On This Day in History August 20

August 20 – Events:

  • 636 – Battle of Yarmuk: Arab forces led by Khalid bin Walid take control of Syria and Palestine away from the Byzantine Empire, marking the first great wave of Muslim conquests and the rapid advance of Islam outside Arabia.
  • 917 – Battle of Anchialus: Tsar Simeon I of Bulgaria invades Thrace and drives the Byzantines out.
  • 1000 – The foundation of the Hungarian state, Hungary is established as a Christian kingdom by Stephen I of Hungary.
  • 1391 – Konrad von Wallenrode becomes the 24th Hochmeister of the Teutonic Order.
  • 1672 – Former Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt and his brother Cornelis were brutally murdered by an angry mob in The Hague.
  • 1794 – Battle of Fallen Timbers – American troops force a confederacy of Shawnee, Mingo, Delaware, Wyandot, Miami, Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi warriors into a disorganized retreat.
  • 1804 – Lewis and Clark Expedition: The “Corps of Discovery,” exploring the Louisiana Purchase, suffers its only death when Sergeant Charles Floyd dies, apparently from acute appendicitis.
  • 1866 – President Andrew Johnson formally declared the U.S. Civil War over.
  • 1882 – Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture debuts in Moscow.
  • 1888 – Mutineers imprison Emin Pasha at Dufile.
  • 1900 – Japan’s primary school law is amended to provide for four years of mandatory schooling.
  • 1914 – World War I: German forces occupy Brussels.
  • 1920 – The first commercial radio station, 8MK (WWJ), begins operations in Detroit, Michigan.
  • 1926 – Japan’s public broadcasting company, Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) is established.
  • 1938 – Lou Gehrig hits his 23rd career grand slam – a record that still stands.
  • 1940 – Exiled Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky is fatally wounded in Mexico City by an assassin’s ice axe. He dies the next day.
  • 1944 – World War II: The Battle of Romania begins with a major Soviet offensive.
  • 1953 – The Soviet Union publicly acknowledged it had tested a hydrogen bomb.
  • 1955 – In Morocco, a force of Berbers from the Atlas Mountains region of Algeria raid two rural settlements and kill 77 French nationals.
  • 1960 – Senegal breaks from the Mali federation, declaring independence.
  • 1968 – 200,000 Warsaw Pact troops and 5,000 tanks invade Czechoslovakia to end the “Prague Spring” of political liberalization.
  • 1969 – All four Beatles were together in the recording studio for the final time as they finished the Abbey Road LP.
  • 1974 – Congress votes to reduce aid to South Vietnam from $1 Billion to $700 Million. Majority of the cuts were for military supplies.
  • 1975 – Viking Program: NASA launches the Viking 1 planetary probe toward Mars.
  • 1977 – Voyager Program: The United States launches the Voyager 2 spacecraft.
  • 1979 – The East Coast Main Line rail route between England and Scotland is restored when the Penmanshiel Diversion opens.
  • 1982 – Lebanese Civil War: A multinational force lands in Beirut to oversee the PLO withdrawal from Lebanon.
  • 1986 – In Edmond, Oklahoma, U.S. Postal employee Patrick Sherrill guns down 14 of his co-workers and then commits suicide.
  • 1988 – “Black Saturday” of the Yellowstone fire in Yellowstone National Park
  • 1988 – Peru becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.
  • 1988 – Iran-Iraq War: A cease-fire is agreed to after almost eight years of war.
  • 1991 – Collapse of the Soviet Union, August Coup: More than 100,000 people rally outside the Soviet Union’s parliament building protesting the coup aiming to depose President Mikhail
  • 1991 – Estonia secedes from the Soviet Union.
  • 1993 – After rounds of secret negotiations in Norway, the Oslo Peace Accords were signed, followed by a public ceremony in Washington, D.C. the next month.
  • 1997 – Souhane massacre in Algeria; over 60 people killed, 15 kidnapped.
  • 1998 – The Supreme Court of Canada states Quebec cannot legally secede from Canada without the federal government’s approval.
  • 2002 – A group of Iraqis opposed to the regime of Saddam Hussein took over the Iraqi Embassy in Berlin for five hours before releasing their hostages and giving up.

August 20 – Birthdays:

  • 1517 – Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, French church leader (d. 1586)
  • 1561 – Jacopo Peri, Italian composer (d. 1633)
  • 1625 – Thomas Corneille, French dramatist (d. 1709)
  • 1632 – Louis Bourdaloue, French Jesuit preacher (d. 1704)
  • 1710 – Thomas Simpson, British mathematician (d. 1761)
  • 1719 – Christian Mayer, Czech astronomer (d. 1783)
  • 1719 – Charles-François de Broglie, marquis de Ruffec, French soldier and diplomat (d. 1791)
  • 1776 – Bernardo O’Higgins, South American revolutionary (d. 1842)
  • 1779 – Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Swedish chemist (d. 1848)
  • 1833 – Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President of the United States (d. 1901)
  • 1845 – St. Albert Chmielowski, Polish Catholic Saint (d. 1916)
  • 1847 – Boleslaw Prus, Polish writer (d. 1912)
  • 1856 – Jakub Bart-Cišinski, Sorbian writer (d. 1909)
  • 1860 – Raymond Poincaré, French statesman (d. 1934)
  • 1873 – Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen, Finnish architect (d. 1950)
  • 1881 – Edgar Guest, English poet (d. 1959)
  • 1890 – H. P. Lovecraft, American writer (d. 1937)
  • 1897 – Tarjei Vesaas, Norwegian writer (d. 1970)
  • 1898 – Vilhelm Moberg, Swedish author and historian (d. 1973)
  • 1901 – Salvatore Quasimodo, Italian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1968)
  • 1905 – Jean Gebser, German-born author, linguist, and poet (d. 1973)
  • 1905 – Jack Teagarden, American musician (d. 1964)
  • 1908 – Al Lopez, baseball player and manager (d. 2005)
  • 1910 – Eero Saarinen, Finnish architect (d. 1961)
  • 1913 – Roger Wolcott Sperry, American neurobiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1994)
  • 1916 – Paul Felix Schmidt, Estonian–German chess player (d. 1984)
  • 1918 – Jacqueline Susann, American novelist (d. 1974)
  • 1923 – Jim Reeves, American singer (d. 1964)
  • 1926 – Nobby Wirkowski, American and Canadian football player and coach
  • 1927 – Geriatric1927, English video blogger
  • 1927 – Yootha Joyce, English actress (d. 1980)
  • 1930 – Mario Bernardi, Canadian conductor
  • 1932 – Anthony Ainley, British actor (d. 2004)
  • 1932 – Vasily Aksyonov, Russian novelist
  • 1933 – George J. Mitchell, former United States Senator
  • 1934 – Armi Kuusela, Finnish beauty queen
  • 1936 – Hideki Shirakawa, Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1937 – Andrei Konchalovsky, Russian film director
  • 1937 – El Fary, Spanish singer and actor (d. 2007)
  • 1937 – Jim Bowen, English comedian
  • 1938 – Alain Vivien, French politician
  • 1939 – Fernando Poe Jr., Filipino actor and presidential candidate (d. 2004)
  • 1940 – Rubén Hinojosa, American politician
  • 1941 – Slobodan Miloševic, President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia (d. 2006)
  • 1941 – Rich Brooks, American football coach
  • 1941 – Robin Oakley, British journalist
  • 1941 – Jo Ramirez, Mexican motor racing team manager and author
  • 1942 – Isaac Hayes, American singer, songwriter, and actor
  • 1942 – Fred Norman, American baseball player
  • 1943 – Sylvester McCoy, Scottish actor
  • 1944 – Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (d. 1991)
  • 1946 – Connie Chung, American journalist
  • 1946 – Ralf Hütter, German musician (Kraftwerk)
  • 1946 – N.R. Narayana Murthy, Indian businessman
  • 1947 – Alan Lee, English conceptual artist
  • 1948 – Robert Plant, English singer (Led Zeppelin)
  • 1948 – John Noble, Australian actor
  • 1949 – Phil Lynott, Irish musician (d. 1986)
  • 1949 – Nikolas Asimos, Greek composer and singer (d. 1988)
  • 1951 – Greg Bear, American author
  • 1952 – John Hiatt, American musician
  • 1952 – Doug Fieger, American musician (The Knack)
  • 1954 – Tawn Mastrey, American disc jockey, music video producer (d. 2007)
  • 1954 – Al Roker, American television broadcaster
  • 1954 – Don Stark, American actor
  • 1955 – Agnes Chan, Hong Kong singer and writer
  • 1956 – Joan Allen, American actress
  • 1957 – Finlay Calder, Scottish rugby player
  • 1961 – Greg Egan, Australian author
  • 1961 – Joe Pasquale, English comedian
  • 1962 – Sophie Aldred, English actress
  • 1962 – James Marsters, American actor
  • 1962 – Dong-Wook Song, South Korean tennis player
  • 1965 – KRS-One, American rapper
  • 1966 – Dimebag Darrell, American guitarist (Pantera and Damageplan) (d. 2004)
  • 1967 – Andy Benes, baseball player
  • 1967 – Colin Cunningham, American actor
  • 1967 – Terri Poch, American yogini and former professonal wrestler
  • 1968 – Klas Ingesson, former Swedish footballer
  • 1968 – Yuri Shiratori, Japanese voice actress and singer
  • 1969 – Duke Droese, American professional wrestler
  • 1970 – John D. Carmack, American computer game programmer
  • 1970 – Fred Durst, American singer (Limp Bizkit)
  • 1971 – Brad Avery, American musician (guitarist for Third Day)
  • 1971 – Jonathan Ke Quan, Vietnamese American actor
  • 1971 – Steve Stone, English footballer
  • 1971 – David Walliams, British comedian
  • 1973 – Todd Helton, baseball player
  • 1974 – Amy Adams, American actress
  • 1974 – Big Moe, American rapper (d. 2007)
  • 1974 – Maxim Vengerov, Russian violinist
  • 1975 – Marcus Mastin, American author
  • 1975 – Andy Strachan, Australian musician (The Living End)
  • 1976 – Chris Drury, American hockey player
  • 1977 – Felipe Contepomi, Argentine rugby player
  • 1977 – Manuel Contepomi, Argentine rugby player
  • 1977 – Ivar Ingimarsson, Icelandic footballer
  • 1977 – Mayra Veronica, Cuban model and actress
  • 1979 – Cory Sullivan, baseball player
  • 1980 – Rochelle Gadd, British actress
  • 1980 – Corey Carrier, American actor
  • 1981 – Bernard Mendy, French footballer
  • 1982 – Joshua Kennedy, Australian footballer
  • 1982 – Youssouf Hersi, Ethiopian footballer
  • 1982 – Cléber Luis Alberti, Brazilian footballer
  • 1984 – Mirai Moriyama, Japanese actor
  • 1986 – Robert Clark, Canadian actor
  • 1987 – Catalina Ponor, Romanian gymnast
  • 2003 – Prince Gabriel of Belgium

