mail, wrecking the British Labour Party’s hopes of re-election.
  • 1935 – Hurricane floods Haiti, killing over 2,000 people.
  • 1936 – Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini create the Rome-Berlin Axis.
  • 1938 – The Archbishop of Dubuque, Francis J. L. Beckman, denounces Swing music as “a degenerated musical system… turned loose to gnaw away at the moral fiber of young people,” warning that it leads down a “primrose path to hell.”
  • 1944 – Heinrich Himmler orders a crackdown on the Edelweiss Pirates, a loosely organized youth culture in Nazi Germany that had assisted army deserters and others to hide from the Third Reich.
  • 1944 – The USS Tang (SS-306) under Richard O’Kane (the top submarine captain of World War II) is sunk by the ship’s own torpedo.
  • 1944 – The Romanian Army liberates Carei, the last Romanian city under Axis Powers’ occupation.
  • 1944 – Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval battle in history, takes place in and around the Philippines between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the U.S. Third and U.S. Seventh Fleets.
  • 1945 – The Republic of China takes over administration of Taiwan following Japan’s surrender to the Allies.
  • 1962 – Cuban missile crisis: Adlai Stevenson shows photos at the UN proving Soviet missiles are installed in Cuba
  • 1970 – The wreck of Confederate submarine Hunley was found off Charleston, South Carolina, by pioneer underwater archaeologist, Dr. E. Lee Spence, then just 22 years old. Hunley was the first submarine to sink a ship in warfare.
  • 1971 – The United Nations seated the People’s Republic of China and expelled the Republic of China
  • 1972 – The Washington Post reports that White House Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman was the fifth person to control a secret cash fund designed to finance illegal political sabotage and espionage during the 1972 presidential election campaign (see also Watergate scandal).
  • 1977 – Digital Equipment Corporation releases OpenVMS V1.0.
  • 1980 – Proceedings on the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction conclude at The Hague.
  • 1983 – Operation Urgent Fury: The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters were executed in a coup d’état.
  • 1991 – History of Slovenia: Three months after the end of the Ten-Day War, the last soldier of the Yugoslav People’s Army leaves the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.
  • 1992 – Lithuania holds a referendum on its first post-Soviet constitution.
  • 1993 – Jean Chrétien becomes Prime Minister of Canada with a massive majority for his Liberal Party in a general election in which the governing Progressive Conservatives, led by Kim Campbell, lost 149 of 151 seats in the parliament.
  • 1995 – A commuter train slams into a school bus in Fox River Grove, Illinois, killing seven students.
  • 1996 – The “Days of Action”, the largest one day strike in Ontario, Canada’s history, as over 250,000 protesters converged on the Ontario Legislature and attempted to shutdown Toronto, in protest to the Mike Harris government’s budget cuts.
  • 1997 – After a brief civil war which has driven President Pascal Lissouba out of Brazzaville, Denis Sassou-Nguesso proclaims himself the President of the Republic of the Congo.
  • 2004 – Fidel Castro, Cuba’s President, announces that transactions using the American Dollar will be banned by November 8.
  • 2007 – The first Airbus A380 passenger flight, operating for Singapore Airlines, with flight number SQ380, flying scheduled service between Singapore and Sydney, Australia.

October 25 – Birthdays:

  • 1102 – William Clito, Count of Flanders (d. 1128)
  • 1330 – Louis II of Flanders (d. 1384)
  • 1510 – Renée of France, french princess (d. 1574)
  • 1683 – Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, British politician (d. 1757)
  • 1759 – Maria Fyodorovna of Russia, wife of Tsar Paul I of Russia (d. 1828)
  • 1759 – William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, British politician (d. 1834)
  • 1767 – Benjamin Constant, Swiss writer (d. 1830)
  • 1772 – Geraud Duroc, French general (d. 1813)
  • 1782 – Levi Lincoln, Jr., 13th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1868)
  • 1802 – Joseph Montferrand, Canadian logger and strong man (d. 1864)
  • 1806 – Max Stirner, German philosopher (d. 1856)
  • 1811 – Évariste Galois, French mathematician (d. 1832)
  • 1825 – Johann Strauss II, Austrian composer (d. 1899)
  • 1838 – Georges Bizet, French composer (d. 1875)
  • 1856 – Dragutin Gorjanovic-Kramberger, Croatian paleontologist (d. 1936)
  • 1864 – Alexander Gretchaninov, Russian composer (d. 1956)
  • 1864 – John Francis Dodge, American automobile pioneer (d. 1920)
  • 1867 – Józef Dowbór-Musnicki, Polish general (d.1937)
  • 1881 – Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter and sculptor (d. 1973)
  • 1888 – Richard E. Byrd, American explorer (d. 1957)
  • 1888 – Nils von Dardel, Swedish painter (d. 1943)
  • 1889 – Abel Gance, French film director (d. 1981)
  • 1891 – Father Coughlin, Roman Catholic priest and pro-Fascist radio broadcaster (d. 1979)
  • 1892 – Leo G. Carroll, English actor (d. 1972)
  • 1895 – Levi Eshkol, Prime Minister of Israel (d. 1969)
  • 1902 – Eddie Lang, American jazz guitarist (d. 1933)
  • 1903 – Katharine Byron, U.S. Congresswoman (d. 1976)
  • 1903 – Harry Shoulberg, American painter (d. 1995)
  • 1908 – Edmond Pidoux, Swiss writer (d. 2004)
  • 1910 – William Higinbotham, American physicist (d. 1994)
  • 1912 – Minnie Pearl, American comedian and singer (d. 1996)
  • 1913 – Klaus Barbie, Nazi war criminal (d. 1991)
  • 1914 – John Berryman, American poet (d. 1972)
  • 1915 – Ivan M. Niven, Canadian mathematician (d. 1999)
  • 1917 – Lee MacPhail, American baseball manager and league executive
  • 1921 – King Michael I of Romania
  • 1923 – Jean Duceppe, Quebec actor (d. 1990)
  • 1924 – Billy Barty, American actor (d. 2000)
  • 1926 – Ismail Gulgee, Pakistani painter
  • 1926 – Galina Vishnevskaya, Russian soprano
  • 1927 – Barbara Cook, American singer and actress
  • 1927 – Jorge Batlle Ibáñez, President of Uruguay
  • 1928 – Marion Ross, American actress
  • 1928 – Anthony Franciosa, American actor (d. 2006)
  • 1931 – Jimmy McIlroy, Irish footballer and football manager
  • 1931 – Annie Girardot, French actress
  • 1932 – Harry Gregg, Irish footballer and football manager
  • 1933 – Eugene “Porky” Lee, American child actor (d. 2005)
  • 1935 – Russell Schweickart, astronaut
  • 1936 – Sir Martin Gilbert, British historian
  • 1939 – Robin Spry, Canadian filmmaker and producer (d. 2005)
  • 1940 – Bobby Knight, American basketball coach
  • 1941 – Helen Reddy, Australian singer
  • 1941 – Anne Tyler, American novelist
  • 1944 – Jon Anderson, English singer (Yes)
  • 1944 – James Carville, American political stategist
  • 1947 – Glenn Tipton, English guitarist (Judas Priest)
  • 1948 – Dave Cowens, American basketball player and coach
  • 1948 – Daniel Mark Epstein, American poet and biographer
  • 1948 – Dan Gable, American wrestler and coach
  • 1948 – Dan Issel, American basketball player
  • 1949 – Réjean Houle, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1950 – Chris Norman, English singer
  • 1951 – Richard Lloyd, American guitarist (Television)
  • 1952 – Ioannis Kyrastas, Greek footballer and manager (d. 2004)
  • 1954 – Mike Eruzione, American hockey player
  • 1955 – Robin Eubanks, American jazz trombonist
  • 1955 – Glynis Barber, English actress
  • 1955 – Matthias Jabs, German guitarist (Scorpions)
  • 1957 – Nancy Cartwright, American actress
  • 1958 – Kornelia Ender, East German swimmer
  • 1961 – Ward Burton, American auto racer
  • 1962 – Nick Hancock, British television presenter
  • 1962 – Chad Smith, American drummer (Red Hot Chili Peppers)
  • 1962 – Darlene Vogel, American actress
  • 1963 – Tracy Nelson, American actress
  • 1964 – Michael Boatman, American actor
  • 1964 – Nicole, German singer
  • 1964 – Kevin Michael Richardson, American actor
  • 1965 – Þorsteinn Bachmann, Icelandic actor
  • 1966 – Wendel Clark, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1966 – Perry Satullo, American professional wrestler
  • 1969 – Josef Beranek, Czech hockey player
  • 1969 – Oleg Salenko, Russian former footballer
  • 1970 – J.A. Adande, American sports columnist
  • 1970 – Adam Goldberg, American actor
  • 1970 – Adam Pascal, American actor
  • 1970 – Ed Robertson, Canadian musician (Barenaked Ladies)
  • 1971 – Simon Charlton, English footballer
  • 1971 – Athena Chu, Hong Kong actress and singer
  • 1971 – Midori Goto, Japanese violinist
  • 1971 – Pedro Martínez, Dominican baseball player
  • 1972 – Jonathan Torrens, Canadian actor
  • 1975 – Ryan Clement, former XFL quarterback
  • 1975 – Eirik Glambek Bøe, Norwegian musician
  • 1976 – Steve Jones, Irish footballer
  • 1977 – Birgit Prinz, German footballer
  • 1978 – Russell Anderson, Scottish footballer
  • 1979 – Rob Hulse, English footballer
  • 1979 – Sarah Thompson, American actress
  • 1979 – Tony Torcato, American baseball player
  • 1980 – Mehcad Brooks, American actor and former model
  • 1981 – Shaun Wright-Phillips, English footballer
  • 1981 – Jerome Isaac Jones, American singer
  • 1981 – Austin Winkler, American lead vocalist (Hinder)
  • 1982 – Jerome Carter, American football player
  • 1982 – Eman Lam, Hong Kong singer
  • 1983 – Han Yeo-reum, South Korean actress
  • 1984 – Danny .S., English record producer
  • 1984 – Sara Helena Lumholdt, Swedish musician (A-Teens)
  • 1985 – Ciara Harris, American singer
  • 1986 – DJ Webstar, American disc jockey
  • 1986 – Eddie Gaven, American footballer
  • 1987 – Darron Gibson, Irish football player
  • 1988 – Jonathan Wilson, American Novelist
  • 1995 – Conchita Campbell, Canadian actress
  • 2001 – Princess Elisabeth of Belgium

October 25 – Deaths:

  • 304 – Pope Marcellinus (martyred)
  • 625 – Pope Boniface V
  • 1047 – King Magnus I of Norway (b. 1024)
  • 1154 – King Stephen of England (b. 1096)
  • 1200 – Conrad of Wittelsbach, German Archbishop
  • 1230 – Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford, English soldier (b. 1180)
  • 1400 – Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet
  • 1415 – Killed in the Battle of Agincourt:
  • Charles d’Albret, Count of Dreux and Constable of France
  • John I of Alençon (b. 1385)
  • Antoine, Duke of Brabant (b. 1384)
  • Philip of Burgundy, Count of Nevers and Rethel (b. 1389)
  • Frederick of Lorraine (b. 1371)
  • Philip II, Count of Nevers (b. 1389)
  • Michael de la Pole, 3rd Earl of Suffolk (b. 1394)
  • Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York (b. 1373)
  • 1492 – Thaddeus McCarthy, Irish Catholic bishop
  • 1495 – King John II of Portugal (b. 1455)
  • 1514 – William Elphinstone, Scottish bishop and statesman (b. 1431)
  • 1555 – Olympia Fulvia Morata, Italian classical scholar (b. 1526)
  • 1557 – William Cavendish, English politician (b. 1505)
  • 1633 – Jean Titelouze, French organist
  • 1647 – Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist and mathematician (b. 1608)
  • 1683 – William Scroggs, Lord Chief Justice of England
  • 1733 – Giovanni Gerolamo Saccheri, Italian mathematician (b. 1667)
  • 1757 – Antoine Augustine Calmet, French theologian (b. 1672)
  • 1760 – George II of Great Britain (b. 1683)
  • 1826 – Philippe Pinel, French psychiatrist (b. 1745)
  • 1833 – Abbas Mirza, prince of Persia (b. 1789)
  • 1852 – John C. Clark, American politician (b. 1793)
  • 1889 – Émile Augier, French dramatist (b. 1820)
  • 1895 – Charles Hallé, German pianist and conductor (b. 1819)
  • 1910 – Willie Anderson, Scottish-born golfer (b. 1878)
  • 1920 – King Alexander I of Greece (b. 1893)
  • 1921 – Bat Masterson, American journalist and lawman
  • 1938 – Alfonsina Storni, Argentine poet (b. 1892)
  • 1945 – Robert Ley, Nazi German leader (b. 1890)
  • 1953 – Holger Pedersen, Danish linguist (b. 1867)
  • 1955 – Sadako Sasaki atomic bomb victim (b. 1943)
  • 1957 – Albert Anastasia, Italian-born gangster (b. 1902)
  • 1957 – Lord Dunsany, Irish writer (b. 1878)
  • 1960 – Harry Ferguson, farm equipment manufacturer (b. 1884)
  • 1963 – Roger Désormière, French conductor (b. 1898)
  • 1965 – Eduard Einstein, son of Albert Einstein (b. 1910)
  • 1973 – Cleo Moore, American actress (b. 1928)
  • 1973 – Abebe Bikila, Ethiopian athlete (b. 1932)
  • 1976 – Raymond Queneau, French poet and novelist (b. 1903)
  • 1980 – Virgil Fox, American organist (b. 1912)
  • 1985 – Gary Holton, English actor (b. 1952)
  • 1986 – Forrest Tucker, American actor (b. 1919)
  • 1991 – Bill Graham, American rock promoter (b. 1931)
  • 1992 – Roger Miller, American musician and composer (b. 1936)
  • 1993 – Danny Chan, Hong Kong singer/songwriter (b. 1958)
  • 1993 – Vincent Price, American actor (b. 1911)
  • 1994 – Kara Spears Hultgreen, American naval pilot (b. 1965)
  • 1994 – Mildred Natwick, American actress (b. 1905)
  • 1995 – Bobby Riggs, American tennis player (b. 1918)
  • 1995 – Viveca Lindfors, Swedish-born actress (b. 1920)
  • 1999 – Payne Stewart, American golfer (b. 1957)
  • 2002 – Richard Harris, Irish actor (b. 1930)
  • 2002 – Paul Wellstone, U.S. Senator from Minnesota (b. 1944)
  • 2002 – René Thom, French mathematician (b. 1923)
  • 2003 – Pandurang Shastri Athavale, Founder Swadhyay Movement (b. 1920)
  • 2003 – Veikko Hakulinen, Finnish cross-country skier (b. 1925)
  • 2003 – Robert Strassburg, American composer (b. 1915)
  • 2004 – John Peel, British disc jockey (b. 1939)
  • 2005 – Wellington Mara, American football team owner (b. 1916)
  • 2006 – Danny Rolling, American murderer (b. 1954) (executed)