August 20 – Deaths:

  • 535 – Mochta of Louth, disciple of St. Patrick
  • 984 – Pope John XIV
  • 1384 – Geert Groote, Dutch founder of the Brethren of the Common Life (b. 1340)
  • 1572 – Miguel López de Legazpi, Spanish conquistador (b. 1502)
  • 1580 – Jeronymo Osorio, Portuguese historian (b. 1506)
  • 1611 – Tomás Luis de Victoria, Spanish composer (b. 1548)
  • 1639 – Martin Opitz von Boberfeld, German poet (b. 1597)
  • 1643 – Anne Hutchinson, English Puritan preacher (b. 1591)
  • 1648 – Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, English diplomat, poet, and philosopher (b. 1583)
  • 1672 – Johan de Witt, Dutch politician (b. 1625)
  • 1672 – Cornelis de Witt, Dutch politician (b. 1623)
  • 1680 – William Bedloe, English informer (b. 1650)
  • 1701 – Charles Sedley, English playwright (b. 1639)
  • 1707 – Nicolas Gigault, French organist and composer (b. 1627)
  • 1773 – Enrique Florez, Spanish historian (b. 1701)
  • 1811 – Louis Antoine de Bougainville, French explorer (b. 1729)
  • 1823 – Pope Pius VII (b. 1740)
  • 1825 – William Waldegrave, 1st Baron Radstock, Governor of Newfoundland (b. 1753)
  • 1887 – Jules Laforgue, French poet (b. 1860)
  • 1904 – René Waldeck-Rousseau, French statesman (b. 1846)
  • 1912 – William Booth, English founder of the Salvation Army (b. 1829)
  • 1914 – Pope Pius X (b. 1835)
  • 1915 – Paul Ehrlich, German scientist, Nobel laureate (b. 1854)
  • 1917 – Adolf von Baeyer, German chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 1835)
  • 1959 – William Halsey, Jr, American admiral (b. 1882)
  • 1930 – Charles Bannerman, Australian cricketer (b. 1851)
  • 1961 – Percy Williams Bridgman, American physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1882)
  • 1965 – Jonathan Myrick Daniels, Civil Rights Martyr (b. 1939)
  • 1971 – Rashid Minhas, Pakistani Air Force pilot (b. 1951)
  • 1980 – Joe Dassin, American singer (b. 1938)
  • 1982 – Ulla Jacobsson, Swedish actress (b. 1929)
  • 1986 – Milton Acorn, Canadian poet (b. 1923)
  • 1989 – George Adamson, India-born English game warden and lion expert (b. 1906)
  • 1993 – Bernard Delfgaauw, Dutch philosopher (b. 1912)
  • 1997 – Norris Bradbury, American physicist (b. 1909)
  • 1997 – Léon Dion, French-Canadian political scientist (b. 1922)
  • 1998 – Raquel Rastenni, Danish singer (b. 1915)
  • 2001 – Sir Fred Hoyle, English astronomer and science fiction writer (b. 1915)
  • 2001 – Kim Stanley, American actress (b. 1925)
  • 2005 – Thomas Herrion, American football player (b. 1981)
  • 2005 – Krzysztof Raczkowski, Polish drummer (b. 1970)
  • 2006 – Claude Blanchard, French-Canadian singer, comedian and actor (b. 1932)
  • 2006 – Joe Rosenthal, American photographer (b. 1911)
  • 2006 – Cpl Bryan Budd VC, British soldier (Afghanistan) (b. 1977)
  • 2007 – Leona Helmsley, American hotel operator and real estate investor (b. 1920)

August 20 – Holidays:

  • World Union – World Union Day.
  • Roman Catholic saints – Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
  • Hungary – St. Stephen’s day, the main national holiday in Hungary.

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On This Day In History August 19

August 19 – Events:

  • 43 BC – Octavian, later known as Augustus, compels the senate to elect him Consul.
  • 1504 – Battle of Knockdoe.
  • 1561 – An 18-year-old Mary Queen of Scots returns to Scotland, after spending 13 years in France.
  • 1692 – Salem witch trials: In Salem, Massachusetts, Province of Massachusetts Bay five people, one woman and four men, including a clergyman, are executed after being convicted of witchcraft.
  • 1745 – Jacobite Rising, Prince Charles Edward Stuart lands from a French warship in Glenfinnan, raises his standard and marches on London – the start of the Second Jacobite Rebellion known as “the 45.”
  • 1768 – Saint Isaac’s Cathedral is founded in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
  • 1782 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Blue Licks – The last major engagement of the war, almost ten months after the surrender of the British commander Lord Cornwallis following the Siege of Yorktown.
  • 1812 – War of 1812: American frigate USS Constitution defeats the British frigate HMS Guerrière off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada earning her nickname “Old Ironsides.”
  • 1813 – Gervasio Antonio de Posadas joins Argentina’s second triumvirate.
  • 1839 – Presentation of Jacque Daguerre’s new photographic process to the French Academy of Sciences.
  • 1848 – California Gold Rush: The New York Herald breaks the news to the East Coast of the United States of the gold rush in California (although the rush started in January).
  • 1862 – Indian Wars: During an uprising in Minnesota, Lakota warriors decide not to attack heavily-defended Fort Ridgely and instead turn to the settlement of New Ulm, killing white settlers along the way.
  • 1895 – American frontier murderer and outlaw, John Wesley Hardin, is killed by an off-duty policeman in a saloon in El Paso, Texas.
  • 1915 – World War I: The Battle of Van begins
  • 1919 – Afghanistan gains full independence from the United Kingdom.
  • 1927 – Metropolitan Sergius proclaimed the declaration of loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet state.
  • 1934 – The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio.
  • 1934 – The creation of the position Führer approved by the German electorate with 89.9% of the popular vote.
  • 1942 – World War II: Operation Jubilee – The 2nd Canadian Infantry Division leads an allied forces amphibious assault on Dieppe, France.
  • 1944 – World War II: Liberation of Paris – Paris rises against German occupation with the help of Allied troops.
  • 1945 – Vietnam War: Viet Minh led by Ho Chi Minh take power in Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • 1955 – In the Northeast United States, severe flooding caused by Hurricane Diane, claims 200 lives.
  • 1960 – Cold War: In Moscow, downed American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to ten years imprisonment by the Soviet Union for espionage.
  • 1960 – Sputnik program: Sputnik 5 – The Soviet Union launches the satellite with the dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, 2 rats and a variety of plants.
  • 1965 – Japanese prime minister Eisaku Sato becomes the first post-World War II sitting prime minister to visit Okinawa.
  • 1975 – The cricket test match between England and Australia is called off after the pitch is vandalized by supporters of George Davis.
  • 1980 – Saudia Flight 163, a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar burns after making an emergency landing at King Khalid International Airport in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, killing 301 people.
  • 1981 – Gulf of Sidra Incident: United States fighters intercept and shoot down two Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 fighter jets over the Gulf of Sidra.
  • 1987 – Hungerford Massacre: In the United Kingdom, Michael Ryan kills sixteen people with an assault rifle and then commits suicide.
  • 1989 – Polish president Wojciech Jaruzelski nominates Solidarity activist Tadeusz Mazowiecki to be the first non-communist Prime Minister in 42 years.
  • 1989 – Raid on offshore pirate station, Radio Caroline in North Sea by British and Dutch governments.
  • 1990 – Leonard Bernstein conducts his final concert, ending with Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 7.
  • 1991 – Collapse of the Soviet Union, August Coup: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev placed under house arrest while on holiday in the town of Foros, Crimea.
  • 1991 – Hurricane Bob hits the Northeast.
  • 1997 – The Teamsters end their 15-day walkout against United Parcel Service.
  • 1999 – In Belgrade, tens of thousands of Serbians rally to demand the resignation of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia President Slobodan Miloševic.
  • 2002 – A Russian Mi-26 helicopter carrying troops is hit by a Chechen missile outside of Grozny, killing 118 soldiers.
  • 2003 – A car-bomb attack on United Nations headquarters in Iraq kills the agency’s top envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello and 21 other employees.
  • 2003 – A Hamas planned suicide attack on a bus in Jerusalem kills 23 Israelis, 7 of them children in the Jerusalem bus 2 massacre.
  • 2005 – The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins.
  • 2005 – A series of strong storms lash Southern Ontario spawning several tornadoes as well as creating extreme flash flooding within the city of Toronto and its surrounding communities.