October 25 – Holidays:

  • C. Saints feast days: Saints Chrysanthus and Daria, Saints Crispin and Crispian, Blessed Thaddeus McCarthy
  • French Republican Calendar – Betterave (Beetroot) Day, fourth day in the Month of Brumaire
  • Grenada – Thanksgiving Day (commemorates Invasion of Grenada)
  • Kazakhstan – Republic Day
  • Taiwan – Retrocession Day (1945)
  • Virgin Islands – Thanksgiving Day
  • Day of the Romanian Army

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On This Day in History October 24

October 24 – Events:

  • 69 – Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus, the commander of the Danube armies, loyal to Vespasian, defeat the forces of Emperor Vitellius.
  • 1260 – The spectacular Cathedral of Chartres is dedicated in the presence of King Louis IX of France; the cathedral is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • 1260 – Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Mamluk sultan of Egypt, is assassinated by Baibars, who seizes power for himself.
  • 1360 – The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War.
  • 1593 – Alleged teleportation of Gil Perez.
  • 1648 – The Peace of Westphalia is signed, marking the end of the Thirty Years’ War.
  • 1795 – Partitions of Poland: The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is completely divided between Austria, Prussia and Russia
  • 1812 – Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Maloyaroslavets takes place near Moscow.
  • 1857 – Sheffield F.C., the world’s first football club, is founded in Sheffield, England.
  • 1861 – The First Transcontinental Telegraph line across the United States is completed, spelling the end for the 18-month-old Pony Express.
  • 1901 – Annie Edson Taylor becomes the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel.
  • 1911 – Orville Wright remained in the air 9 minutes and 45 seconds in a glider at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina setting a new world record that stood for 10 years.
  • 1912 – First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo concludes with the Serbian victory.
  • 1917 – Battle of Caporetto starts on the Austro-Italian front of World War I
  • 1917 – The day of the October revolution, The Red Revolution.
  • 1926 – Harry Houdini’s last performance, which was at the Garrick Theatre in Detroit, Michigan.
  • 1929 – “Black Thursday” stock market crash on the New York Stock Exchange.
  • 1930 – A bloodless coup d’état in Brazil ousts Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa, the last President of the First Republic. Getúlio Dornelles Vargas is then installed as “provisional president.”
  • 1931 – The George Washington Bridge opens to public traffic.
  • 1935 – Italy invades Ethiopia
  • 1944 – World War II: The Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku, and the battleship Musashi are sunk in the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
  • 1945 – Founding of the United Nations
  • 1947 – Walt Disney testifies to the House Un-American Activities Committee, naming Disney employees he believes to be communists.
  • 1954 – Dwight D. Eisenhower pledges United States support to South Vietnam
  • 1957 – The USAF starts the X-20 Dyna-Soar program.
  • 1960 – Nedelin catastrophe: An R-16 ballistic missile explodes on the launch pad at the Soviet Union’s Baikonur Cosmodrome space facility, killing over 100. Among the dead is Field Marshall Mitrofan Nedelin, whose death is reported to have occurred in a plane crash
  • 1964 – Northern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom and becomes the Republic of Zambia (Southern Rhodesia remained a colony)
  • 1973 – Yom Kippur War ends
  • 1977 – Veterans Day is observed on the fourth Monday in October for the seventh and last time. (The holiday is once again observed on November 11 beginning the following year.)
  • 1980 – Government of Poland legalizes Solidarity trade union
  • 1986 – Nezar Hindawi is sentenced to 45 years in prison, the longest sentence handed

down by a British court, for the attempted bombing on an El Al flight at Heathrow. After the verdict, the United Kingdom breaks diplomatic relations with Syria, claiming that Hindawi was helped by Syrian officials.

  • 1990 – Italian prime minister Giulio Andreotti reveals to the Italian parliament the existence of Gladio, the Italian “stay-behind” clandestine paramilitary NATO army.
  • 1995 – A total solar eclipse is visible from Iran, India, Thailand, and SE Asia.
  • 1998 – Launch of Deep Space 1 comet/asteroid mission
  • 2002 – Police arrest spree killers John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo, ending the Beltway sniper attacks in the area around Washington, DC.
  • 2003 – Concorde makes its last commercial flight.
  • 2006 – Justice Rutherford of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice struck down the “motive clause”, an important part of the Canadian Anti-Terrorism Act.

 October 24 – Birthdays:

  • 51 – Domitian, Roman Emperor (d. 96)
  • 1378 – David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, heir to the throne of Scotland (d. 1402)
  • 1632 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch microbiologist (d. 1723)
  • 1675 – Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, English soldier and politician (d. 1749)
  • 1710 – Alban Butler, English Catholic priest and writer (d. 1773)
  • 1763 – Dorothea von Schlegel, German novelist (d. 1839)
  • 1788 – Sarah Josepha Hale, American poet (d. 1879)
  • 1804 – Wilhelm Eduard Weber, German physicist (d. 1891)
  • 1811 – Ferdinand Hiller, German composer (d. 1885)
  • 1854 – Hendrik Willem Bakhuis Roozeboom, Dutch chemist (d. 1907)
  • 1855 – James S. Sherman, Vice President of the United States (d. 1912)
  • 1857 – Ned Williamson, American baseball player (d. 1894)
  • 1868 – Alexandra David-Néel, French explorer and writer (d. 1969)
  • 1872 – Peter O’Connor, Irish athlete (d. 1957)
  • 1875 – Konstantin Yuon, Russian painter (d. 1958)
  • 1882 – Dame Sybil Thorndike, British actress (d. 1976)
  • 1887 – Octave Lapize, French cyclist (d. 1917)
  • 1887 – Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, Queen of Spain (d. 1969)
  • 1891 – Rafael Molina-Trujillo, President of the Dominican Republic (d. 1961)
  • 1896 – Jack Warner, English actor (d. 1981)
  • 1901 – Gilda Gray, Polish-born American actress and dancer (d. 1959)
  • 1903 – Melvin Purvis, American FBI agent (d. 1960)
  • 1904 – Moss Hart, American dramatist (d. 1961)
  • 1906 – Alexander Gelfond, Russian mathematician (d. 1968)
  • 1909 – Bill Carr, American athlete (d. 1966)
  • 1911 – Sonny Terry, American blues musician (d. 1986)
  • 1911 – Paul Grégoire, French Canadian archbishop of Montreal (d. 1993)
  • 1913 – Tito Gobbi, Italian baritone (d. 1984)
  • 1915 – Bob Kane, American cartoonist (d. 1998)
  • 1915 – Roger Milliken, American millionaire
  • 1919 – Frank Piasecki, American aeronautical engineer (d. 2008)
  • 1920 – Marcel-Paul Schützenberger, French mathematician (d. 1996)
  • 1923 – Denise Levertov, English-born poet (d. 1997)
  • 1925 – Luciano Berio, Italian composer (d. 2003)
  • 1926 – Y. A. Tittle, American football player
  • 1927 – Jean-Claude Pascal, French singer and actor (d. 1992)
  • 1927 – Gilbert Bécaud, French composer and actor (d. 2001)
  • 1929 – George Crumb, American composer
  • 1929 – Yordan Radichkov, Bulgarian writer (d. 2004)
  • 1929 – Hubert Aquin, French-Canadian novelist and activist (d. 1977)
  • 1930 – The Big Bopper, American singer (d. 1959)
  • 1930 – Johan Galtung, Norwegian peace researcher
  • 1930 – Sultan Ahmad Shah, King of Malaysia
  • 1931 – Sofia Gubaidulina, Russian composer
  • 1932 – Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, French physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007)
  • 1932 – Robert Mundell, Canadian economist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1933 – Ronald and Reginald Kray, British gangsters (Ronald d. 1995; Reginald d. 2000)
  • 1933 – Norman Rush, American writer
  • 1935 – Malcolm Bilson, American pianist and music professor
  • 1936 – Bill Wyman, English musician (The Rolling Stones)
  • 1937 – Santo Farina, American musician and composer (Santo & Johnny)
  • 1939 – F. Murray Abraham, American actor
  • 1940 – Martin Campbell, New Zealand film director
  • 1941 – William H. Dobelle, American biomedical engineer
  • 1944 – Viktor Prokopenko, Ukranian footballer and coach (d. 2007)
  • 1945 – Anthony Christian, English artist
  • 1945 – Gérald Larose, Quebec labour union executive
  • 1946 – Jerry Edmonton, Canadian drummer (d. 1993) (Steppenwolf)
  • 1947 – Kevin Kline, American actor
  • 1948 – Paul and Barry Ryan, British composers-singers
  • 1948 – Kweisi Mfume, American politician and activist
  • 1949 – Robert Pickton, Canadian charged with the first degree murder of twenty-six women
  • 1950 – Steven Greenberg, American composer
  • 1950 – Rawly Eastwick, American baseball player
  • 1954 – Brad Sherman, American politician
  • 1954 – Thomas J. Mulcair, Quebec politician
  • 1954 – Mike Rounds, American politician
  • 1954 – Jozef Ráž, Slovak musician
  • 1956 – Dale Maharidge, American author
  • 1957 – Ron Gardenhire, German-born American baseball manager
  • 1957 – John Kassir, American actor and comedian
  • 1960 – Ian Baker-Finch, Australian golfer
  • 1960 – B.D. Wong, American actor
  • 1960 – Jaime Garzón, Colombian journalist and comedian (d. 1999)
  • 1960 – Joachim “Jo” Winkelhock, German race car driver
  • 1961 – Mary Bono, American politician
  • 1961 – Dave Meltzer, American wrestling journalist
  • 1962 – Dave Blaney, American race car driver
  • 1963 – John Hendrie, Scottish footballer
  • 1965 – Kyriakos Velopoulos, Greek politician
  • 1966 – Roman Abramovich, Russian oil magnate
  • 1967 – Jacqueline McKenzie, Australian actress
  • 1968 – Robert Wilonsky, American journalist
  • 1969 – Adela Noriega, Mexican actress
  • 1971 – Dervla Kirwan, Irish actress
  • 1971 – Caprice Bourret, American model and actress
  • 1972 – Kim Ji-soo, South Korean actress
  • 1972 – Scott Peterson, American murderer
  • 1972 – Pat Williams, American football player
  • 1973 – Levi Leipheimer, American cyclist
  • 1973 – Madlib, American musician and rapper
  • 1973 – Mike Matthews, American baseball player
  • 1973 – Jackie McNamara, Scottish footballer
  • 1973 – Jeff Wilson, New Zealand rugby player/Cricketer
  • 1974 – Wilton Guerrero, Dominican baseball player
  • 1974 – Corey Dillon, American football player
  • 1975 – Juan Pablo Ángel, Colombian footballer
  • 1976 – Petar Stoychev, Bulgarian swimmer
  • 1977 – Iván Kaviedes, Ecuadoran footballer
  • 1978 – Carlos Edwards, Trinidadian footballer
  • 1978 – Justin Lee Brannan, American musician
  • 1979 – Ben Gillies, Australian musician (Silverchair)
  • 1980 – James Killian, American football player
  • 1980 – Monica, American singer
  • 1980 – Matthew Amoah, Ghanaian footballer
  • 1980 – Zac Posen, American fashion designer
  • 1981 – Mallika Sherawat, Indian actress
  • 1981 – Tila Tequila, American model
  • 1982 – Mohamed Fairuz Fauzy, Malaysian racing driver
  • 1982 – Macay McBride, American baseball player
  • 1983 – Brian Vickers, American race car driver
  • 1983 – Adrienne Bailon, American actress and singer
  • 1984 – Kaela Kimura, Japanese model and singer
  • 1985 – Wayne Rooney, English footballer
  • 1986 – Aubrey Graham, Canadian actor and rapper
  • 1986 – John Ruddy, English footballer
  • 1987 – Charlie White, American ice dancer
  • 1987 – Anthony Vanden Borre, Belgian footballer
  • 1987 – Lincoln Lewis, Australian actor
  • 1989 – Eliza Taylor-Cotter, Australian actress

October 24 – Deaths:

  • 996 – King Hugh Capet of France (b. 938)
  • 1260 – Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Mamluk sultan of Egypt
  • 1375 – King Valdemar IV of Denmark (b. 1320)
  • 1537 – Jane Seymour, third wife of Henry VIII of England
  • 1572 – Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby, English politician (b. 1508)
  • 1601 – Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer (b. 1546)
  • 1655 – Pierre Gassendi, French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist (b. 1592)
  • 1669 – William Prynne, English Puritan leader (b. 1600)
  • 1672 – John Webb, English architect (b. 1611)
  • 1708 – Kowa Seki, Japanese mathematician
  • 1725 – Alessandro Scarlatti, Italian composer (b. 1660)
  • 1799 – Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Austrian composer (b. 1739)
  • 1821 – Elias Boudinot, American President of the Continental Congress (b. 1740)
  • 1852 – Daniel Webster, American lawyer and politician (b. 1782)
  • 1898 – Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, French painter (b. 1824)
  • 1912 – Mykola Lysenko, Ukrainian composer (b. 1842)
  • 1915 – Désiré Charnay, French archaeologist (b. 1828)
  • 1922 – George Cadbury, British chocolate and cocoa manufacturer (b. 1839)
  • 1935 – Dutch Schultz, American gangster (b. 1902)
  • 1938 – Ernst Barlach, German sculptor (b. 1870)
  • 1943 – Hector de Saint-Denys Garneau, French Canadian poet (b. 1912)
  • 1944 – Louis Renault, French automobile manufacturer (b. 1877)
  • 1945 – Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian soldier, politician and convicted traitor, by execution (b. 1887)
  • 1948 – Franz Lehár, Austrian composer (b. 1870)
  • 1957 – Christian Dior, French fashion designer (b. 1905)
  • 1966 – Sofya Yanovskaya, Russian mathematician (b. 1896)
  • 1971 – Carl Ruggles, American composer (b. 1876)
  • 1972 – Jackie Robinson, American baseball player, and the first black player in Major League Baseball (b. 1919)
  • 1972 – Claire Windsor, American actress (b. 1897)
  • 1974 – David Oistrakh, Ukrainian violinist (b. 1908)
  • 1975 – Zdzislaw Zygulski, Sr., Polish literary historian (b. 1888)
  • 1985 – Maurice Roy, Archbishop of Quebec, (b. 1905)
  • 1991 – Gene Roddenberry, American television producer (b. 1921)
  • 1994 – Raúl Juliá, Puerto Rican actor (b. 1940)
  • 1997 – Don Messick, American voice actor (b. 1926)
  • 2001 – Wolf Rüdiger Hess, German neo-Nazi (b. 1937)
  • 2002 – Winton M. Blount, United States Postmaster General (b. 1921)
  • 2002 – Harry Hay, American activist (b. 1912)
  • 2003 – Rosie Nix Adams, Stepdaughter of Johnny Cash (b. 1958)
  • 2004 – Randy Dorton, American race car crew member (b. 1954)
  • 2004 – Ricky Hendrick, American race car team owner (b. 1980)
  • 2004 – James Cardinal Hickey, American Catholic archbishop (b. 1920)
  • 2005 – José Azcona del Hoyo, President of Honduras (b. 1926)
  • 2005 – Robert Sloman, writer (b. 1926)
  • 2005 – Rosa Parks, American civil rights activist (b. 1913)
  • 2005 – Immanuel C.Y. Hsu, scholar of modern Chinese intellectual and diplomatic history (b. 1923)
  • 2005 – Mokarrameh Ghanbari, Iranian painter (b. 1928)
  • 2006 – Enolia McMillan, American civil rights activist (b. 1904)
  • 2006 – William Montgomery Watt, Islamic studies scholar, orientalist and historian (b. 1909)
  • 2007 – Petr Eben, Czech organ composer (b. 1929)
  • 2007 – Alisher Saipov, Kyrgyz journalist
  • 2007 – Ian Middleton, New Zealand novelist (b. 1928)

October 24 – Holidays:

  • French Republican Calendar – Poire (Pear) Day, third day in the Month of Brumaire
  • Zambia – Independence Day (1964)
  • United Nations Day (charter 1945)

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On This Day in History October 23

October 23 – Events:

  • 42 BC – Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus’s army is decisively defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian. Brutus commits suicide.
  • 425 – Valentinian III is elevated as Roman Emperor, at the age of 6.
  • 502 – The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theodoric the Great, discharges Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius.
  • 1086 – At the Battle of az-Zallaqah, the army of Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeats the forces of Castilian King Alfonso VI.
  • 1157 – The Battle of Grathe Heath ends the civil war in Denmark. King Sweyn III is killed and Valdemar I restores the country.
  • 1641 – Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 – anniversary commemorated by Irish Protestants for over 200 years.
  • 1642 – Battle of Edgehill: First major battle of the First English Civil War.
  • 1694 – American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phipps, fail to seize Quebec.
  • 1707 – The first Parliament of Great Britain, i.e., the United Kingdom, meets.
  • 1739 – War of Jenkins’ Ear starts: British Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, reluctantly declares war on Spain.
  • 1812 – Claude François de Malet, a French general, begins a conspiracy to overthrow Napoleon Bonaparte, claiming that the Emperor died in Russia and that he was now the commandant of Paris. De Malet is executed on October 29.
  • 1813 – The Pacific Fur Company trading post in Astoria, Oregon is turned over to the rival British North West Company (the fur trade in the Pacific Northwest was dominated for the next three decades by the United Kingdom).
  • 1855 – Kansas Free State forces set up a competing government under their Topeka, Kansas, constitution, which outlaws slavery in the United States territory.
  • 1861 – U.S. President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in Washington, D.C., for all military-related cases.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Westport – Union forces under General Samuel R. Curtis defeat Confederate troops led by General Sterling Price at Westport, near Kansas City.
  • 1867 – 72 Senators are summoned by Royal Proclamation to serve as the first members of the Canadian Senate. 1870 – Franco-Prussian War: the Siege of Metz concludes with a decisive Prussian victory.
  • 1906 – Alberto Santos-Dumont flies an airplane in the first heavier-than-air flight in Europe at Champs de Bagatelle, Paris, France.
  • 1911 – First use of aircraft in war: An Italian pilot takes off from Libya to observe Turkish army lines during the Turco-Italian War.
  • 1912 – First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo between the Serbian and Ottoman armies begins.
  • 1915 – Woman’s suffrage: In New York City, 25,000-33,000 women march on Fifth Avenue to advocate their right to vote.
  • 1917 – Lenin calls for the October Revolution.
  • 1929 – Great Depression: After a steady decline in stock market prices since a peak in September, the New York Stock Exchange begins to show signs of panic.
  • 1929 – The first North American transcontinental air service begins between New York City and Los Angeles, California.
  • 1930 – The first miniature golf tournament was completed in Chattanooga, Tennessee.
  • 1935 – Dutch Schultz, Abe Landau, Otto Berman, and Bernard “Lulu” Rosencrantz are fatally shot at a saloon in Newark, New Jersey in what will become known as The Chophouse Massacre.
  • 1941 – World War II: Field Marshal Georgy Zhukov takes command of Red Army operations designed to prevent the further advance into Russia of German forces and to prevent the German armies from capturing Moscow.
  • 1941 – Burning of the Odessa, Ukraine, Jews: 19,000 Jews are burned alive at Dalnik in Odessa, by Romanian and German troops. The next day, another 10,000 Jews are killed. Romanian Lieutenant-Colonel Nicolae Deleanu administered the executions.
  • 1942 – World War II: The Second Battle of El Alamein starts – At El Alamein in northern Egypt, the British Eighth Army under Field Marshal Montgomery begin a critical offensive to expel the Axis armies from Egypt, never to return.
  • 1942 – All 12 passengers and crewmen aboard an American Airlines DC-3 airliner are killed when it is struck by a U.S. Army Air Forces bomber near Palm Springs, California. Amongst the victims is award-winning composer and songwriter Ralph Rainger (“Thanks for the Memory”, “Love in Bloom”, “Blue Hawaii”).
  • 1944 – World War II: The Battle of Leyte Gulf begins – The largest naval battle in history begins in the Philippines; and also, the Soviet Red Army enters Hungary.
  • 1946 – The United Nations General Assembly convened for the first time, at an auditorium in Flushing, Queens, New York City.
  • 1956 – Thousands of Hungarians protest against the government and Soviet occupation. (The Hungarian Revolution is crushed on November 4).
  • 1958 – The Springhill Mine Bump – An underground earthquake traps 174 miners in the No. 2 colliery at Springhill, Nova Scotia, the deepest coal mine in North America at the time. By November 1, rescuers from around the world had dug out 100 of the victims, marking the death toll at 74.
  • 1965 – Vietnam War: The 1st Cavalry Division (United States) (Airmobile), in conjunction with South Vietnamese forces, launch a new operation, seeking to destroy North Vietnamese forces in Pleiku in the II Corps Tactical Zone (the Central Highlands).
  • 1973 – The Watergate Scandal: US President Richard M. Nixon agrees to turn over subpoenaed audio tapes of his Oval Office conversations about the scandal.
  • 1973 – A United Nations sanctioned cease-fire officially ends the Yom Kippur War between Israel and Syria.
  • 1983 – Lebanon Civil War: The U.S. Marines barracks in Beirut is hit by a truck bomb, killing 241 U.S. Marines. A French army barracks in Lebanon is also hit that same morning, killing 58 troops.
  • 1989 – The Hungarian Republic is officially declared by president Mátyás Szurös, replacing the communist Hungarian People’s Republic.
  • 1989 – Phillips Disaster in Pasadena, Texas killed 23 and injured 314.
  • 1992 – Emperor Akihito becomes the first Emperor of Japan to stand on Chinese soil.
  • 1998 – Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat reach a “land for peace” agreement.
  • 2001 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army of Northern Ireland commences disarmament after peace talks.
  • 2002 – Moscow Theatre Siege begins: Chechen rebels seize the House of Culture theater in Moscow and take approximately 700 theater-goers hostage.
  • 2004 – A powerful earthquake and its aftershocks hit Niigata prefecture, northern Japan, killing 35 people, injuring 2,200, and leaving 85,000 homeless or evacuated.

 October 23 – Birthdays:

  • 1503 – Isabella of Portugal, queen of Spain and empress of Germany (d. 1539)
  • 1516 – Charlotte de Valois, princess of France (d. 1524)
  • 1634 – Hedvig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, Queen of Sweden (d. 1715)
  • 1698 – Ange-Jacques Gabriel, French architect (d. 1782)
  • 1705 – Maximilian Ulysses Count Browne, Austrian field marshal (d. 1757)
  • 1715 – Peter II of Russia (d. 1730)
  • 1762 – Samuel Morey, American inventor (d. 1843)
  • 1766 – Emmanuel, marquis de Grouchy, French marshal (d. 1847)
  • 1771 – Jean-Andoche Junot, French general (d. 1813)
  • 1790 – Chauncey Allen Goodrich, American clergyman (d. 1860)
  • 1796 – Stefano Franscini, Swiss Federal Councilor (d. 1857)
  • 1801 – Albert Lortzing, German composer (d. 1851)
  • 1805 – John Russell Bartlett, American linguist (d. 1886)
  • 1813 – Ludwig Leichhardt, German explorer (d. 1848)
  • 1817 – Pierre Athanase Larousse, French lexicographer (d. 1875)
  • 1835 – Adlai E. Stevenson, Vice President of the United States (d. 1914)
  • 1844 – Sarah Bernhardt, French actress (d. 1923)
  • 1844 – Robert Bridges, English poet (d. 1930)
  • 1865 – Neltje Blanchan, American writer (d. 1918)
  • 1869 – John Heisman, American football player and coach (d. 1936)
  • 1870 – Francis Kelley, Catholic Bishop of Oklahoma (d. 1948)
  • 1875 – Gilbert N. Lewis, American chemist (d. 1946)
  • 1876 – Franz Schlegelberger, German judge and politician (d. 1970)
  • 1880 – Una O’Connor, Irish actress (d. 1959)
  • 1885 – Lawren Harris, Canadian painter (d. 1970)
  • 1888 – Onésime Gagnon, Canadian politician (d. 1961)
  • 1893 – Gummo Marx, American actor (d. 1977)
  • 1894 – Rube Bressler, baseball player (d. 1966)
  • 1896 – André Lévêque, French engineer (d. 1930)
  • 1900 – Douglas Jardine, English cricketer (d. 1958)
  • 1904 – Harvey Penick, American golfer (d. 1995)
  • 1905 – Felix Bloch, Swiss physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1983)
  • 1905 – Gertrude Ederle, American swimmer (d. 2003)
  • 1908 – Ilya Frank, Russian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1990)
  • 1909 – Zellig Harris, American linguist (d. 1992)
  • 1918 – James Daly, American actor (d. 1978)
  • 1919 – Manolis Andronikos, Greek archeologist, professor at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (d. 1992)
  • 1920 – Ted Fujita, Japanese meteorologist (d. 1998)
  • 1922 – Coleen Gray, American actress
  • 1923 – Aslam Farrukhi, Pakistani scholar and poet
  • 1923 – Ned Rorem, American composer
  • 1923 – Frank Sutton, American actor (d. 1974)
  • 1925 – Johnny Carson, American television host (d. 2005)
  • 1925 – Manos Hadjidakis, Greek composer (d. 1994)
  • 1925 – Fred Shero, Canadian hockey player and coach (d. 1990)
  • 1928 – Harold P. Warren, American movie director (d. 1985)
  • 1928 – Bella Darvi, Polish-born French actress (d. 1971)
  • 1927 – Leszek Kolakowski, Polish philosopher
  • 1931 – Jim Bunning, American baseball player and politician
  • 1931 – Diana Dors, British actress (d. 1984)
  • 1931 – William P. Clark, United States Secretary of the Interior under Ronald Reagan
  • 1935 – Juan “Chi-Chi” Rodríguez, Puerto Rican golfer
  • 1936 – Philip Kaufman, American film director
  • 1940 – Ellie Greenwich, American singer
  • 1940 – Pelé, Brazilian footballer
  • 1941 – Igor Smirnov, Moldovan politician
  • 1942 – Michael Crichton, American writer
  • 1942 – Anita Roddick, founder of The Body Shop (d. 2007)
  • 1944 – Mike Harding, English singer and comedian
  • 1945 – Kim Larsen, Danish singer
  • 1946 – Mel Martinez, American politician
  • 1948 – Hermann Hauser, Austrian-born entrepreneur
  • 1948 – Brian Ross, American journalist
  • 1949 – Michael ‘Wurzel’ Burston, British musician (Motörhead)
  • 1949 – Nick Tosches, American writer
  • 1951 – Charly García, Argentine singer
  • 1951 – Fatmir Sejdiu, President of Kosovo
  • 1952 – Pierre Moerlen, French drummer and percussionist (d. 2005)
  • 1954 – Ang Lee, Taiwanese-born director
  • 1956 – Dwight Yoakam, American singer
  • 1959 – Nancy Grace, American former prosecutor
  • 1959 – Sam Raimi, American film director
  • 1959 – “Weird Al” Yankovic, American musical parodist
  • 1960 – Wayne Rainey, American motorcyclist
  • 1961 – Laurie Halse Anderson, American writer
  • 1961 – Don and Ron Harris, American professional wrestlers
  • 1961 – Andoni Zubizarreta, Spanish footballer
  • 1962 – Doug Flutie, American football player
  • 1964 – Robert Trujillo, American bassist (Metallica)
  • 1965 – Augusten Burroughs, American writer
  • 1965 – Al Leiter, American baseball player
  • 1966 – Alex Zanardi, Italian race car driver
  • 1967 – Dale Crover, American musician (Melvins, The Men of Porn, Altamont)
  • 1969 – Trudi Canavan, Australian writer
  • 1971 – Christopher Horner, American cyclist
  • 1974 – Sander Westerveld, Dutch footballer
  • 1974 – Jasmin St. Claire, Former pornographic actress
  • 1975 – Odalys García, Cuban actress
  • 1975 – Jessicka, American artist
  • 1975 – Keith Van Horn, American basketball player
  • 1976 – Cat Deeley, English model and television personality
  • 1976 – Ryan Reynolds, Canadian actor and comedian
  • 1978 – Steve Harmison, English cricketer
  • 1978 – Jimmy Bullard, English footballer
  • 1978 – Archie Thompson, Australian footballer
  • 1979 – Simon Davies, Welsh footballer
  • 1979 – Jorge Solís, Mexican professional boxer
  • 1980 – Pedro Liriano, Dominican baseball player
  • 1981 – Jeroen Bleekemolen, Dutch racing driver
  • 1982 – Valentin Badea, Romanian footballer
  • 1983 – Filipos Darlas, Greek footballer
  • 1983 – Josh Strickland, American entertainer
  • 1984 – Izabel Goulart, Brazilian model
  • 1985 – James Kotecki, American political blogger
  • 1986 – Jake Robinson, English footballer
  • 1987 – Faye Hamlin, Swedish singer (Play)
  • 1988 – Nicolaj Agger, Danish football player
  • 1990 – Stevie Brock, American singer
  • 1991 – Princess Mako of Akishino of Japan