August 19 – Birthdays:

  • 1342 – Katharine of Bohemia, Duchess of Bavaria (d. 1395)
  • 1398 – Marqués de Santillana, Spanish poet (d. 1458)
  • 1557 – Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1608)
  • 1590 – Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, English soldier (d. 1649)
  • 1596 – Elizabeth Stuart, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (d. 1662)
  • 1621 – Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Dutch painter (d. 1674)
  • 1631 – John Dryden, English poet (d. 1700)
  • 1646 – John Flamsteed, English astronomer (d. 1719)
  • 1686 – Eustace Budgell, English writer (d. 1737)
  • 1686 – Nicola Porpora, Italian composer (d. 1768)
  • 1689 – Samuel Richardson, English writer (d. 1761)
  • 1711 – Edward Boscawen, British admiral (d. 1761)
  • 1743 – Madame du Barry, French courtesan (d. 1793)
  • 1846 – Luis Martín, Spanish Superior-General of the Society of Jesus (d. 1906)
  • 1853 – Aleksei Brusilov, Russian general (d. 1926)
  • 1870 – Bernard Baruch, American financier (d. 1965)
  • 1871 – Orville Wright, American aviation pioneer (d. 1948)
  • 1875 – Stjepan Seljan, Croatian explorer (d. 1936)
  • 1878 – Manuel Quezon, President of the Philippines (d. 1944)
  • 1881 – George Enescu, Romanian composer (d. 1955)
  • 1883 – José Mendes Cabeçadas, 95 Prime Minister of Portugal and 9 President of Portugal (d. 1965)
  • 1883 – Coco Chanel, French clothing designer (d. 1971)
  • 1883 – Elsie Ferguson, American film actress (d. 1961)
  • 1892 – Alfred Lunt, American actor (d. 1977)
  • 1896 – Olga Baclanova, Russian-born actress (d. 1974)
  • 1899 – Charlie Hall, English comedian actor (d. 1959)
  • 1900 – Gilbert Ryle, British philosopher (d. 1976)
  • 1902 – Ogden Nash, American poet (d. 1971)
  • 1903 – James Gould Cozzens, American novelist (d. 1978)
  • 1906 – Philo Farnsworth, American inventor (d. 1971)
  • 1907 – Thruston B. Morton, American politician (d. 1982)
  • 1912 – Austin Dobson, British racing driver (d. 1963)
  • 1913 – Richard Simmons, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1913 – John Argyris, Greek aeronautical engineer, one of the creators of the Finite Element Method (d. 2004)
  • 1914 – Lajos Baróti, Hungarian footballer (d. 2005)
  • 1915 – Ring Lardner Jr, American journalist and screenwriter (d. 2000)
  • 1915 – Alfred Rouleau, French Canadian businessman and administrator (Desjardins Group) (d. 1985)
  • 1919 – Malcolm Forbes, American publisher (d. 1990)
  • 1921 – Gene Roddenberry, American television producer (d. 1991)
  • 1925 – Claude Gauvreau, Canadian playwright (d. 1971)
  • 1926 – Arthur Rock, American venture capitalist
  • 1928 – Bernard Levin, English journalist, author, and broadcaster (d. 2004)
  • 1928 – Norman Brooks, Canadian singer (d. 2006)
  • 1930 – Frank McCourt, Irish-American author
  • 1931 – Willie Shoemaker, American jockey (d. 2003)
  • 1934 – Renee Richards, American physician
  • 1935 – Bobby Richardson, American baseball player
  • 1938 – Diana Muldaur, American actress
  • 1939 – Ginger Baker, English drummer (Cream)
  • 1940 – Johnny Nash, American singer-songwriter
  • 1940 – Jill St. John, American actress
  • 1942 – Fred Thompson, American politician and actor
  • 1943 – Billy J. Kramer, British singer
  • 1944 – Bodil Malmsten, Swedish writer
  • 1944 – Charles Wang, Chinese-born philanthropist
  • 1945 – Ian Gillan, English singer (Deep Purple)
  • 1946 – Bill Clinton, Former American president
  • 1946 – Beat Raaflaub, Swiss conductor
  • 1946 – Dawn Steel, American film producer (d. 1997)
  • 1947 – Dave Dutton, English actor
  • 1947 – Terry Hoeppner, American football coach (d. 2007)
  • 1947 – Gerard Schwarz, American conductor
  • 1948 – Gerald McRaney, American actor
  • 1948 – Tipper Gore, Second Lady of the United States
  • 1950 – Jennie Bond, British journalist
  • 1951 – John Deacon, English musician (Queen)
  • 1952 – Jonathan Frakes, American actor and director
  • 1953 – Nanni Moretti, Italian film actor, director and producer
  • 1953 – Mary Matalin, US political consultant and commentator
  • 1954 – Oscar Larrauri, Argentine racing driver
  • 1955 – Peter Gallagher, American actor
  • 1955 – Ned Yost, American baseball player and manager
  • 1956 – Adam Arkin, American actor
  • 1957 – Li-Young Lee, Indonesia-born American poet
  • 1958 – Anthony Muñoz, American football player
  • 1958 – Gary Gaetti, American baseball player
  • 1958 – Brendan Nelson, Australian politician
  • 1959 – Susan Cummings, Monegasque-born American heiress and convicted murderer
  • 1960 – Morten Andersen, American football player
  • 1960 – Antonio Banderas, Spanish actor
  • 1961 – Jonathan Coe, British author
  • 1962 – Tammy Bruce, American political commentator
  • 1962 – Valérie Kaprisky, French actress
  • 1963 – John Stamos, American actor
  • 1963 – Yip Sai Wing, Hong Kong musician (Beyond)
  • 1963 – Joey Tempest, Swedish singer (Europe)
  • 1964 – Whitney Prescott, American model
  • 1965 – Kyra Sedgwick, American actress
  • 1965 – Kevin Dillon, American actor
  • 1965 – Maria de Medeiros, Portuguese actress and director
  • 1966 – Lee Ann Womack, American musician
  • 1968 – Nikolaos Kaklamanakis, Greek windsurfer
  • 1969 – Nate Dogg, American rapper
  • 1969 – Kirk Herbstreit, American football analyst (College GameDay)
  • 1969 – Emigdio Preciado, Hispanic fugitive on FBI’s Most Wanted list
  • 1969 – Paula Jai Parker, American actress
  • 1969 – Matthew Perry, American actor
  • 1969 – Kazuyoshi Tatsunami, Japanese baseball player
  • 1969 – Patrick Van Horn, American actor
  • 1969 – Clay Walker, American singer
  • 1970 – Fat Joe, American rapper
  • 1971 – João Vieira Pinto, Portuguese football player
  • 1972 – Roberto Abbondanzieri, Argentine footballer
  • 1972 – Sammi Cheng Sau Man, Hong Kong singer and actress
  • 1972 – Chihiro Yonekura, Japanese singer
  • 1973 – Mette-Marit, Crown Princess of Norway
  • 1973 – Callum Blue, British actor
  • 1973 – Marco Materazzi, Italian footballer
  • 1973 – Lilian Garcia, wrestling announcer
  • 1975 – Tracie Thoms, American actress
  • 1977 – Iban Mayo, Spanish cyclist
  • 1978 – Chris Capuano, American baseball player
  • 1979 – Dave Douglas, American musician (Relient K)
  • 1979 – Oumar Kondé, Swiss footballer
  • 1980 – Jun Jin, Korean rapper (Shinhwa)
  • 1980 – Darius Danesh, Scottish singer-songwriter & actor
  • 1980 – Paul Parry, Welsh footballer
  • 1982 – Erika Christensen, American actress
  • 1982 – J. J. Hardy, American baseball player
  • 1983 – Missy Higgins, Australian singer-songwriter
  • 1983 – John McCargo, American football player
  • 1983 – Tammin Sursok, Australian actress & singer
  • 1983 – Mike Conway, British racing driver
  • 1984 – Micah Alberti, American actor
  • 1984 – Alessandro Matri, Italian footballer
  • 1984 – Alex Khadivi, French philosopher, drinker, and all-round good guy
  • 1984 – Ryan Taylor, English footballer
  • 1985 – Megan Rochell, American singer
  • 1986 – Saori Kimura, Japanese volleyball player
  • 1987 – Anaïs Lameche, Swedish singer (Play)
  • 1987 – Ileana D’Cruz, Indian actress
  • 1987 – Richard Stearman, English footballer
  • 1987 – William Blake, Famous mathematician
  • 1988 – Travis Tedford, American actor
  • 1989 – Lil Romeo, American rapper
  • 1998 – Ella Guevara, Filipino child actress