October 23 – Deaths:

  • 42 BC – Marcus Junius Brutus, Roman senator (b. 85 BCE)
  • 930 – Daigo, Emperor of Japan (b. 885)
  • 1456 – Giovanni da Capistrano, Italian saint (b. 1386)
  • 1550 – Tiedemann Giese, Polish Catholic bishop (b. 1480)
  • 1581 – Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1529)
  • 1616 – Leonhard Hutter, German theologian (b. 1563)
  • 1688 – Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange, French philologist (b. 1610)
  • 1730 – Anne Oldfield, English actress (b. 1683)
  • 1764 – Emmanuel-Auguste de Cahideuc, Comte Dubois de la Motte, French naval officer (b. 1683)
  • 1774 – Michel Benoist, French Jesuit missionary and scientist (b. 1715)
  • 1869 – Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1799)
  • 1872 – Théophile Gautier, French writer (b. 1811)
  • 1885 – Charles S. West, Texas jurist and politician (b. 1829)
  • 1910 – Chulalongkorn, King of Thailand (b. 1853)
  • 1915 – W. G. Grace, English cricketer (b. 1848)
  • 1921 – John Boyd Dunlop, Scottish inventor (b. 1840)
  • 1939 – Zane Grey, American author (b. 1872)
  • 1942 – Ralph Rainger, American composer (b. 1901)
  • 1944 – Charles Glover Barkla, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1877)
  • 1950 – Al Jolson, American singer and actor (b. 1886)
  • 1959 – Gerda Lundequist, Swedish actress (b. 1871)
  • 1978 – Maybelle Carter, American guitarist and musical innovator (b. 1909)
  • 1983 – Jessica Savitch, American journalist (b. 1947)
  • 1984 – James Petrillo, leader of the U.S. musicians union (b. 1892)
  • 1984 – Oskar Werner, Austrian actor (b. 1922)
  • 1986 – Edward Adelbert Doisy, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in
  • Physiology or Medicine (b. 1893)
  • 1989 – Armida, Mexican-American stage, vaudeville and film actress (b. 1911)
  • 1990 – Louis Althusser, French philosopher (b. 1918)
  • 1996 – Bob Grim, baseball player (b. 1930)
  • 1997 – Bert Haanstra, Dutch filmmaker (b. 1916)
  • 1998 – Barnett Slepian, American physician (b. 1946)
  • 2000 – Rodney Anoa’i aka Yokozuna, Samoan-American professional wrestler (b. 1966)
  • 2001 – Ronald William Kirby, British artist (b. 1928)
  • 2002 – Adolph Green, American lyricist and playwright (b. 1915)
  • 2003 – Tony Capstick, English actor, comedian, and musician (b. 1944)
  • 2003 – Soong May-ling, wife of the President of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek (b. 1897)
  • 2004 – Robert Merrill, American baritone (b. 1919)
  • 2005 – Stella Obasanjo, Nigerian first lady (b. 1945)
  • 2005 – William Hootkins, American actor (b. 1948)
  • 2005 – John Muth, American economist (b. 1930)
  • 2006 – Lebo Mathosa, South African entertainer (b. 1977)
  • 2007 – John Ilhan, Australian entrepreneur, Crazy John’s mobile phones (b. 1965)
  • 2007 – Lim Goh Tong, Founder of Genting Group (b. 1918)

 October 23 – Holidays:

  • C. Saints – Saint Giovanni da Capistrano; Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius; Saint Anthony Mary Claret; Saint Ignatius of Constantinople
  • Hungary – National Day (revolution of 1956 and the proclamation of the Republic of Hungary in 1989)
  • Astrology: First day of sun sign Scorpio in Western tropical astrology.
  • Chemistry: Mole Day
  • French Republican Calendar – Céleri (Celery) Day, second day in the Month of Brumaire Republic of Macedonia – Day of the revolution
  • Chulalongkorn Memorial Day in Thailand

 

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On This Day in History October 22

October 22 – Events:

  • 202 BC – Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus in the Battle of Zama.
  • 362 – The temple of Apollo at Daphne, outside of Antioch, is destroyed in a mysterious fire.
  • 794 – Emperor Kanmu relocates Japanese capital to Heiankyo (now Kyoto).
  • 1383 – The 1383-1385 Crisis in Portugal: A period of civil war and disorder began when King Fernando died without a male heir to the Portuguese throne.
  • 1575 – Foundation of Aguascalientes.
  • 1746 – The College of New Jersey (later renamed Princeton University) receives its charter.
  • 1784 – Russia founds a colony on Kodiak Island, Alaska.
  • 1797 – One thousand meters (3,200 feet) above Paris, André-Jacques Garnerin makes the first recorded parachute jump.
  • 1836 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.
  • 1844 – The Great Anticipation: Millerites, followers of William Miller, anticipated the end of the world in conjunction with the Second Advent of Christ. The following day became known as the Great Disappointment.
  • 1866 – Paraguay: Battle of Curupaytí against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay.
  • 1867 – Foundation of the National University of Colombia.
  • 1875 – First telegraphic connection in Argentina.
  • 1877 – The Blantyre mining disaster in Scotland kills 207 miners. Those widows and orphans who were unable to support themselves were evicted by the mine owners and likely sent to the Poor House.
  • 1878 – The first rugby match under floodlights takes place in Salford, between Broughton and Swinton.
  • 1883 – The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City opens with a performance of Gounod’s Faust (opera).
  • 1895 – In Paris an express train overruns a buffer stop and crosses more than 30 metres of concourse before plummeting through a window at Gare Montparnasse.
  • 1907 – Panic of 1907: A run on Knickerbocker Trust Company stock sets events in motion that will lead to a depression.
  • 1910 – Dr. Crippen is convicted at the Old Bailey of poisoning his wife and was subsequently hanged at Pentonville Prison in London.
  • 1924 – Toastmasters International is founded.
  • 1926 – J. Gordon Whitehead sucker punches magician Harry Houdini in the stomach in Montreal.
  • 1928 – Phi Sigma Alpha fraternity is founded at the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus.
  • 1934 – In East Liverpool, Ohio, notorious bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd is shot and killed by Federal Bureau of Investigation agents.
  • 1935 – Establishment of the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union.
  • 1941 – French hero of the resistance Guy Môquet is executed by the Germans, along with 29 other hostages as a retaliation for a killed German officer.
  • 1943 – World War II: Kassel: RAF conducts an air raid on the city of 236,000 people, killing 10,000, rendering 150,000 homeless. Second firestorm raid in Germany
  • 1944 – World War II: Battle of Aachen: The city of Aachen falls to American forces after three weeks of fighting, making it the first German city to fall to the Allies.
  • 1946 – Forty four British sailors die when two British warships hit mines off the coast of Albania.
  • 1953 – Laos gains independence from France.
  • 1956 – A concrete girder weighing 200 tons kills 48 in Karachi, Pakistan.
  • 1957 – Vietnam War: First United States casualties in Vietnam.
  • 1960 – Independence of Mali from France.
  • 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: US President John F. Kennedy, after internal counsel from Dwight D. Eisenhower, announces that American spy planes have discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he has ordered a naval “quarantine” of the island nation.
  • 1963 – BAC One-Eleven prototype airliner crashes on October 22 in UK with the loss of all on board.
  • 1964 – Jean-Paul Sartre is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, but turns down the honour.
  • 1964 – Canada: A Multi-Party Parliamentary Committee selects the design which becomes the new official Flag of Canada.
  • 1966 – The Supremes become the first all-female music group to attain a No. 1 selling album (The Supremes A’ Go-Go).
  • 1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 7 safely splashes down in the Atlantic Ocean after orbiting the Earth 163 times.
  • 1970 – Tunku Abdul Rahman resign from Prime Minister of Malaysia.
  • 1972 – Vietnam War: In Saigon, Henry Kissinger and South Vietnamese President
  • Nguyen Van Thieu meet to discuss a proposed cease-fire that had been worked out between Americans and North Vietnamese in Paris. Thieu rejects the proposal and accused the United States of conspiring to undermine his regime
  • 1976 – Red Dye No. 4 is banned by the US Food and Drug Administration after it is discovered that it causes tumors in the bladders of dogs. The dye is still used in Canada.
  • 1981 – The United States Federal Labor Relations Authority votes to decertify the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization for its strike the previous August.
  • 1981 – The founding congress of the Nepal Workers and Peasants Organisation faction led by Hareram Sharma and D.P. Singh begins.
  • 1981 – The TGV railway service Paris-Lyon is inaugurated.
  • 1983 – Two correctional officers are killed by inmates in Marion, Illinois. The incident inspired the Supermax model of prisons.
  • 1986 – WNBC traffic reporter Jane Dornacker is killed when the helicopter she is riding in stalls and crashes into the Hudson River.
  • 1987 – John Adams’s opera Nixon in China debuts at the Houston Grand Opera in Houston, Texas.
  • 1987 – The pinnacle rock “Gendarme” falls at Seneca Rocks.
  • 1991 – Dimitrios Arhondonis, metropolitan of Chalcedon elected 270th Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch as Patriarch Bartholomew I of the Orthodox church.
  • 1999 – Maurice Papon, an official in the Vichy France government during World War II, is jailed for crimes against humanity.
  • 2002 – One of the two Denial-of-service attacks against the DNS Backbone servers.
  • 2005 – Tropical Storm Alpha forms in the Atlantic Basin, making the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record with 22 named storms.
  • 2005 – Crash of Bellview Airlines Flight 210 in Nigeria kills all 117 on board.
  • 2005 – The first phase of Transantiago, the new public transport system of Santiago de Chile is implemented.
  • 2006 – A Panama Canal expansion proposal is approved by 77.8% of voters in a National referendum held in Panama.

 October 22 – Birthdays:

  • 1071 – William IX, Duke of Aquitaine and poet (d. 1126)
  • 1197 – Emperor Juntoku of Japan (d. 1242)
  • 1511 – Erasmus Reinhold, German astronomer and mathematician (d. 1553)
  • 1558 – Jacques Sirmond, French scholar and Jesuit (d. 1651)
  • 1592 – Gustaf Horn, Swedish soldier and politician (d. 1657)
  • 1688 – Nadir Shah of Persia (d. 1747)
  • 1689 – King John V of Portugal (d. 1750)
  • 1692 – Elizabeth Farnese, second queen of King Philip V of Spain (d. 1766)
  • 1701 – Maria Amalia of Austria, Holy Roman Empire Empress (d. 1756)
  • 1729 – Johann Reinhold Forster, German botanist (d. 1798)
  • 1734 – Daniel Boone, American pioneer and hunter (d. 1820)
  • 1770 – Thomas Seebeck, Baltic German physicist (d. 1831)
  • 1809 – Volney E. Howard, American politician (d. 1889)
  • 1811 – Franz Liszt, Hungarian pianist and composer (d. 1886)
  • 1818 – Charles-Marie-René Leconte de Lisle, French poet (d. 1894)
  • 1821 – Collis Potter Huntington, American railroad executive (d. 1900)
  • 1844 – Louis Riel, Canadian Metis Political Leader (d. 1885)
  • 1858 – German Empress Augusta Victoria, wife of German Emperor Wilhelm II (d. 1921)
  • 1865 – Kristjan Raud, Estonian painter (d. 1943)
  • 1870 – Alfred Douglas, English partner of Oscar Wilde (d. 1945)
  • 1870 – Ivan Bunin, Russian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1953)
  • 1873 – Gustaf John Ramstedt, Finland-Swedish linguist and diplomat (d. 1950)
  • 1881 – Clinton Davisson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958)
  • 1886 – Erik Bergman, Lutheran pastor (d. 1970)
  • 1887 – John Reed, American journalist (d. 1920)
  • 1891 – Parker Fennelly, American comedian and actor (d.1988)
  • 1894 – Méi Lánfang, Chinese opera performer (d. 1961)
  • 1896 – Charles Glen King, American biochemist (d. 1988)
  • 1903 – George Wells Beadle, American geneticist, Nobel laureate (d. 1989)
  • 1903 – Curly Howard, American actor and comedian, member of the Three Stooges (d.
  • 1952)
  • 1904 – Constance Bennett, American actress (d. 1965)
  • 1905 – Joseph Kosma, Hungarian-born composer (d. 1969)
  • 1907 – Jimmie Foxx, American baseball player (d. 1967)
  • 1908 – John Gould, American humorist, essayist, and columnist (d. 2003)
  • 1912 – Frances Drake, American actress (d. 2000)
  • 1913 – B?o Ð?i, Emperor of Vietnam (d. 1997)
  • 1913 – Tamara Desni, German-born British actress (d. 2008)
  • 1913 – Robert Capa, American war photographer (born in Hungary) (d. 1954)
  • 1913 – Hans-Peter Tschudi, Swiss Federal Councilor (d. 2002)
  • 1917 – Joan Fontaine, American actress
  • 1918 – Lou Klein, American baseball player (d. 1976)
  • 1919 – Doris Lessing, British writer, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1919 – Kathleen Ankers, American scenic designer (d. 2001)
  • 1920 – Timothy Leary, American writer (d. 1996)
  • 1921 – Georges Brassens, French singer (d. 1981)
  • 1921 – Alexander Kronrod, Russian mathematician (d. 1986)
  • 1922 – Juan Carlos Lorenzo, Argentine footballer (d. 2001)
  • 1923 – Bert Trautmann, German former footballer
  • 1925 – Robert Rauschenberg, American painter and graphic artist
  • 1927 – Allan Hendrickse, South African politician (d. 2005)
  • 1928 – Nelson Pereira dos Santos, Brazilian movie director
  • 1929 – Lev Yashin, Soviet footballer (d. 1990)
  • 1929 – Dory Previn, American songwriter
  • 1933 – Helmut Senekowitsch, Austrian footballer (d. 2007)
  • 1935 – Ann Rule, American true-crime writer
  • 1936 – Bobby Seale, American civil rights activist
  • 1937 – Manos Loïzos, Greek composer (d. 1982)
  • 1938 – Derek Jacobi, English actor
  • 1938 – Christopher Lloyd, American actor
  • 1939 – George Cohen, English footballer
  • 1939 – Tony Roberts, American actor
  • 1942 – Annette Funicello, American actress
  • 1942 – Bobby Fuller, American rock guitarist (d. 1966)
  • 1943 – Jan de Bont, Dutch film director
  • 1943 – Catherine Deneuve, French actress
  • 1943 – Allen Coage, American professional wrestler
  • 1945 – Leslie West, American musician
  • 1945 – Sheila Sherwood, British long jumper
  • 1945 – Yvan Ponton, Canadian actor and television host
  • 1946 – Kelvin MacKenzie, British media tycoon
  • 1946 – Claude Charron, French-Canadian politician and TV personality
  • 1946 – Eddie Brigati, American singer (The Rascals)
  • 1947 – Raymond Bachand, French-Canadian politician and businessman
  • 1948 – Lynette Fromme, American attempted assassin of Gerald Ford
  • 1949 – Stiv Bators, American musician (The Dead Boys) (d. 1990)
  • 1949 – Vasilios Magginas, Greek politician
  • 1949 – Arsène Wenger, French football manager
  • 1952 – Jeff Goldblum, American actor
  • 1956 – Frank DiPino, American baseball player
  • 1959 – Arto Salminen, Finnish writer (d. 2005)
  • 1959 – Marc Shaiman, American composer
  • 1960 – Darryl Jenifer, American bassist (Bad Brains)
  • 1960 – Cris Kirkwood, American musician (Meat Puppets)
  • 1961 – Robert Torti, American actor
  • 1962 – Bob Odenkirk, American actor and comedian (Mr. Show)
  • 1963 – Brian Boitano, American figure skater
  • 1964 – Dražen Petrovic, Croatian basketball player (d. 1993)
  • 1964 – Toby Mac, American singer and songwriter
  • 1965 – John Wesley Harding, American musician
  • 1965 – Otis Smith, American football player
  • 1966 – Valeria Golino, Italian actress
  • 1967 – Rita Guerra, Portuguese singer
  • 1967 – Ron Tugnutt, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1967 – Ulrike Maier, Austrian alpine skier (d. 1994)
  • 1968 – Shaggy, Jamaican musician
  • 1968 – Stéphane Quintal, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1968 – Jay Johnston, American actor and comedian (Mr. Show)
  • 1969 – Héctor Carrasco, Dominican baseball player
  • 1969 – Spike Jonze, American director and film producer
  • 1969 – Helmut Lotti, Belgian singer
  • 1972 – D’Lo Brown, American professional wrestler
  • 1973 – Andrés Palop, Spanish footballer
  • 1973 – Ichiro Suzuki, Japanese baseball player
  • 1974 – Tim Kinsella, American musician
  • 1974 – Jeff McInnis, American NBA basketball player
  • 1974 – Miroslav Šatan, Slovak ice hockey player
  • 1975 – Martín Cardetti, Argentine footballer
  • 1975 – Míchel Salgado, Spanish footballer
  • 1976 – Jon Foreman, American musician (Switchfoot)
  • 1976 – Helen Svedin, Swedish model
  • 1978 – Owais Shah, English cricketer
  • 1978 – Dion Glover, American basketball player
  • 1978 – Chaswe Nsofwa, Zambian footballer (d. 2007)
  • 1980 – Garrett Tierney, American musician (Brand New)
  • 1981 – Olivier Pla, French racing driver
  • 1982 – Robinson Canó, Dominican baseball player
  • 1983 – Glenn Loovens, Dutch footballer
  • 1985 – Zachary Hanson, American musician (Hanson)
  • 1986 – Kara Lang, Canadian soccer player
  • 1987 – Jake Richardson, English footballer
  • 1990 – Jonathan Lipnicki, American actor
  • 1992 – Sofia Vassilieva, American actress

October 22 – Deaths:

  • 741 – Charles Martel, leader of the Franks (b. 686)
  • 1383 – King Fernando I of Portugal (b. 1345)
  • 1565 – Jean, Vicomte d’Aguisy Grolier de Servieres, French bibliophile (b. 1479)
  • 1613 – Pomponio Nenna, Italian composer
  • 1625 – Kikkawa Hiroie, Japanese politician (b. 1561)
  • 1674 – Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Dutch painter (b. 1621)
  • 1708 – Hermann Witsius, Dutch theologian (b. 1636)
  • 1751 – William IV, Prince of Orange (b. 1711)
  • 1755 – Elisha Williams, American rector of Yale College (b. 1694)
  • 1792 – Guillaume Le Gentil, French astronomer (b. 1725)
  • 1847 – Sahle Selassie, Negus of Shewa
  • 1859 – Louis Spohr, German violinist and composer (b. 1784)
  • 1891 – Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow, Austrian physiologist (b. 1846)
  • 1906 – Paul Cezanne, French painter (b. 1839)
  • 1917 – Bob Fitzsimmons, English boxer (b. 1863)
  • 1918 – Myrtle Gonzalez, American film and stage actress (b. 1891)
  • 1927 – Borisav “Bora” Stankovic, Serbian writer (b. 1876)
  • 1928 – Andrew Fisher, fifth Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1862)
  • 1934 – Pretty Boy Floyd, American gangster (b. 1904)
  • 1935 – Komitas, Armenian composer (b. 1869)
  • 1941 – Guy Môquet, French hero of the resistance(executed)(b. 1924)
  • 1952 – Ernst Rüdin, Swiss nazi physician (b. 1874)
  • 1954 – Jibanananda Das, Bengali poet (b. 1899)
  • 1969 – Tommy Edwards, American signer (b. 1922)
  • 1973 – Pablo Casals, Catalan cellist and conductor (b. 1876)
  • 1978 – John Riley, English poet (murdered) (b. 1937)
  • 1979 – Nadia Boulanger, French composer and composition teacher (b. 1887)
  • 1985 – Viorica Ursuleac, Romanian soprano (b. 1894)
  • 1986 – Albert Szent-Györgyi, Hungarian physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1893)
  • 1986 – Jane Dornacker, musician, actress, and traffic reporter for WNBC Radio.
  • 1986 – Ye Jianying, Chinese general and politician
  • 1987 – Lino Ventura, Italian-born actor (b. 1919)
  • 1989 – Ewan MacColl, English folk singer, songwriter, socialist, actor, poet, playwright,
  • and record producer (b. 1915)
  • 1992 – Cleavon Little, American actor (b. 1939)
  • 1995 – Sir Kingsley Amis, English writer (b. 1922)
  • 1997 – Leonid Amalrik, Russian animator (b. 1905)
  • 1998 – Eric Ambler, English novelist (b. 1909)
  • 2001 – Prof. Dr. Dkfm. Helmut Krackowizer, journalist and motorcycle racer (b. 1922)
  • 2002 – Queen Geraldina of the Albanians (b. 1915)
  • 2005 – Arman, French-born artist (b. 1928)
  • 2005 – Tony Adams, Irish film producer (b. 1953)
  • 2005 – Franky Gee, American singer (Captain Jack) (b. 1962)
  • 2006 – Arthur Hill, Canadian actor (b. 1922)
  • 2007 – Ève Curie French writer (b. 1904)

October 22 – Holidays:

  • C. Saints – Saint Mary Salome; Philip, Severus, Eusebius, and Hermes of Heraclea; Donatus of Fiesole
  • French Republican Calendar – Pomme (Apple) Day, first day in the Month of Brumaire
  • Aaron the Illustrious, a saint of the Syriac Orthodox Church
  • Abercius of Hieropolis

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On This Day in History October 21

October 21 – Events:

  • 1512 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.
  • 1520 – Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as Strait of Magellan.
  • 1600 – Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the leaders of rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara, which marks the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate, who in effect rule Japan until the mid-nineteenth century.
  • 1774 – First display of the word “Liberty” on a flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts and which was in defiance of British rule in Colonial America.
  • 1797 – In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched.
  • 1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Trafalgar: A British fleet led by Admiral Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain under Admiral Villeneuve. It signaled the virtual end of French maritime power and left Britain navally unchallenged until the twentieth century.
  • 1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Austrian General Mack surrenders his army to the Grand Army of Napoleon at Ulm, reaping Napoleon over 30,000 prisoners and inflicting 10,000 casualties on the losers. Ulm was considered to be one of Napoleon’s finest hours.
  • 1816 – The Penang Free School is founded in George Town, Penang, Malaysia, by the Rev Hutchings. It is the oldest English-language school in Southeast Asia.
  • 1824 – Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement.
  • 1854 – Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses were sent to the Crimean War.
  • 1861 – American Civil War: Battle of Ball’s Bluff – Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker are defeated by Confederate troops in the second major battle of the war. Baker, a close friend of Abraham Lincoln, is killed in the fighting.
  • 1867 – Manifest Destiny: Medicine Lodge Treaty – Near Medicine Lodge, Kansas a landmark treaty is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to relocate a reservation in western Oklahoma.
  • 1879 – Using a filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasted 13½ hours before burning out).
  • 1892 – Opening ceremonies for the World’s Columbian Exposition were held in Chicago, though because construction was behind schedule, the exposition did not open until May 1, 1893.
  • 1895 – The Republic of Formosa collapses as Japanese forces invade.
  • 1902 – In the United States, a five month strike by United Mine Workers ends.
  • 1921 – President Warren G. Harding delivers the first speech by a sitting President against lynching in the deep south.
  • 1941 – 7000 Serbs were shot in Kragujevac, Serbia by Nazi Germans.
  • 1944 – The first kamikaze attack: HMAS Australia was hit by a Japanese plane carrying a 200 kg (441 pound) bomb off Leyte Island, as the Battle of Leyte Gulf began.
  • 1945 – Women’s suffrage: Women are allowed to vote in France for the first time.
  • 1945 – Argentine military officer and politician Juan Perón married actress Evita.
  • 1959 – In New York City, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum opens to the public. It was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
  • 1959 – US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order transferring Wernher von Braun and other German scientists from the United States Army to NASA.
  • 1965 – Comet Ikeya-Seki approaches perihelion, passing 450,000 kilometers from the sun.
  • 1966 – Aberfan disaster: A coal tip falls on the village of Aberfan in Wales, killing 144 people, mostly schoolchildren.
  • 1967 – Vietnam War: More than 100,000 war protesters gather in Washington, DC. A peaceful rally at the Lincoln Memorial is followed by a march to The Pentagon and clashes with soldiers and United States Marshals protecting the facility (event lasts until October 23; 683 people were arrested). Similar demonstrations occurred simultaneously in Japan and Western Europe.
  • 1969 – A coup d’état in Somalia brings Siad Barre to power.
  • 1973 – John Paul Getty III’s ear is cut off by his kidnappers and sent to a newspaper in Rome; it doesn’t arrive until November 8.
  • 1973 – Fred Dryer of the then Los Angeles Rams becomes the first player in NFL history to score two safeties in the same game.
  • 1977 – The European Patent Institute is founded.
  • 1978 – Australian civilian pilot Frederick Valentich vanishes in a Cessna 182 over the Bass Strait south of Melbourne, after reporting contact with an unidentified aircraft.
  • 1983 – The metre is defined at the seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures in terms of the speed of light as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
  • 1986 – In Lebanon, pro-Iranian kidnappers claim to have abducted American writer Edward Tracy (he was released in August 1991).
  • 1987 – Former Miss America Bess Myerson is arrested on charges of bribery, conspiracy, and mail fraud, all involving an alimony-fixing scandal. She is later found not guilty.
  • 1990 – The first Apple Day, is held in Covent Garden, London.
  • 1994 – North Korea nuclear weapons program: North Korea and the United States sign an agreement that requires North Korea to stop its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections.
  • 1994 – In Seoul, 32 people are killed when the Seongsu Bridge collapses.
  • 1995 – Dayton Agreement The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • 2001 – “United We Stand” benefit concert for September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks victims, held at RFK Stadium in Washington, DC. Event organized and headlined by Michael Jackson, also featuring pop stars Aerosmith, Mariah Carey, The Backstreet Boys, and others.
  • 2002 – Violence in Badlapur, suburb of Mumbai created a tension in the city resulted in a lot of property damage injuring 4 people.
  • 2003 – Images of the dwarf planet Eris are taken and subsequently used in its discovery by the team of Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz.
  • 2007 – San Diego County has its worst wildfire disaster in San Diegan history as the Harris and Witch Fires blazed across the county. Together, they have burned at least 200,000 acres (810 km²) of land. Only one casualty has been reported.

October 21-Birthdays:

  • 1449 – George, Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV and Richard III (d. 1478)
  • 1527 – Louis I, Cardinal of Guise, French cardinal (d. 1578)
  • 1581 – Domenico Zampieri, Italian painter (d. 1641)
  • 1650 – Jean Bart, French admiral (d. 1702)
  • 1660 – Georg Ernst Stahl, German scientist (d. 1734)
  • 1675 – Emperor Higashiyama of Japan (d. 1710)
  • 1687 – Nicolaus I Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1759)
  • 1712 – Sir James Steuart, British economist (d. 1780)
  • 1725 – Franz Moritz Graf von Lacy, Austrian field marshal (d. 1801)
  • 1757 – Pierre Augereau, Marshal of France and duc de Castiglione (d. 1816)
  • 1762 – Herman Willem Daendels, Dutch statesman (d. 1818)
  • 1772 – Samuel Taylor Coleridge, British poet (d. 1834)
  • 1775 – Giuseppe Baini, Italian composer (d. 1844)
  • 1790 – Alphonse de Lamartine, French writer (d. 1869)
  • 1821 – Eduard Heine, German mathematician (d. 1881)
  • 1833 – Alfred Nobel, Swedish inventor and founder of the Nobel Prize (d. 1896)
  • 1847 – Giuseppe Giacosa, Italian writer (d. 1906)
  • 1851 – George Ulyett, English cricketer (d. 1898)
  • 1886 – Eugene Burton Ely, American aviation pioneer (d. 1911)
  • 1895 – Edna Purviance, American actress (d. 1958)
  • 1904 – Patrick Kavanagh, Irish poet (d. 1967)
  • 1906 – Lillian Asplund, last American Titanic survivor (d. 2006)
  • 1907 – Nikos Engonopoulos, Greek painter and poet (d. 1985)
  • 1907 – Jules Chevalier, French priest (b. 1824)
  • 1912 – Sir Georg Solti, Hungarian conductor (d. 1997)
  • 1912 – Alfredo Pián, Argentine racing driver (d. 1990)
  • 1914 – Martin Gardner, American mathematician and writer
  • 1917 – Dizzy Gillespie, American musician (d. 1993)
  • 1921 – Sir Malcolm Arnold, British composer (d. 2006)
  • 1922 – Liliane de Bettencourt, heir to L’Oreal
  • 1924 – Celia Cruz, Cuban singer, Queen of Salsa. (d. 2003)
  • 1924 – Joyce Randolph, American actress
  • 1925 – Louis J. Robichaud, Canadian premier of New Brunswick (d. 2005)
  • 1928 – Whitey Ford, American baseball player
  • 1929 – Ursula K. Le Guin, American author
  • 1930 – Ivan Stepanovich Silayev, Last prime minister of the Soviet Union
  • 1938 – Carl Brewer, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2001)
  • 1940 – Geoff Boycott, English cricketer
  • 1940 – Manfred Mann, English musician
  • 1941 – Steve Cropper, American musician
  • 1942 – Elvin Bishop, American musician
  • 1942 – Judy Sheindlin, American judge (“Judge Judy”)
  • 1942 – Allan Grice, Australian racing driver
  • 1943 – Brian Piccolo, American football player (d. 1970)
  • 1945 – Everett McGill, American actor
  • 1946 – Jim Hill, American sportscaster
  • 1946 – Lux Interior, American singer (The Cramps)
  • 1946 – Lee Loughnane, American musician
  • 1948 – Shaye Cohen, Historian and Professor at Harvard University
  • 1948 – Tom Everett, American actor
  • 1949 – Michel Brière, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1971)
  • 1949 – Mike Keenan, Canadian ice hockey coach
  • 1949 – Benjamin Netanyahu, 9th Prime Minister of Israel
  • 1950 – Ronald McNair, American astronaut (d. 1986)
  • 1952 – Trevor Chappell, Australian cricketer
  • 1952 – Patti Davis, American actress and novelist
  • 1952 – Allen Hoey, American poet and novelist
  • 1952 – Brent Mydland, American keyboardist (Grateful Dead) (d. 1990)
  • 1953 – Keith Green, American musician (d. 1982)
  • 1953 – Peter Mandelson, British politician
  • 1953 – Charlotte Caffey, American musician (The Go-Go’s)
  • 1954 – Brian Tobin, Canadian premier of Newfoundland
  • 1955 – Rich Mullins, American musician (d. 1997)
  • 1956 – Carrie Fisher, American actress and writer
  • 1957 – Julian Cope, English musician and writer
  • 1957 – Wolfgang Ketterle, German physicist, Nobel laureate
  • 1957 – Steve Lukather, American musician
  • 1959 – George Bell, Dominican baseball player
  • 1959 – Tony Ganios, American Actor
  • 1959 – Rose McDowall, Scottish musician
  • 1959 – Ken Watanabe, Japanese actor
  • 1962 – David Campese, Australian rugby union footballer
  • 1964 – Jon Carin, American musician (Pink Floyd, The Who)
  • 1965 – Ion Andoni Goikoetxea, Spanish footballer
  • 1967 – Paul Ince, English footballer
  • 1968 – Melora Walters, American actress
  • 1969 – Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, crown prince of Bahrain
  • 1969 – Mo Lewis, American football player
  • 1971 – Damien Martyn, Australian cricketer
  • 1971 – Jade Jagger, Socialite and Jewelery Designer
  • 1971 – Nick Oliveri, American musician
  • 1971 – Paul Norman Telfer, Scottish footballer
  • 1972 – Felicity Andersen, Australian actress
  • 1972 – Saffron Burrows, English actress
  • 1972 – Masakazu Morita, seiyu and actor
  • 1972 – Matthew Friedberger, American musician (The Fiery Furnaces)
  • 1972 – Evhen Tsybulenko, Ukrainian professor of international law
  • 1973 – Lera Auerbach, Russian composer
  • 1973 – Charlie Lowell, American Musician
  • 1975 – Toby Hall, American baseball player
  • 1975 – Henrique Hilário, Portuguese footballer
  • 1976 – Jeremy Miller, American TV actor
  • 1976 – Lavinia Milosovici, Romanian gymnast
  • 1976 – Mélanie Turgeon, French Canadian alpine skier
  • 1978 – Will Estes, American actor
  • 1978 – Joey Harrington, American football player
  • 1979 – Khalil Greene, American baseball player
  • 1979 – Gabe Gross, American baseball player
  • 1980 – Kim Kardashian, American socialite
  • 1980 – Brian Pittman, American musician (Relient K)
  • 1981 – Nemanja Vidic, Serbian footballer
  • 1982 – James White, American basketball player
  • 1982 – Matt Dallas, American Actor
  • 1983 – Zack Greinke, American baseball player
  • 1983 – Ninette Tayeb, Israeli singer
  • 1984 – Kieran Richardson, English footballer
  • 1984 – Anouk Leblanc-Boucher, French Canadian short track speed skater
  • 1986 – Alex Kew, British actor
  • 1986 – Christopher Uckermann, Mexican actor and singer in the Latin pop group RBD
  • 1990 – Ricky Rubio, Spanish basketball player

October 21-Deaths:

  • 1125 – Cosmas of Prague, Bohemian writer
  • 1204 – Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester, English nobleman
  • 1221 – Alix of Thouars, Duchess of Brittany (b. 1201)
  • 1266 – Birger jarl, Swedish statesman (b. 1210)
  • 1422 – King Charles VI of France (b. 1368)
  • 1500 – Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado of Japan (b. 1442)
  • 1505 – Paul Scriptoris, German mathematician
  • 1558 – Julius Caesar Scaliger, Italian scholar (b. 1484)
  • 1600 – Toda Katsushige, Japanese warlord (b. 1557)
  • 1623 – William Wade, English statesman and diplomat (b. 1546)
  • 1662 – Henry Lawes, English composer (b. 1595)
  • 1687 – Sir Edmund Waller, English poet (b. 1606)
  • 1765 – Giovanni Paolo Pannini, Italian painter and architect (b. 1691)
  • 1775 – Peyton Randolph, American president of the Continental Congress (b. 1721)
  • 1777 – Samuel Foote, English dramatist and actor (b. 1720)
  • 1805 – Horatio Nelson, British admiral (b. 1758)
  • 1872 – Jacques Babinet, French physicist (b. 1794)
  • 1873 – Johann Sebastian Welhaven, Norwegian poet (b. 1807)
  • 1896 – James Henry Greathead, British engineer (b. 1844)
  • 1904 – Isabelle Eberhardt, Swiss explorer and writer (b. 1877)
  • 1931 – Arthur Schnitzler, Austrian writer (b. 1862)
  • 1940 – William G. Conley, Governor of West Virginia (b. 1866)
  • 1944 – Alois Kayser, German missionary to Nauru (b. 1877)
  • 1965 – Bill Black, American musician (b. 1926)
  • 1969 – Jack Kerouac, American novelist (b. 1922)
  • 1969 – Waclaw Sierpinski, Polish mathematician (b. 1882)
  • 1973 – Nasif Estéfano, Argentine racing driver (b. 1932)
  • 1975 – Charles Reidpath, American athlete (b. 1887)
  • 1978 – Anastas Mikoyan, Soviet politician (b. 1895)
  • 1980 – Hans Asperger, Austrian psychologist (b. 1906)
  • 1984 – François Truffaut, French film director (b. 1932)
  • 1986 – Lionel Murphy, Australian politician and judge (b. 1922)
  • 1989 – Jean Image, Hungarian-born French animator (b. 1910)
  • 1990 – Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, Indian spiritual leader (b. 1921)
  • 1992 – Jim Garrison, American attorney (b. 1921)
  • 1995 – Shannon Hoon, American singer (Blind Melon) (b. 1967)
  • 1995 – Jesús Blasco, Spanish comic book author (b. 1919)
  • 1995 – Maxene Andrews, American singer (The Andrews Sisters) (b. 1916)
  • 1998 – Francis W. Sargent, 64 Governor of Massachusetts (b. 1915)
  • 2003 – Fred Berry, American actor (b. 1951)
  • 2003 – Luis A. Ferré, Governor of Puerto Rico (b. 1940)
  • 2003 – Louise Day Hicks, American politician (b. 1916)
  • 2003 – Elliott Smith, American musician (b. 1969)
  • 2005 – Tara Correa-McMullen, American actress (b. 1989)
  • 2007 – Paul Fox, English musician and singer (The Ruts) (b. 1951)

October 21 – Holidays:

  • C. saints – Saint Ursula; Saint Hilarion; John of Bridlington
  • Republic of China – Overseas Chinese Day
  • Trafalgar Day — celebrated throughout much of the British Empire in the 19th and early 20th Century.
  • Diwali in Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism (2006)
  • French Republican Calendar – Tonneau (Barrel) Day, thirtieth day in the Month of Vendémiaire

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On This Day in History October 20

October 20 – Events:

  • 1740 – Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction and the War of the Austrian Succession begins.
  • 1781 – Patent of Toleration, providing limited freedom of worship, was approved in Habsburg Monarchy.
  • 1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.
  • 1818 – The Convention of 1818 signed between the United States and the United Kingdom which, among other things, settled the US-Canada border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.
  • 1827 – Battle of Navarino – a combined Turkish and Egyptian armada is destroyed by an allied British, French, and Russian naval force in the port of Navarino in Pylos, Greece. The most important result of this battle is the end of the Greek Liberation War and the affirmation of independence of modern Greece.
  • 1883 – Peru and Chile signed the Treaty of Ancón, by which the Tarapacá province was ceded to the latter, bringing an end to Peru’s involvement in the War of the Pacific.
  • 1910 – The hull of the RMS Olympic, sister-ship to the ill-fated RMS Titanic, is launched from the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland.
  • 1935 – The Long March ends
  • 1941 – World War II: Thousands of civilians in Kragujevac in German-occupied Serbia are killed in the Kragujevac massacre.
  • 1944 – The Soviet army and Yugoslav Partisans liberate Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia
  • 1944 – Liquid natural gas leaks from storage tanks in Cleveland, then explodes; the explosion and resulting fire level 30 blocks and kill 130.
  • 1944 – General Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he commands an Allied assault on the islands, reclaiming them from the Japanese during the Second World War.
  • 1947 – The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of Hollywood, resulting in a blacklist that prevents some from working in the industry for years.
  • 1951 – The “Johnny Bright Incident” occurred in Stillwater, Oklahoma
  • 1952 – Governor Evelyn Baring declared a state of emergency in Kenya and began arresting hundreds of suspected leaders of the Mau Mau Uprising, including Jomo Kenyatta, the future first President of Kenya.
  • 1955 – Publication of The Return of the King, being the last part of The Lord of the Rings.
  • 1967 – A purported bigfoot is filmed by Patterson and Gimlin.
  • 1968 – Former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy marries Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis.
  • 1970 – Siad Barre declares Somalia a socialist state.
  • 1971 – The Nepal stock exchange collapses.
  • 1973 – The Saturday Night Massacre: President Nixon fires Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after they refuse to fire Watergate prosecutor Archibald Cox, who is finally fired by Robert Bork.
  • 1973 – The Sydney Opera House opens.
  • 1976 – The ferry George Prince is struck by a ship while crossing the Mississippi River between Destrehan and Luling, LA. Seventy-eight passengers and crew died; only 18 people aboard the ferry survived.
  • 1977 – A plane carrying Lynyrd Skynyrd crashes in Mississippi, killing lead singer Ronnie Van Zant and guitarist Steve Gaines along with backup singer Cassie Gaines, the road manager, pilot, and co-pilot.
  • 1979 – The John F Kennedy library is opened in Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 1982 – During the UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem, 66 people are crushed to death in the Luzhniki disaster.
  • 1984 – The Monterey Bay Aquarium opens in Monterey Bay, California.
  • 1991 – The Oakland Hills firestorm kills 25 and destroys 3,469 homes and apartments, causing more than $2 billion in damage.
  • 2004 – Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono is sworn in as the President of Indonesia.