August 19 – Deaths:

  • 14 – Augustus, Roman Emperor (b. 63 BC)
  • 1186 – Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany (b. 1158)
  • 1245 – Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (b. 1195)
  • 1284 – Alphonso, Earl of Chester, son of Edward I of England (b. 1273)
  • 1297 – Saint Louis of Toulouse, French Catholic bishop (b. 1274)
  • 1493 – Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1415)
  • 1580 – Andrea Palladio, Italian architect (b. 1508)
  • 1646 – Alexander Henderson, Scottish theologian
  • 1662 – Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher (b. 1623)
  • 1680 – Jean Eudes, French catholic priest, founder of the Eudists (b. 1601)
  • 1753 – Balthasar Neumann, German architect (b. 1687)
  • 1819 – James Watt, Scottish inventor (b. 1736)
  • 1822 – Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre, French mathematician (b. 1749)
  • 1883 – Jeremiah S. Black, American statesman (b. 1810)
  • 1889 – Auguste Villiers de l’Isle-Adam, French writer (b. 1838)
  • 1895 – John Wesley Hardin, American gunfighter (b. 1853)
  • 1900 – Jean-Baptiste Accolay, Belgian composer (b. 1833)
  • 1914 – Franz Xavier Wernz, German Superior General of the Society of Jesus (b. 1844)
  • 1923 – Vilfredo Pareto, Italian sociologist and economist (b. 1845)
  • 1929 – Sergei Diaghilev, Russian ballet impresario (b. 1872)
  • 1936 – Federico García Lorca, Spanish author (b. 1898)
  • 1944 – Günther von Kluge, German field marshal (b. 1882)
  • 1945 – Tomas Burgos, Chilean philanthropist (b.1875)
  • 1950 – Giovanni Giorgi, Italian physicist (b. 1871)
  • 1954 – Alcide De Gasperi, Prime Minister of Italy (b. 1881)
  • 1957 – David Bomberg, English painter (b. 1890)
  • 1957 – Carl-Gustaf Rossby, Swedish meteorologist (b. 1898)
  • 1959 – Jacob Epstein, American-born sculptor (b. 1880)
  • 1963 – Kathleen Parlow, Canadian violinist (b. 1890)
  • 1967 – Hugo Gernsback, Luxembourg-born editor and publisher (b. 1884)
  • 1968 – George Gamow, Ukrainian-born physicist (b. 1904)
  • 1969 – Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, German architect (b. 1886)
  • 1970 – Pawel Jasienica, Polish historian (b. 1909)
  • 1975 – Mark Donohue, American race car driver and engineer (b.1937)
  • 1975 – Jim Londos, wrestler (b. 1897)
  • 1976 – Alastair Sim, Scottish actor and rector of Edinburgh University (b. 1900)
  • 1977 – Groucho Marx, American comedian and actor (b. 1890)
  • 1979 – Dorsey Burnette, American singer (b. 1932)
  • 1980 – Otto Frank, father of Anne Frank (b. 1889)
  • 1981 – Jessie Matthews, English actress (b. 1907)
  • 1982 – August Neo, Estonian wrestler (b. 1908)
  • 1986 – Hermione Baddeley, English actress (b. 1906)
  • 1994 – Linus Pauling, American chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Peace (b. 1901)
  • 1995 – Pierre Schaeffer, French composer (b. 1910)
  • 2000 – Antonio Pugliese, Italian professional wrestler (b. 1941)
  • 2001 – Donald Woods, South African journalist and anti-apartheid activist (b. 1933)
  • 2001 – Betty Everett, American singer and pianist (b. 1939)
  • 2003 – Carlos Roberto Reina, President of Honduras (b. 1926)
  • 2003 – Sérgio Vieira de Mello, Brazilian diplomat (b. 1948)
  • 2005 – Bueno de Mesquita, Dutch comedian and actor (b. 1918)
  • 2005 – Mo Mowlam, British politician (b. 1949)

August 19 – Holidays:

  • Roman festivals – Vinalia Rustica celebrated in honor of Venus Libitina commemorating the founding of the oldest known temple to her, on the Esquiline Hill, in 293 BC on this date.
  • Russian and Georgian Orthodox churches celebrate the Saviour’s Transfiguration, popularly known in Russia as the “Apples Feast” (it’s the first day of the year when eating apples is allowed).
  • Afghanistan – Afghan Independence Day
  • National Day of the Filipino Language, Philippines – Holiday for Quezon City, Quezon Province and other municipalities named after Manuel Quezon.
  • National Aviation Day, USA.

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On This Day In History August 18

August 18 – Events:

  • 293 BC – The oldest known Roman temple to Venus was founded, starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica.
  • 1201 – The city of Riga is founded.
  • 1541 – A Portuguese ship drifts ashore in the ancient Japanese province of Higo (modern day Kumamoto Prefecture).
  • 1572 – Wedding in Paris of the Huguenot King Henry IV of Navarre with Marguerite de Valois, in a supposed attempt to reconcile Protestants and Catholics.
  • 1590 – John White, the governor of the Colony of Roanoke, returns from a supply-trip to England and finds his settlement deserted.
  • 1634 – Urbain Grandier, accused and convicted of sorcery, burned alive in Loudun, France.
  • 1636 – The Covenant of the Town of Dedham, Massachusetts was first signed.
  • 1775 – The Spanish established a presidio (fort) and the town came to be called Tucson, Arizona.
  • 1838 – The Wilkes Expedition, which would explore the Puget Sound and Antarctica, weighs anchor at Hampton Roads in 1838
  • 1848 – Camila O’Gorman and Ladislao Gutierrez executed on orders by Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Globe Tavern – Union forces try to cut a vital Confederate supply-line into Petersburg, Virginia, by attacking the Weldon Railroad.
  • 1868 – French astronomer Pierre Jules César Janssen discovers helium.
  • 1870 – Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Gravelotte is fought.
  • 1877 – Asaph Hall discovers Martian moon Phobos.
  • 1903 – German engineer Karl Jatho allegedly flies his self-made, motored gliding airplane four months before the first flight of the Wright Brothers.
  • 1904 – Chris Watson resigns as Prime Minister of Australia and is succeeded by George Reid.
  • 1909 – Tokyo mayor Yukio Ozaki presents Washington, D.C. with 2,000 cherry trees, which President Taft decides to plant near the Potomac River.
  • 1917 – A Great Fire in Thessaloniki, Greece destroys 32% of the city leaving 70,000 individuals homeless.
  • 1920 – Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution ratified, guaranteeing women’s suffrage.
  • 1938 – The Thousand Islands Bridge, connecting New York State, United States with Ontario, Canada over the St. Lawrence River, is dedicated by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
  • 1941 – Adolf Hitler orders a temporary halt to Nazi Germany’s systematic euthanasia of mentally ill and handicapped due to protests.
  • 1946 – Around 70 people died in the Vergarolla explosion.
  • 1950 – Julien Lahaut, the chairman of the Communist Party of Belgium is assassinated by far-right elements.
  • 1958 – Vladimir Nabokov’s controversial novel Lolita is published in the United States.
  • 1963 – American civil rights movement: James Meredith becomes the first black person to graduate from the University of Mississippi.
  • 1965 – Vietnam War: Operation Starlite begins – United States Marines destroy a Viet Cong stronghold on the Van Tuong peninsula in the first major American ground battle of the war.
  • 1966 – Vietnam War: The Battle of Long Tan occurs, when a patrol of Royal Australian Regiment encounter the Viet Cong.
  • 1968 – Two charter buses push into the Hida river on national highway route 41 in Japan, in an accident caused by heavy rain. 104 killed. This accident is worst road disaster in northeast Asia.
  • 1969 – Jimi Hendrix plays the unofficial last day of Woodstock.
  • 1971 – Vietnam War: Australia and New Zealand decide to withdraw their troops from Vietnam.
  • 1976 – In the Korean Demilitarized Zone at Panmunjeom, the Axe Murder Incident results in the death of two US soldiers.
  • 1977 – Steve Biko was arrested at a police roadblock under the Terrorism Act No 83 of 1967 in King William’s Town, South Africa. He would later die of the injuries sustained during this arrest bringing attention to apartheid.
  • 1982 – Japanese election law is amended to allow for proportional representation.
  • 1983 – Hurricane Alicia hits the Texas coast, killing 22 people and causing over USD $1 billion in damage (1983 dollars).
  • 1989 – Leading presidential hopeful Luis Carlos Galán is assassinated near Bogotá in Colombia.
  • 1992 – Wang Laboratories files for bankruptcy.
  • 2000 – Federal jury found the US EPA guilty of discrimination against Dr. Marsha Coleman-Adebayo, under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, later inspiring passage of the No FEAR Act.
  • 2002 – MTR Tseung Kwan O Line officially opened.
  • 2004 – In Dublin, Ireland the Dublin Port Tunnel excavation works are completed.
  • 2005 – Dennis Rader is sentenced to 175 years in prison for the BTK serial killings.
  • 2005 – Massive power blackout hits the Indonesian island of Java, affecting almost 100 million people.