October 20 – Birthdays:

  • 1463 – Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (d. 1512)
  • 1496 – Claude, Duke of Guise, French soldier (d. 1550)
  • 1616 – Thomas Bartholin, Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian (d. 1680)
  • 1620 – Aelbert Cuyp, Dutch painter (d. 1691)
  • 1632 – Sir Christopher Wren, English architect (d. 1723)
  • 1656 – Nicolas de Largillière, French painter (d. 1746)
  • 1660 – Robert Bertie, 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, English statesman (d. 1723)
  • 1677 – Stanislaus I Leszczynski, King of Poland (d. 1766)
  • 1700 – Charlotte Aglaé of Orléans, Duchess of Modena (d. 1761)
  • 1711 – Timothy Ruggles, American-born Tory politician (d. 1795)
  • 1719 – Gottfried Achenwall, German statistician (d. 1772)
  • 1759 – Chauncey Goodrich, U.S. Senator from Connecticut (d. 1815)
  • 1780 – Pauline Bonaparte, princess Borghese, sister of Napoleon Bonaparte (d. 1825)
  • 1784 – Henry Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d.
  • 1865)
  • 1785 – George Ormerod, English historian and antiquarian (d. 1873)
  • 1808 – Karl Andree, German geographer (d. 1875)
  • 1819 – The Báb, Persian founder of the Bábí Faith (d. 1850)
  • 1819 – Carl Mikuli, Polish pianist (d. 1897)
  • 1822 – Thomas Hughes, English novelist (d. 1896)
  • 1832 – Constantin Lipsius, German architect (d. 1894)
  • 1854 – Arthur Rimbaud, French poet (d. 1891)
  • 1858 – John Burns, English politician (d. 1943)
  • 1859 – John Dewey, American philosopher (d. 1952)
  • 1864 – James F. Hinkle, American politician, sixth Governor of New Mexico (d. 1951)
  • 1874 – Charles Ives, American composer (d. 1954)
  • 1882 – Bela Lugosi, Hungarian-born actor (d. 1956)
  • 1889 – Margaret Dumont, American actress (d. 1965)
  • 1890 – Jelly Roll Morton, American composer (d. 1941)
  • 1891 – James Chadwick, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1974)
  • 1891 – Jomo Kenyatta, President of Kenya (d. 1978)
  • 1893 – Charley Chase, American comedian (d. 1940)
  • 1894 – Olive Thomas, American actress (d. 1920)
  • 1895 – Rex Ingram, American actor (d. 1969)
  • 1897 – Crown Prince Eun of Korea (d. 1970)
  • 1900 – Wayne Morse, U.S. Senator from Oregon (d. 1974)
  • 1904 – Anna Neagle, English actress (d. 1986)
  • 1904 – Tommy Clement Douglas, Canadian politician (d. 1986)
  • 1905 – Ellery Queen, pseudonym of two American writers (d. 1982)
  • 1907 – Arlene Francis, American television personality (d. 2001)
  • 1909 – Sugiyama Yasushi, Japanese painter (d. 1993)
  • 1913 – Grandpa Jones, American banjo player and singer (d. 1998)
  • 1914 – Fayard Nicholas, American dancer (d. 2006)
  • 1917 – Jean-Pierre Melville, French director (d. 1973)
  • 1918 – Robert Lochner, German journalist (d. 2003)
  • 1922 – John Anderson, American actor (d. 1992)
  • 1923 – Robert Craft, American conductor
  • 1925 – Art Buchwald, American humorist (d. 2007)
  • 1925 – Tom Dowd, American recording engineer (d. 2002)
  • 1925 – Roger Hanin, French actor
  • 1931 – Richard Caliguiri, American politician (d. 1988)
  • 1931 – Mickey Mantle, American baseball player (d. 1995)
  • 1932 – Rosey Brown, American football player (d. 2004)
  • 1932 – William Christopher, American actor (M*A*S*H)
  • 1934 – Eddie Harris, American jazz saxophonist (d. 1996)
  • 1934 – Michiko, empress of Japan
  • 1935 – Jerry Orbach, American actor (d. 2004)
  • 1937 – Juan Marichal, Dominican baseball player
  • 1937 – Wanda Jackson, American rock and rockabilly singer
  • 1938 – Iain MacMillan, Abbey Road photographer (d. 2006)
  • 1940 – Kathy Kirby, British singer
  • 1940 – Robert Pinsky, American poet and Poet Laureate of the United States
  • 1942 – Earl Hindman, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1942 – Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, German biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 1943 – Dunja Vejzovic, Croatian soprano
  • 1944 – David Mancuso, American disc jockey
  • 1946 – Lewis Grizzard, American writer and humorist (d. 1994)
  • 1946 – Elfriede Jelinek, Austrian writer, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1946 – Lucien Van Impe, Belgian cyclist
  • 1949 – Valeri Borzov, Ukrainian athlete
  • 1950 – Tom Petty, American musician
  • 1951 – Patrick Hall, British politician
  • 1951 – Leif Pagrotsky, Swedish politician
  • 1951 – Claudio Ranieri, Italian football player and manager
  • 1953 – Keith Hernandez, American baseball player
  • 1953 – Bill Nunn, American actor
  • 1954 – Steve Orich, orchestrator
  • 1955 – Thomas Newman, American composer
  • 1955 – David Profumo, English novelist
  • 1955 – Aaron Pryor, American boxer
  • 1956 – Danny Boyle, English film director
  • 1957 – Susanna Haavisto, Finnish actress and singer
  • 1958 – Valerie Faris, American film director
  • 1958 – Lynn Flewelling, American fantasy author
  • 1958 – Scott Hall, American professional wrestler
  • 1958 – Mark King, English musician and singer (Level 42)
  • 1958 – Dave Krieg, American football player
  • 1958 – Viggo Mortensen, American actor
  • 1958 – Ivo Pogorelic, Croatian pianist
  • 1960 – Konstantin Aseev, Russian chess player (d. 2004)
  • 1960 – Lepa Brena, famous Yugoslav singer
  • 1961 – Ian Rush, Welsh footballer
  • 1961 – Michie Tomizawa, Japanese voice actress
  • 1962 – David M. Evans, American screenwriter and film director
  • 1962 – Dave Wong, Hong Kong/Taiwanese singer-songwriter
  • 1963 – Julie Payette, Canadian astronaut
  • 1963 – Nikos Tsiantakis, Greek footballer
  • 1965 – Norman Blake, Scottish musician
  • 1965 – Jil Caplan, French singer and songwriter
  • 1965 – Mikhail Shtalenkov, Russian ice hockey player
  • 1965 – William Zabka, American actor
  • 1966 – Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Al-Qaeda leader (d. 2006)
  • 1966 – Allan Donald, South African cricketer
  • 1966 – Stefan Raab, German entertainer
  • 1966 – Patrick J. Volkerding, Founder and maintainer of the Slackware Linux distribution
  • 1967 – Luigi Lo Cascio, Italian actor
  • 1967 – Luck Mervil, Québécois actor and singer
  • 1967 – Marco Ngai, Hong Kong actor
  • 1969 – Juan González, Puerto Rican baseball player
  • 1969 – Laurie Daley, Australian rugby league footballer
  • 1969 – Lambros Papakostas, Greek high jumper
  • 1970 – Chavo Guerrero, Jr., American professional wrestler
  • 1970 – Michelle Malkin, American political commentator and author
  • 1971 – Dannii Minogue, Australian singer
  • 1971 – Snoop Dogg, American rapper
  • 1972 – Will Greenwood, England rugby union player
  • 1976 – Tom Wisniewski, American guitarist (MxPx)
  • 1977 – Matt Jansen, English footballer
  • 1977 – Leila Josefowicz, Canadian classical violinist
  • 1978 – Virender Sehwag, Indian cricketer
  • 1978 – Paul Wilson, Irish bass player (Snow Patrol)
  • 1979 – Paul Ifill, Barbadian footballer
  • 1979 – John Krasinski, American actor
  • 1979 – Paul O’Connell, Irish rugby player
  • 1980 – Jose Veras, Dominican baseball player
  • 1981 – Willis McGahee, American football player
  • 1981 – Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Greek footballer
  • 1981 – Francisco Javier Rodríguez, Mexican footballer
  • 1982 – Yasser Al-Qahtani, Saudi footballer
  • 1982 – Becky Brewerton, Welsh golfer
  • 1983 – Alex Nackman, musician
  • 1983 – Luis Saritama, Ecuadorian footballer
  • 1983 – Takayuki Yamada, Japanese actor
  • 1984 – Florent Sinama-Pongolle, French footballer
  • 1984 – Andrew Trimble, Northern Irish rugby player for Irish rugby team
  • 1985 – Jennifer Nicole Freeman, American actress
  • 1985 – Dominic McGuire, American basketball player
  • 1985 – James Sutton, British racing driver
  • 1988 – Risa Niigaki, Japanese singer
  • 1994 – Morgan Featherstone, Fashion model

October 20 – Deaths:

  • 460 – Aelia Eudocia, Byzantine Empress
  • 1139 – Henry X, Duke of Bavaria
  • 1570 – João de Barros, Portuguese historian (b. 1496)
  • 1631 – Michael Maestlin, German astronomer and mathematician (b. 1550)
  • 1640 – John Ball, English Puritan clergyman (b. 1585)
  • 1652 – Antonio Coello, Spanish writer (b. 1611)
  • 1713 – Archibald Pitcairne, Scottish physician (b. 1652)
  • 1740 – Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1685)
  • 1842 – Grace Darling, English heroine (b. 1815)
  • 1865 – Champ Ferguson, Confederate guerrilla (b. 1821)
  • 1890 – Sir Richard Burton, British explorer and writer (b. 1821)
  • 1900 – Naim Frashëri, Albanian poet (b. 1846)
  • 1907 – Said Pasha Kurd, Kurdish statesman (b.1834)
  • 1910 – David B. Hill, Governor of New York (b. 1843)
  • 1926 – Eugene Debs, American labor leader and Socialist presidential candidate (b. 1855)
  • 1935 – Arthur Henderson, Scottish politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1863)
  • 1936 – Anne Sullivan, American teacher (b. 1866)
  • 1940 – Gunnar Asplund, Swedish architect (b. 1885)
  • 1953 – Werner Baumbach, German bomber pilot (b. 1916)
  • 1964 – Herbert Hoover, 31st President of the United States (b. 1874)
  • 1967 – Yoshida Shigeru, Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1878)
  • 1968 – Bud Flanagan, British wartime entertainer (b. 1896)
  • 1972 – Harlow Shapley, American astronomer (b. 1885)
  • 1977 – Members of the American rock group Lynyrd Skynyrd killed in a plane crash: Cassie Gaines (b. 1948), Steve Gaines (b. 1949), Ronnie Van Zant (b. 1948)
  • 1983 – Peter Dudley, British actor
  • 1983 – Yves Thériault, French Canadian author (b. 1915)
  • 1984 – Carl Ferdinand Cori, Austrian-born biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1896)
  • 1984 – Paul Dirac, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1902)
  • 1987 – Andrey Kolmogorov, Russian mathematician (b. 1903)
  • 1988 – Sheila Scott, English aviatrix (b. 1922)
  • 1989 – Anthony Quayle, English actor (b. 1913)
  • 1990 – Joel McCrea, American actor (b. 1905)
  • 1992 – Werner Torkanowsky, German conductor (b. 1926)
  • 1993 – Sugiyama Yasushi, Japanese painter (b. 1909)
  • 1994 – Burt Lancaster, American actor (b. 1913)
  • 1995 – Christopher Stone, American actor (b. 1942)
  • 1999 – Calvin Griffith, Former owner of Washington Senators (b. 1911)
  • 2001 – Ted Ammon, American financier (b. 1949)
  • 2002 – Barbara Berjer, American actress (b. 1920)
  • 2002 – Bernard Fresson, French actor (b. 1931)
  • 2003 – Jack Elam, American actor (b. 1918)
  • 2003 – Miodrag Petrovic, Serbian actor (b. 1924)
  • 2004 – Anthony Hecht, American poet (b. 1923)
  • 2004 – Chuck Hiller, American baseball player (b. 1934)
  • 2005 – Shirley Horn, American singer (b. 1934)
  • 2005 – Endon Mahmood, First Lady of Malaysia (breast cancer) (b. 1941)
  • 2005 – Eva Svankmajerova, Czech artist (b. 1940)
  • 2006 – Jane Wyatt, American actress (b. 1910)
  • 2007 – Max McGee, American football player (b. 1932)
  • 2007 – Paul Raven, British bass-player (Killing Joke, Ministry) (b. 1961)

October 20 – Holidays:

  • Christianity – the feast day of martyr Andrew of Crete
  • Bahá’í Faith – Holy Day – Birth of the Báb
  • French Republican Calendar – Orge (Barley) Day, twenty-ninth day in the Month of Vendémiaire

 

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On This Day in History October 19

October 19 – Events:

  • 202 BCE – The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal.
  • 439 – The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa.
  • 1216 – King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year old son Henry.
  • 1453 – The French recapture of Bordeaux brings the Hundred Years’ War to a close, with the English retaining only Calais on French soil.
  • 1466 – The Thirteen Years’ War ends with the Second Treaty of Torun. Gdansk Pomerania and Prussia as a whole are incorporated into Poland; the Teutonic Knights are allowed to rule its eastern part as Polish vassals.
  • 1469 – Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella I of Castile, a marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain.
  • 1512 – Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia).
  • 1649 – New Ross town, Co. Wexford, Ireland, surrenders to Oliver Cromwell.
  • 1781 – At Yorktown, Virginia, British commander Lord Cornwallis surrendered to a Franco-American force led by George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau, paving the way for the end of the American Revolutionary War.
  • 1789 – Chief Justice John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.
  • 1812 – Napoleon I of France retreats from Moscow.
  • 1813 – The Battle of Leipzig concludes, giving Napoleon Bonaparte one of his worst defeats.
  • 1822 – In Parnaíba; Simplício Dias da Silva, João Cândido de Deus e Silva and Domingos Dias declare the independent state of Piauí.
  • 1864 – Battle of Cedar Creek – Union Army under Philip Sheridan destroys Confederate Army under Jubal Early.
  • 1864 – Confederate raiders launch an attack on Saint Albans, Vermont from Canada.
  • 1873 – Yale, Princeton, Columbia, and Rutgers universities draft the first code of American football rules.
  • 1904 – Polytechnic University of the Philippines founded as Manila Business School through the superintendence of the American C.A. O’Reilley.
  • 1912 – Italy takes possession of Tripoli, Libya from the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1914 – The First Battle of Ypres begins.
  • 1917 – Love Field in Dallas, Texas is opened.
  • 1921 – Portuguese Prime Minister António Granjo and other politicians are murdered in a Lisbon coup.
  • 1933 – Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.
  • 1935 – The League of Nations places economic sanctions on fascist Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia.
  • 1943 – Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
  • 1944 – United States forces land in the Philippines.
  • 1950 – The military of the People’s Republic of China takes control of the town of Chamdo in eastern Tibet.
  • 1954 – First ascent of Cho Oyu
  • 1960 – The United States government places an embargo on Communist Cuba.
  • 1969 – The first Prime Minister of Tunisia in twelve years, Bahi Ladgham, is appointed by President Habib Bourguiba.
  • 1973 – President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court demand to turn over the Watergate tapes.
  • 1974 – Niue becomes self-govering colony of New Zealand
  • 1976 – Battle of Aishiya in Lebanon. The same day, the Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is placed on the List of Endangered Species.
  • 1983 – Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada, is overthrown and executed in a military coup d’état led by Bernard Coard.
  • 1986 – Samora Machel, President of Mozambique and a prominent leader of FRELIMO, and 33 others died when their Tupolev 134 plane crashed into the Lebombo Mountains.
  • 1987 – In retaliation for Iranian attacks on ships in the Persian Gulf, the U.S. Navy disables three of Iran’s offshore oil platforms.
  • 1987 – (Black Monday) Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%, 508 points. This is considered a Stock Market Crash.
  • 1989 – Guildford Four convictions are quashed by the Court of Appeal – they had spent 15 years in prison through a miscarriage of justice.
  • 1991 – 7.0 Richter Scale earthquake in Northern Italy – 2000 dead
  • 1994 – The Goodnight Kiwi airs in New Zealand for the last time as TV2 moves to 24-hour television 7 days a week.
  • 1998 – The Earth Liberation Front sets fire to the Vail Mountain ski resort in Vail, Colorado, causing $12 million in damage.
  • 2001 – SIEV-X, an Indonesian fishing boat en-route to Christmas Island, carrying over 400 asylum seekers, sank in international waters with the loss of 353 people.
  • 2003 – Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.
  • 2004 – Myanmar prime minister Khin Nyunt is ousted and placed under house arrest by the Thai government on charges of corruption.
  • 2004 – Care International aid worker Margaret Hassan is kidnapped in Iraq.
  • 2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
  • 2005 – Hurricane Wilma becomes the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with a minimum pressure of 882 mb.
  • 2006 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the 12,000 mark for the first time.
  • 2007 – Philippines. Amidst corruption controversies hounding the Arroyo administration, a bomb explosion rocked Glorietta 2, a shopping mall in Makati, which killed 11 and injured more than 100 people.

October 19 – Birthdays:

  • 1276 – Prince Hisaaki, Japanese shogun (d. 1328)
  • 1433 – Marsilio Ficino, Italian philosopher (d. 1499)
  • 1562 – Archbishop George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1633)
  • 1582 – Dmitry Ivanovich, Tsarevich (d. 1591)
  • 1605 – Thomas Browne, English writer (d. 1682)
  • 1610 – James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, English statesman and soldier (d. 1688)
  • 1658 – Adolf Friedrich II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1704)
  • 1680 – John Abernethy, Irish Protestant minister (d. 1740)
  • 1688 – William Cheselden, English surgeon and anatomist (d. 1752)
  • 1718 – Victor-François, 2nd duc de Broglie, Marshal of France (d. 1804)
  • 1720 – John Woolman, American Quaker preacher and abolitionist (d. 1772)
  • 1721 – Joseph de Guignes, French orientalist (d. 1800)
  • 1784 – John McLoughlin, Canadian fur trader (d. 1857)
  • 1810 – Cassius Marcellus Clay, American abolitionist (d. 1903)
  • 1851 – Empress Myeongseong, Empress of Korea (d. 1895)
  • 1858 – George Albert Boulenger, Belgian naturalist (d. 1937)
  • 1862 – Auguste Lumière, French inventor (d. 1954)
  • 1873 – Jaap Eden, Dutch skater and cyclist (d. 1925)
  • 1873 – John Barton King, American cricketer (d. 1965)
  • 1876 – Mordecai Brown, baseball player (d. 1945)
  • 1882 – Umberto Boccioni, futurist painter (d. 1916)
  • 1885 – Charles Merrill, American investment banker (d. 1956)
  • 1895 – Lewis Mumford, American historian (d. 1990)
  • 1895 – Frank Durbin Last U.S veteran of the Battle of Verdun (d.1999)
  • 1896 – Bob O’Farrell, baseball player (d. 1988)
  • 1897 – Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Pakistani scientist and scholar (d. 1994)
  • 1899 – Miguel Ángel Asturias, Guatemalan writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1974)
  • 1900 – Bill Ponsford, Australian cricketer (d. 1991)
  • 1900 – Roy Worters, Canadian ice hockey goaltender (d. 1957)
  • 1900 – Erna Berger, German soprano (d. 1990)
  • 1901 – Arleigh Burke, Naval commander (d. 1996)
  • 1903 – Tor Johnson, Swedish wrestler and actor (d. 1971)
  • 1907 – Roger Wolfe Kahn, American bandleader (d. 1962)
  • 1908 – Geirr Tveitt, Norwegian composer (d. 1981)
  • 1909 – Cozy Cole, American jazz drummer (d. 1981)
  • 1909 – Marguerite Perey, French physicist (d. 1975)
  • 1910 – Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Indian-born physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1995)
  • 1910 – Paul Robert, French lexicographer and publisher (d. 1980)
  • 1913 – Vinicius de Moraes, Brazilian poet and songwriter (d. 1980)
  • 1916 – Jean Dausset, French immunologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 1916 – Emil Gilels, Ukrainian pianist (d. 1985)
  • 1920 – Pandurang Shastri Athavale, Indian philosopher (d. 2003)
  • 1922 – Jack Anderson, American journalist (d. 2005)
  • 1926 – Joel Feinberg, American moral philosopher (d. 2004)
  • 1926 – Arne Bendiksen, Norwegian singer and songwriter
  • 1931 – John le Carré, English novelist
  • 1932 – Robert Reed, American actor (d. 1992)
  • 1936 – Tony Lo Bianco, American actor
  • 1937 – Peter Max, American artist
  • 1937 – Marilyn Bell, Canadian long distance swimmer
  • 1940 – Michael Gambon, Irish actor
  • 1941 – Simon Ward, British actor
  • 1942 – Andrew Vachss, American author and attorney
  • 1943 – Robin Holloway, British composer
  • 1943 – Takis Ikonomopoulos, Greek footballer
  • 1944 – Peter Tosh, Jamaican musician, political activist (d. 1987)
  • 1944 – George McCrae, American soul singer
  • 1945 – Divine, American actor (d. 1988)
  • 1945 – Patricia Ireland, President of the NOW
  • 1945 – John Lithgow, American actor
  • 1945 – Jeannie C. Riley American country and gospel singer
  • 1946 – Philip Pullman, English writer
  • 1947 – Giorgio Cavazzano, comics artist and illustrator
  • 1948 – Patrick Simmons, American musician (The Doobie Brothers)
  • 1949 – Lynn Dickey, American football player
  • 1949 – Jamie McGrigor, British politician
  • 1951 – Demetrios Christodoulou, Greek mathematical physicist, recipient of the Bôcher Memorial Prize
  • 1952 – Verónica Castro, Mexican actress and singer
  • 1954 – Joe Bryant, American former professional basketball player
  • 1954 – Sam Allardyce, English football manager
  • 1954 – Deborah Blum, American writer
  • 1955 – Melpo Kosti, Greek actress
  • 1956 – Carlo Urbani, Italian physician (d. 1993)
  • 1956 – Sunny Deol, Indian actor
  • 1956 – Didier Theys, Belgian racing driver
  • 1957 – Ray Richmond, entertainment/media columnist
  • 1957 – Karl Wallinger, Welsh musician (The Waterboys, World Party)
  • 1957 – Doug Kirby, American author and travel guide
  • 1958 – Tiriel Mora, Australian actor
  • 1958 – Lou Briel, Puerto Rican singer and actor
  • 1960 – Jonathan FeBland, English musician and artist
  • 1962 – Tracy Chevalier, American author
  • 1962 – Evander Holyfield, American boxer
  • 1963 – Prince Laurent of Belgium
  • 1964 – Jorge Luis Gonzales, Cuban-born American boxer
  • 1965 – Brad Daugherty, American basketball player
  • 1965 – Ty Pennington, American television carpenter
  • 1966 – Roger R. Cross, Jamaican-born actor
  • 1966 – Jon Favreau, American actor, writer and director
  • 1967 – Yoko Shimomura, Japanese composer
  • 1969 – Trey Parker, American cartoonist and actor
  • 1969 – Erwin Sánchez, Bolivian footballer
  • 1969 – DJ Sammy, Spanish DJ from Majorca
  • 1970 – Chris Kattan, American comedian and actor
  • 1972 – Keith Foulke, American baseball pitcher
  • 1972 – Pras, American musician
  • 1973 – Hicham Arazi, Moroccan tennis player
  • 1973 – Joaquin Gage, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Joy Bryant, American actress
  • 1976 – Omar Gooding, American actor
  • 1976 – Desmond Harrington, American actor
  • 1976 – Dan Smith, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1976 – Michael Young, baseball player
  • 1977 – Louis-José Houde, Québec stand-up comic
  • 1977 – Jason Reitman, Canadian filmmaker
  • 1977 – Raúl Tamudo, Spanish footballer
  • 1978 – Enrique Bernoldi, Brazilian Formula One driver
  • 1978 – Zakhar Dubenskiy, Russian footballer
  • 1978 – Henri Sorvali, Finnish musician
  • 1979 – Brian Robertson, American trombonist (Suburban Legends)
  • 1979 – José Luis “Parejita” López, Mexican footballer
  • 1980 – Benjamin Salisbury, American actor
  • 1981 – Heikki Kovalainen, Finnish Formula One driver
  • 1982 – Gonzalo Pineda, Mexican footballer

October 19 – Deaths:

  • 727 – Saint Frideswide
  • 1187 – Pope Urban III
  • 1216 – King John
  • 1432 – John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, English politician (b. 1392)
  • 1587 – Francesco I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1541)
  • 1608 – Martin Delrio, Flemish theologian and occultist (b. 1551)
  • 1636 – Marcin Kazanowski, Polish politician
  • 1682 – Thomas Browne, English writer (b. 1605)
  • 1723 – Godfrey Kneller, German-born painter (b. 1646)
  • 1745 – Jonathan Swift, Irish author (b. 1667)
  • 1790 – Lyman Hall, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1724)
  • 1813 – Józef Antoni Poniatowski, Polish prince and Marshal of France (friendly fire) (b. 1763)
  • 1842 – Aleksey Koltsov, Russian poet (b. 1808)
  • 1851 – Marie Thérèse Charlotte (b. 1778)
  • 1856 – William Sprague III, American politician from Rhode Island (b. 1799)
  • 1889 – King Louis of Portugal (b. 1838)
  • 1897 – George Pullman, American inventor and industrialist (b. 1831)
  • 1901 – Carl Frederik Tietgen, Danish financier and industrialist (b. 1829)
  • 1918 – Harold Lockwood, American actor (b. 1887)
  • 1936 – Lu Xun, Chinese writer (b. 1881)
  • 1937 – Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, New Zealand physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (b. 1871)
  • 1943 – Camille Claudel, French sculptor (b. 1864)
  • 1950 – Edna St. Vincent Millay, American poet (b. 1892)
  • 1956 – Isham Jones, American musician (b. 1894)
  • 1960 – George Wallace, Australian vaudevillian and film comedian (b. 1895)
  • 1973 – Walt Kelly, American cartoonist (b. 1913)
  • 1978 – Gig Young, American actor (b. 1913)
  • 1983 – Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada (b. 1944)
  • 1985 – Alfred Rouleau, French Canadian businessman (b. 1915)
  • 1986 – Dele Giwa, Nigerian journalist
  • 1986 – Samora Machel, President of Mozambique (b. 1933)
  • 1987 – Jacqueline Du Pré, English cellist (b. 1945)
  • 1987 – Hermann Lang, German race car driver (b. 1909)
  • 1988 – Son House, American musician (b. 1902)
  • 1994 – Martha Raye, American comedian and actress (b. 1916)
  • 1995 – Don Cherry, American jazz trumpet player (b. 1936)
  • 1997 – Glen Buxton, American guitarist (b. 1947)
  • 1999 – Nathalie Sarraute, Russian-born French writer (b. 1900)
  • 1999 – James C. Murray, American politician (b. 1917)
  • 2000 – Hortense Ellis, Jamaican reggae singer (b. 1941)
  • 2003 – Alija Izetbegovic, President of Bosnia-Herzegovina (b. 1925)
  • 2003 – Margaret Murie, American conservationist (b. 1902)
  • 2003 – Michael Hegstrand, American professional wrestler (b. 1960)
  • 2004 – Kenneth E. Iverson, Canadian computer scientist (b. 1920)
  • 2005 – Dallas Cook, American musician (Suburban Legends) (b. 1982)
  • 2005 – Corinne Lévesque, wife of Quebec premier René Lévesque (b. 1943)
  • 2006 – James Glennon, American cinematographer (b. 1942)
  • 2007 – LaLa Brown, American singer and protégé of Lyfe Jennings (b. 1986)
  • 2007 – Dr. Randall Forsberg, American nuclear freeze advocate (b. 1943)
  • 2007 – Michael Maidens, English footballer with Hartlepool United (b. 1987)
  • 2007 – Jan Wolkers, Dutch writer (b. 1925)

October 19 – Holidays:

  • Roman festivals – Armilustrium in honor of Mars
  • Roman Catholic Saints – Saints Jean de Brébeuf, Isaac Jogues, and Companions; Saint Frideswide
  • Albania – Mother Teresa Day.
  • Brazil – Independence Day of State of Piauí
  • Niue – Constitution Day in honour of the country’s independence (self-governing in free association with New Zealand) in 1974.
  • French Republican Calendar – Tomate (Tomato) Day, twenty-eighth day in the Month of Vendémiaire
  • Aaron, a saint of the Coptic Church
  • Hindu Festivals, Concluding of Navratri Festival of India. It is a nine day festival attributed to the Goddess Durga, the Supreme-Divine manifested in form of Mother. The 10th day, Hindus celebrate Dasara, the mark of Lord Rama’s victory over demon Ravana – Goddess Durga Day.

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