August 18 – Birthdays:

  • 1414 – Jami, Persian poet (d. 1492)
  • 1450 – Marko Marulic, Croatian poet (d. 1524)
  • 1579 – Charlotte Flandrina of Nassau, Roman Catholic nun (died 1640)
  • 1587 – Virginia Dare, first English child born in North America (d. 1588)
  • 1596 – Jean Bolland, Flemish Jesuit writer (d. 1665)
  • 1605 – Henry Hammond, English churchman (d. 1660)
  • 1606 – Maria Anna of Spain, Holy Roman Empire Empress and Queen of Hungary (d. 1646)
  • 1611 – Ludwika Maria Gonzaga, queen of Poland (d. 1650)
  • 1657 – Ferdinando Galli Bibiena, Italian architect/designer (d. 1743)
  • 1685 – Brook Taylor, English mathematician (d. 1731)
  • 1692 – Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon, Prime Minister of France (d. 1740)
  • 1720 – Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers, English murderer (d. 1760)
  • 1750 – Antonio Salieri, Italian composer (d. 1825)
  • 1754 – François, marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat, French general (d. 1833)
  • 1774 – Meriwether Lewis, American explorer (d. 1809)
  • 1792 – John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1878)
  • 1803 – Nathan Clifford, American statesman, diplomat, and Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1881)
  • 1819 – Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaievna, Duchess of Leuchtenberg (d. 1876)
  • 1822 – Isaac P. Rodman, American Union general (d. 1862)
  • 1830 – Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria (d. 1916)
  • 1841 – William Halford, American naval officer (d. 1919)
  • 1855 – Alfred Wallis, English artist and mariner (d. 1942)
  • 1857 – Libert H. Boeynaems, Belgian Catholic prelate (d. 1926)
  • 1870 – Lavr Georgevich Kornilov, Russian general (d. 1918)
  • 1879 – Aleksandr Rodzyanko, Russian general (d. 1970)
  • 1890 – Walther Funk, German Nazi politician (d. 1960)
  • 1893 – Ernest MacMillan, Canadian musician (d. 1973)
  • 1893 – Burleigh Grimes, baseball player (d. 1985)
  • 1896 – Jack Pickford, Canadian-born actor (d. 1933)
  • 1900 – Glenn Albert Black, American archaeologist (d. 1964)
  • 1902 – Adamson-Eric, Estonian painter (d. 1968)
  • 1903 – Lucienne Boyer, French singer (d. 1983)
  • 1904 – Max Factor, Polish-born cosmetics entrepreneur (d. 1996)
  • 1906 – Marcel Carné, French film director (d. 1996)
  • 1908 – Edgar Faure, French politician and historian (d. 1988)
  • 1909 – Gérard Filion, French Canadian businessman and journalist (d. 2005)
  • 1913 – Romain Maes, Belgian cyclist (d. 1983)
  • 1915 – Max Lanier, baseball player (d. 2007)
  • 1916 – Dame Moura Lympany, British pianist (d. 2005)
  • 1917 – Caspar Weinberger, American politician (d. 2006)
  • 1918 – Walter Joseph Hickel, American politician
  • 1918 – Cisco Houston, American folk singer (d. 1961)
  • 1920 – Bob Kennedy, baseball player (d. 2005)
  • 1920 – Shelley Winters, American actress (d. 2006)
  • 1921 – Zdzislaw Zygulski, Jr., Polish art historian
  • 1922 – Alain Robbe-Grillet, French writer
  • 1925 – Brian Aldiss, English writer
  • 1925 – Pierre Grondin, French Canadian cardiac surgeon (d. 2006)
  • 1927 – Rosalynn Carter, First Lady of the United States
  • 1928 – Marge Schott, baseball team owner (d. 2004)
  • 1929 – Hugues Aufray, French singer
  • 1930 – Liviu Librescu, Israeli professor, killed in the Virginia Tech massacre
  • 1931 – Bramwell Tillsley, Canadian Salvation Army general
  • 1931 – Dick White, English footballer
  • 1932 – William R. Bennett, Premier of British Columbia
  • 1933 – Roman Polanski, French-born director and actor
  • 1933 – Just Fontaine, French footballer
  • 1934 – Vincent Bugliosi, American attorney
  • 1934 – Roberto Clemente, Puerto Rican baseball player and humanitarian (d. 1972)
  • 1934 – Ronnie Carroll, British singer
  • 1935 – Rafer Johnson, American athlete
  • 1935 – Howard Morrison, New Zealand entertainer
  • 1936 – Robert Redford, American actor
  • 1939 – Robert Horton, British businessman
  • 1939 – Johnny Preston, American singer
  • 1943 – Martin Mull, American comedian
  • 1943 – Gianni Rivera, Italian footballer and politician
  • 1943 – Carl Wayne, English singer (d. 2004)
  • 1945 – Barbara Harris, American singer (Toys)
  • 1948 – Joseph Marcell, British actor
  • 1949 – Rudy Hartono, Indonesian badminton player
  • 1952 – Elayne Boosler, American comedian
  • 1952 – Patrick Swayze, American actor (d. 2009)
  • 1952 – Ricky Villa, Argentine former footballer
  • 1953 – Louie Gohmert, American politician
  • 1955 – Taher ElGamal, Egyptian scientist
  • 1956 – John Debney, American composer
  • 1956 – Jon “Bermuda” Schwartz, American musician
  • 1957 – Carole Bouquet, French actress
  • 1957 – Denis Leary, American comedian and actor
  • 1958 – Madeleine Stowe, American actress
  • 1959 – Tom Prichard, American wrestler
  • 1960 – Fat Lever, American basketball player
  • 1960 – Mike LaValliere, baseball player
  • 1961 – Bob Woodruff, American journalist, anchor
  • 1962 – Felipe Calderón, President of Mexico
  • 1962 – Geoff Courtnall, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1964 – Edith Frost, American singer/songwriter
  • 1965 – Koji Kikkawa, Japanese singer
  • 1965 – Jim Florentine, American comedian
  • 1966 – Gustavo Charif, Argentine artist
  • 1966 – Kang Soo-yeon, South Korean actress
  • 1967 – Brian Michael Bendis, American comic book writer
  • 1967 – Daler Mehndi, Indian bhangra/pop singer
  • 1968 – Lee Seung-yeon, South Korean actress
  • 1968 – Dan Peters, American musician
  • 1969 – Masta Killa, American rapper
  • 1969 – Everlast, American musician
  • 1969 – Edward Norton, American actor
  • 1969 – Christian Slater, American actor
  • 1970 – Jessica Hsuan, Hong Kong actress
  • 1970 – Malcolm-Jamal Warner, American actor
  • 1971 – Richard D James, Irish-born musician (Aphex Twin)
  • 1972 – Keiko Yamada, Japanese singer
  • 1972 – Leo Ku, Hong Kong singer
  • 1972 – Shaun Wilson, Australian artist
  • 1976 – Daphnee Duplaix Samuel, American actress, Playboy Playmate
  • 1977 – Régine Chassagne, member of the Canadian rock band Arcade Fire
  • 1978 – Andy Samberg, American comedian
  • 1979 – Selena Silver, pornographic actress
  • 1980 – Esteban Cambiasso, Argentine footballer
  • 1980 – Preeti Jhangiani, Indian actress
  • 1980 – Rob Nguyen, Australian racing driver
  • 1980 – Athina Papayianni, Greek race walker
  • 1980 – Jeremy Shockey, American football Tight End
  • 1981 – César Delgado, Argentine footballer
  • 1981 – Jonathan Schneck, American musician (Relient K)
  • 1983 – Kris Boyd, Scottish footballer
  • 1983 – Mica Penniman (Mika), Lebanese-born musician
  • 1983 – Daniel Keith Swain (Danny!), American record producer/hip-hop artist
  • 1984 – Robert Huth, German footballer
  • 1987 – Mika Boorem, American actress
  • 1992 – Frances Bean Cobain, daughter Kurt Cobain and Courtney Love
  • 1992 – Riko Narumi, Japanese actress
  • 1994 – Jessie Flower, American actress and voice actress
  • 1995 – Parker McKenna Posey, American actress

August 18 – Deaths:

  • 353 – Decentius, Roman usurper
  • 472 – Ricimer, Roman general
  • 849 – Walafrid Strabo, German monk and theologian
  • 1227 – Genghis Khan, Khagan of Mongol Empire
  • 1258 – Theodore II Lascaris, Emperor of the Empire of Nicaea
  • 1276 – Pope Adrian V
  • 1318 – Clare of Montefalco, Italian Abbess and religious leader (born c. 1268)
  • 1430 – Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros, English soldier and politician (drowned) (b. 1406)
  • 1503 – Pope Alexander VI (b. 1431)
  • 1559 – Pope Paul IV (b. 1476)
  • 1563 – Étienne de La Boétie, French judge and writer (b. 1530)
  • 1613 – Giovanni Artusi, Italian composer
  • 1620 – Wanli, Emperor of China (b. 1563)
  • 1634 – Urbain Grandier, French priest (b. 1590)
  • 1642 – Guido Reni, Italian painter (b. 1575)
  • 1645 – Eudoxia Streshneva, Tsarina of Mikhail I of Russia (b. 1608)
  • 1683 – Charles Hart, English actor (b. 1625)
  • 1707 – William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire, English soldier and statesman (b. 1640)
  • 1712 – Richard Savage, 4th Earl Rivers, English soldier
  • 1765 – Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1708)
  • 1809 – Matthew Boulton, English manufacturer and engineer (b. 1728)
  • 1815 – Chauncey Goodrich, American politician (b. 1759)
  • 1842 – Louis de Freycinet, French explorer (b. 1779)
  • 1850 – Honoré de Balzac, French writer (b. 1799)
  • 1919 – Joseph E. Seagram, Canadian distillery founder (b. 1841)
  • 1940 – Walter P. Chrysler, American automobile executive (b. 1875)
  • 1943 – Ali-Agha Shikhlinski, Russian-Azerbaijani general (b. 1865)
  • 1949 – Paul Mares, American musician (b. 1900)
  • 1952 – Alberto Hurtado Cruchaga, Chilean Jesuit saint (b. 1901)
  • 1963 – Clifford Odets, American playwright (b. 1906)
  • 1981 – Anita Loos, American screenwriter (b. 1889)
  • 1983 – Nikolaus Pevsner, German-born art historian (b. 1902)
  • 1990 – Grethe Ingmann, Danish singer (b. 1938)
  • 1990 – B.F. Skinner, American psychological theorist (b. 1904)
  • 1992 – John Sturges, American film director (b. 1911)
  • 1994 – Martin Cahill, The General, infamous Dublin criminal (b. 1949)
  • 1998 – Persis Khambatta, Indian actress (b. 1950)
  • 2001 – David Peakall, British scientist (b. 1931)
  • 2002 – Dean Riesner, American film and television writer (b. 1918)
  • 2003 – Tony Jackson, English musician (The Searchers) (b. 1938)
  • 2004 – Elmer Bernstein, American composer (b. 1922)
  • 2005 – Christopher Bauman, American wrestler (b. 1982)
  • 2005 – Gao Xiumin, Chinese comedy actress (b. 1959)
  • 2006 – Fernand Gignac, Canadian singer and actor (b. 1934)
  • 2006 – Jamie Astaphan, Caribbean-born physician (b. 1946)
  • 2007 – Michael Deaver, Reagan Administration Deputy White House Chief of Staff (b. 1938)

August 18 – Holidays:

  • International Lighthouse Day
  • Australia – Long Tan Day (also called Vietnam Veterans’ Day) named after the Battle of Long Tan

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On This Day In History August 17

August 17 – Events:

  • 1807 – Robert Fulton’s first American steamboat leaves New York City for Albany, New York on the Hudson River, inaugurating the first commercial steamboat service in the world.
  • 1862 – Indian Wars: The Lakota (Sioux) Dakota War of 1862 begins in Minnesota as vicious Lakota attack white settlements along the Minnesota River.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Major General JEB Stuart is assigned command of all the cavalry of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: In Charleston, South Carolina, Union batteries and ships bombard Confederate-held Fort Sumter.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Gainesville – Confederate forces defeat Union troops near Gainesville, Florida.
  • 1883 – The first public performance of the Dominican Republic’s national anthem, Himno Nacional.
  • 1907 – Pike Place Market, the longest continuously-running public farmers market in the US, opened in Seattle.
  • 1914 – World War I: Battle of Stalluponen – The German army of General Hermann von François defeats the Russian force commanded by Pavel Rennenkampf near modern-day Nesterov, Russia.
  • 1918 – Bolshevik revolutionary leader Moisei Uritsky is assassinated.
  • 1942 – U.S. Marines raid the Japanese-held Pacific island of Makin (Butaritari).
  • 1943 – World War II: The U.S. Eighth Air Force suffers the loss of 60 bombers on the Schweinfurt- Regensburg mission.
  • 1943 – World War II: The U.S. Seventh Army under General George S. Patton arrive in Messina, Italy, followed several hours later by the British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery, thus completing the Allied conquest of Sicily.
  • 1943 – World War II: First Québec Conference of Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and William Lyon Mackenzie King begins.
  • 1945 – Indonesian Declaration of Independence.
  • 1945 Animal Farm by George Orwell is first published by Fredric Warburg
  • 1947 – The Radcliffe Line, the border between Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan is revealed.
  • 1953 – Addiction: First meeting of Narcotics Anonymous in Southern California.
  • 1959 – Quake Lake: Quake Lake was formed by the magnitude 7.5 1959 Yellowstone earthquake near Hebgen Lake in Montana.
  • 1960 – Decolonization: Gabon gains independence from France.
  • 1962 – East German border guards kill 18-year-old Peter Fechter as he attempts to cross the Berlin Wall into West Berlin becoming the first victim of the wall.
  • 1969 – Category 5 Hurricane Camille hits the Mississippi coast, killing 248 people and causing $1.5 billion in damage.
  • 1970 – Venera Program: Venera 7 launched. It will later become the first spacecraft to successfully transmit data from the surface of another planet (Venus).
  • 1978 – Double Eagle II becomes first balloon to cross the Atlantic Ocean when it lands in Miserey near Paris, 137 hours after leaving Presque Isle, Maine.
  • 1979 – Two Soviet Aeroflot jetliners collide in mid-air over Ukraine, killing 156.
  • 1980 – Azaria Chamberlain disappears, likely taken by a dingo, leading to what was then the most publicized trial in Australian history.
  • 1982 – The first Compact Discs (CD’s) were released to the public in Germany.
  • 1988 – Pakistani President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq and U.S. Ambassador Arnold Raphel are killed in a plane crash.
  • 1998 – Monica Lewinsky scandal: US President Bill Clinton admits in taped testimony he had an “improper physical relationship” with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. On the same day he admits before the nation he “misled people” about his relationship.
  • 1999 – A 7.4-magnitude earthquake strikes Izmit, Turkey, killing more than 17,000 and injuring 44,000.
  • 2004 – MD5 collision found by Chinese researchers.
  • 2004 – The National Assembly of Serbia unanimously adopts new state symbols for Serbia: Boze Pravde becomes the new anthem and the coat of arms is adopted for the whole country.

August 17 – Birthdays:

  • 1473 – Richard, Duke of York (d. 1483?)
  • 1562 – Hans Leo Hassler (baptized), German composer (d. 1612)
  • 1578 – Francesco Albani, Italian painter (d. 1660)
  • 1601 – Pierre de Fermat, French mathematician (d. 1665)
  • 1629 – King John III of Poland (d. 1696)
  • 1768 – Louis Charles Antoine Desaix, French general (d. 1800)
  • 1786 – Davy Crockett, American frontiersman and soldier (d. 1836)
  • 1786 – Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, mother of Queen Victoria (d. 1861)
  • 1794 – Prince Alexander of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, German priest (d. 1849)
  • 1828 – Jules Bernard Luys, French neurologist (d. 1897)
  • 1844 – Menelek II of Ethiopia (d. 1913)
  • 1863 – Gene Stratton-Porter, American author and naturalist (d. 1924)
  • 1866 – Mir Mahboob Ali Khan, 6th Nizam of Hyderabad (d. 1911)
  • 1866 – Julia Marlowe, English actress (d. 1950)
  • 1873 – John A. Sampson, American gynecologist (d. 1946)
  • 1882 – Samuel Goldwyn, Hollywood producer (d. 1974)
  • 1887 – Marcus Garvey, Jamaican-born Black rights activist (d. 1940)
  • 1887 – Charles I of Austria (d. 1922)
  • 1888 – Monty Woolley, American actor (d. 1963)
  • 1890 – Harry Hopkins, 8th United States Secretary of Commerce (d. 1946)
  • 1890 – Stefan Bastyr, Polish aviator (d. 1920)
  • 1893 – Mae West, American actress (d. 1980)
  • 1896 – Leslie Groves, American military engineer (d. 1970)
  • 1904 – Leopold Nowak, Austrian musicologist (d. 1991)
  • 1904 – Mary Cain, American newspaper editor and politician (d. 1984)
  • 1909 – Larry Clinton, American trumpeter and bandleader (d. 1985)
  • 1911 – Mikhail Botvinnik, Russian chess player (d. 1995)
  • 1913 – W. Mark Felt, American Watergate informant
  • 1913 – Rudy York, American baseball player (d. 1970)
  • 1913 – Oscar Alfredo Gálvez, Argentine racing driver (d. 1989)
  • 1914 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., son of Franklin Delano Roosevelt (d. 1988)
  • 1919 – Georgia Gibbs, American singer (d. 2006)
  • 1920 – Maureen O’Hara, Irish actress
  • 1921 – Geoffrey Rudolph Elton, British historian (d. 1994)
  • 1926 – Jiang Zemin, Chinese politician
  • 1926 – George Melly, British singer (d. 2007)
  • 1926 – Jean Poiret, French actor, director and screenwriter (d. 1992)
  • 1929 – Francis Gary Powers, American U-2 pilot (d. 1977)
  • 1930 – Glenn Corbett, American actor (d. 1993)
  • 1930 – Ted Hughes, English poet (d. 1998)
  • 1932 – V. S. Naipaul, West Indian writer, Nobel Laureate
  • 1933 – Eugene F. Kranz, American NASA executive
  • 1933 – Mark Dinning, American singer (d. 1986)
  • 1935 – Oleg Tabakov, Russian actor
  • 1936 – Floyd Red Crow Westerman, Native American musician-actor (d. 2007)
  • 1938 – Abu Bakar Bashir, Indonesian Muslim cleric
  • 1938 – Theodoros Pangalos, Greek politician
  • 1939 – Luther Allison, American musician
  • 1939 – Anthony Valentine, British actor
  • 1940 – Eduardo Mignogna, Argentinian film director (d. 2006)
  • 1941 – Jean Pierre Lefebvre, French Canadian film director
  • 1941 – Boog Powell, American baseball player
  • 1943 – Robert De Niro, American actor
  • 1943 – Dave “Snaker” Ray, American musician (d. 2002)
  • 1944 – Lawrence Joseph Ellison, CEO of Oracle Corporation, Billionaire
  • 1946 – Martha Coolidge, American film director
  • 1947 – Gary Talley, American guitarist (Box Tops)
  • 1947 – Sylvia Nasar, German-born American economist and author
  • 1948 – Rod MacDonald, American musician
  • 1949 – Sib Hashian, American drummer (Boston)
  • 1951 – Robert Joy, Canadian actor
  • 1951 – Alan Minter, British boxer
  • 1952 – Nelson Piquet, Brazilian race car driver
  • 1952 – Dr. Mario Theissen, German F1 team principal (BMW Sauber)
  • 1952 – Guillermo Vilas, Argentinian tennis player
  • 1953 – Judith Regan, American book publisher
  • 1953 – Kevin Rowland, English musician (Dexys Midnight Runners)
  • 1954 – Eric Johnson, American guitarist
  • 1955 – Richard Hilton, American heir
  • 1956 – Gail Berman, American film executive
  • 1956 – Álvaro Pino, Spanish cyclist
  • 1957 – Robin Cousins, British figure skater
  • 1958 – Belinda Carlisle, American singer
  • 1958 – Kirk Stevens, Canadian snooker player
  • 1959 – David Koresh, American cult leader (d. 1993)
  • 1959 – Jonathan Franzen, American author
  • 1960 – Sean Penn, American actor and director
  • 1960 – Stephan Eicher, Swiss singer
  • 1962 – Gilby Clarke, American musician (Guns N’ Roses)
  • 1963 – S. Shankar, Indian film director.
  • 1964 – Colin James, Canadian musician
  • 1966 – Maysa Leak, American Jazz Singer
  • 1966 – Rodney Mullen, American skateboarder
  • 1966 – Don Sweeney, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1967 – Kevin Max, American singer (dc_talk)
  • 1968 – Ed McCaffrey, American football player
  • 1968 – Helen McCrory, English actress
  • 1969 – Christian Laettner, American basketball player
  • 1969 – Donnie Wahlberg, American actor and singer
  • 1970 – Jim Courier, American tennis player
  • 1970 – Rupert Degas, English actor and voice artist
  • 1970 – Oyvind Leonhardsen, Norwegian footballer
  • 1971 – Jorge Posada, Puerto Rican baseball player
  • 1971 – Uhm Jung-hwa, South Korean singer and actress
  • 1972 – Habibul Bashar, Bangladeshi cricketer
  • 1972 – Ken Ryker, American pornographic actor
  • 1974 – Tony Hajjar, Lebanese drummer (At the Drive-In, Sparta)
  • 1974 – Nicola Kraus, American novelist
  • 1975 – Giuliana DePandi, Italian-born American television personality
  • 1975 – Ilhan Mansiz, Turkish footballer
  • 1976 – Scott Halberstadt, American actor
  • 1977 – Thierry Henry, French footballer
  • 1977 – Tarja Turunen, Finnish singer
  • 1977 – William Gallas, French footballer
  • 1978 – Vibeke Stene, Norwegian singer (Tristania)
  • 1978 – Karena Lam, Hong Kong actress
  • 1979 – Antwaan Randle El, American football player
  • 1979 – Marcus Patric, British actor
  • 1980 – Lene Marlin, Norwegian singer
  • 1980 – Keith Dabengwa, Zimbabwean cricketer
  • 1980 – Jan Kromkamp, Dutch footballer
  • 1982 – Melissa Anderson, American professional wrestler
  • 1982 – Phil Jagielka, English footballer
  • 1983 – Dustin Pedroia, American baseball player
  • 1984 – Dee Brown, American basketball player
  • 1985 – Yu Aoi, Japanese actress
  • 1986 – Rudy Gay, American basketball player
  • 1986 – Tyrus Thomas, American basketball player
  • 1988 – Erika Toda, Japanese actress
  • 1990 – Rachel Hurd-Wood, British actress
  • 1990 – Colin Bates, American actor
  • 1996 – Ella Cruz, Filipina actress

August 17 – Deaths:

  • 1153 – Eustace IV of Boulogne, son of Stephen of England (b. 1130)
  • 1304 – Emperor Go-Fukakusa of Japan (b. 1243)
  • 1510 – Edmund Dudley, English statesman (b. 1462)
  • 1657 – Robert Blake, British admiral (b. 1599)
  • 1673 – Regnier de Graaf, Dutch physician and anatomist (b. 1641)
  • 1676 – Hans Jakob Christoph von Grimmelshausen, German novelist (b. 1621)
  • 1720 – Anne Lefèvre, French scholar (b. 1654)
  • 1723 – Joseph Bingham, English scholar (b. 1668)
  • 1768 – Vasily Kirillovich Trediakovsky, Russian poet (b. 1703)
  • 1785 – Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of the Colony and the state of Connecticut (b. 1710)
  • 1786 – King Frederick II of Prussia (b. 1712)
  • 1834 – Husein Gradašcevic, Bosnian rebel leader (b. 1802)
  • 1850 – Don José de San Martín, Argentine general (b. 1778)
  • 1861 – Alcée Louis la Branche, American Politician (b. 1806)
  • 1875 – Wilhelm Bleek, German linguist (b. 1827)
  • 1880 – Ole Bull, Norwegian violinist (b. 1810)
  • 1896 – Bridget Driscoll, world’s first automobile fatality
  • 1901 – Edmond Audran, French composer (b. 1842)
  • 1903 – Hans Gude, Norwegian romanticist landscape painter (b. 1825)
  • 1918 – Moisei Uritsky, Russian revolutionary (b. 1873)
  • 1920 – Ray Chapman, American baseball player (b. 1891)
  • 1925 – Ioan Slavici, Transylvanian writer of Romanian origin (b. 1848)
  • 1940 – Billy Fiske, American aviator and Olympic athlete (b. 1911)
  • 1954 – Billy Murray, American recording artist (b. 1877)
  • 1962 – Peter Fechter trying to cross the Berlin Wall (b. 1944)
  • 1969 – Otto Stern, German physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1888)
  • 1970 – Rattana Pestonji, Thai filmmaker (b. 1908)
  • 1971 – Wilhelm List, German field marshal (b. 1880)
  • 1973 – Jean Barraqué, French composer (b. 1928)
  • 1973 – Paul Williams, American singer (The Temptations) (b. 1939)
  • 1973 – Conrad Aiken, American author (b. 1889)
  • 1979 – Vivian Vance, American actress (b. 1909)
  • 1983 – Ira Gershwin, American lyricist (b. 1896)
  • 1987 – Rudolf Hess, Nazi deputy (b. 1894)
  • 1988 – Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, 6th President of Pakistan (b. 1924)
  • 1988 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., son of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States (b. 1914)
  • 1988 – Victoria Shaw, Australian-born American actress (b. 1935)
  • 1990 – Pearl Bailey, American singer and actress (b. 1918)
  • 1992 – Al Parker, American adult film actor (b. 1952)
  • 1993 – Feng Kang, Chinese mathematician (b. 1920)
  • 1994 – Luigi Chinetti, Italian-American race car driver and team owner (NART; b. 1901)
  • 1994 – Jack Sharkey, American boxer (b. 1902)
  • 1995 – Howard Koch, American screenwriter (b. 1902)
  • 1995 – Ted Whitten, Australian rules footballer (b. 1933)
  • 2004 – Thea Astley, Australian writer (b. 1925)
  • 2004 – Gérard Souzay, French baritone (b. 1918)
  • 2005 – John Bahcall, American astrophysicist (b. 1934)
  • 2007 – Bill Deedes, British journalist and politician (b. 1913)
  • 2007 – Eddie Griffin, American basketball player (b. 1982)

August 17 – Holidays:

  • Independence Day – observance in Indonesia.
  • Slovenia: Slovenians in Prekmurje Incorporated into the Mother Nation Day

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On This Day in History August 16

August 16 – Events:

  • 1513 – Battle of Guinegate (Battle of the Spurs) – King Henry VIII of England defeats French Forces who were forced to retreat.
  • 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Camden – The British defeat the Americans near Camden, South Carolina.
  • 1792 – Maximilien Robespierre presents the petition of the Commune of Paris to the Legislative Assembly, which demanded the formation of a revolutionary tribunal.
  • 1812 – War of 1812: American General William Hull surrenders Fort Detroit without a fight to the British Army.
  • 1819 – Eleven people die and 400 are injured by cavalry charges at the Peterloo Massacre at a public meeting at St. Peter’s Field, Manchester, England.
  • 1841 – U.S. President John Tyler vetoes a bill which called for the re-establishment of the Second Bank of the United States. Enraged Whig Party members riot outside the White House in the most violent demonstration on White House grounds in U.S. history.
  • 1858 – U.S. President James Buchanan inaugurates the new transatlantic telegraph cable by exchanging greetings with Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. However, a weak signal will force a shutdown of the service in a few weeks.
  • 1865 – Restoration Day in the Dominican Republic: The Dominican Republic regains its independence after 4 years of fighting against the Spanish Annexation.
  • 1868 – Arica, Peru (now Chile) is devastated by a tsunami which followed a magnitude 8.5 earthquake in the Peru-Chile Trench off the coast. The earthquake and tsunami killed an estimated 25,000 people in Arica and perhaps 70,000 people in all.
  • 1869 – Battle of Acosta Ñu: A Paraguay battalion made up of children is massacred by the Brazilian Army during the War of the Triple Alliance.
  • 1870 – Franco-Prussian War: The Battle of Mars-La-Tour is fought, resulting in a Prussian victory.
  • 1896 – Skookum Jim Mason, George Carmack and Dawson Charlie discover gold in a tributary of the Klondike River in Canada, setting off the Klondike Gold Rush.
  • 1913 – Tohoku Imperial University of Japan (modern day Tohoku University) admits its first female students.
  • 1914 – World War I: Battle of Cer begins.
  • 1920 – Ray Chapman of the Cleveland Indians is hit in the head by a fastball thrown by Carl Mays of the New York Yankees, and dies early the next day. To date, Chapman is the only player to die from injuries sustained in a Major League Baseball game.
  • 1920 – The congress of the Communist Party of Bukhara opens. The congress would call for armed revolution.
  • 1930 – The first color sound cartoon, called Fiddlesticks, is made by Ub Iwerks.
  • 1940 – World War II: The Communist Party is banned in German-occupied Norway.
  • 1942 – World War II: The two-person crew of the U.S. naval blimp L-8 disappears without a trace on a routine anti-submarine patrol over the Pacific Ocean. The blimp drifts without her crew and crash-lands in Daly City, California.
  • 1944 – First flight of the Junkers Ju 287.
  • 1945 – An assassination attempt was made on Japan’s prime minister, Kantaro Suzuki.
  • 1945 – Puyi, the last Chinese emperor and ruler of Manchukuo, was captured by Soviet troops.
  • 1946 – The Japan Business Federation, or Keidanren, is established, and Ichiro Ishikawa is appointed its representative.
  • 1960 – Cyprus gains its independence from the United Kingdom.
  • 1960 – Joseph Kittinger parachutes from a balloon over New Mexico at 102,800 feet (31,330 m), setting three records: High-altitude jump, free-fall, and fastest speed by a human without an aircraft.
  • 1962 – Pete Best replaced by Ringo Starr (Richard Starkey) as drummer for The Beatles.
  • 1964 – Vietnam War: A coup d’état replaces Duong Van Minh with General Nguyen Khanh as President of South Vietnam. A new constitution is established with aid from the U.S. Embassy.
  • 1966 – Vietnam War: The House Un-American Activities Committee begins investigations of Americans who have aided the Viet Cong. The committee intends to introduce legislation making these activities illegal. Anti-war demonstrators disrupt the meeting and 50 people are arrested.
  • 1972 – The Royal Moroccan Air Force fires upon, in an unsuccessful coup d’état attempt, Hassan II of Morocco’s plane while he is traveling back to Rabat.
  • 1987 – A McDonnell Douglas MD-82 carrying Northwest Airlines Flight 255 crashes on take-off from Detroit Metropolitan Airport in Romulus, Michigan (Detroit), killing 155 passengers and crew. The sole survivor is four-year-old Cecelia Cichan.
  • 1992 – In response to an appeal by President Fernando Collor de Mello to wear green and yellow as a way to show support for him, thousands of Brazilians take to the streets dressed in black.
  • 2003 – U.S. Representative from South Dakota Bill Janklow hits and kills a motorcyclist with his car at a rural intersection near Trent, South Dakota; he will eventually be convicted of manslaughter and will resign from Congress.
  • 2005 – West Caribbean Airways Flight 708 crashes near Machiques, Venezuela, killing the 160 aboard.

August 16 – Birthdays:

  • 1355 – Philippa Plantagenet, Countess of Ulster
  • 1378 – Hongxi Emperor of China (d. 1425)
  • 1401 – Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, dauphine of France (d. 1436)
  • 1557 – Agostino Carracci, Italian artist (d. 1602)
  • 1573 – Anna of Austria, queen of Poland (d. 1598)
  • 1596 – Frederick V, Elector Palatine (d. 1632)
  • 1637 – Emilie Juliane of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, German countess and poet (d. 1706)
  • 1645 – Jean de La Bruyère, French writer (d. 1696)
  • 1650 – Vincenzo Coronelli, Italian cartographer and encylopedist (d. 1718)
  • 1682 – Louis, duc de Bourgogne, heir-apparent to the French throne (d. 1712)
  • 1761 – Yevstigney Fomin, Russian composer (d. 1800)
  • 1815 – John Bosco, Italian priest and educator (d. 1888)
  • 1820 – Andrew Rainsford Wetmore, Canadian politician (d. 1892)
  • 1831 – John Jones Ross, Quebec politician (d. 1901)
  • 1832 – Wilhelm Wundt, German psychologist (d. 1920)
  • 1842 – Jakob Rosanes, German mathematician (d. 1922)
  • 1845 – Gabriel Lippmann, French physicist, Nobel laureate (d. 1921)
  • 1858 – Arthur Achleitner, German writer (d. 1927)
  • 1860 – Jules Laforgue, French poet (d. 1887)
  • 1862 – Amos Alonzo Stagg, American coach (d. 1965)
  • 1868 – Bernarr McFadden, American publisher (d. 1955)
  • 1876 – Ivan Bilibin, Russian illustrator (d. 1942)
  • 1884 – Hugo Gernsback, Luxembourg-born editor and publisher (d. 1967)
  • 1884 – Walther von Reichenau, German field marshal (d. 1942)
  • 1888 – T. E. Lawrence, English writer and soldier (d. 1935)
  • 1888 – Armand J. Piron, American musician (d. 1943)
  • 1892 – Otto Messmer, American cartoonist (d. 1983)
  • 1894 – George Meany, American labor union leader (d. 1980)
  • 1895 – Albert Cohen, Swiss novelist (d. 1981)
  • 1895 – Liane Haid, Austrian actress (d. 2000)
  • 1902 – Georgette Heyer, English novelist (d. 1974)
  • 1904 – Wendell Meredith Stanley, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1971)
  • 1908 – William Maxwell, American novelist and editor (d. 2000)
  • 1911 – E. F. Schumacher, German economist and statistician (d. 1977)
  • 1912 – Ted Drake, English footballer (d. 1995)
  • 1913 – Menachem Begin, 6th Prime Minister of Israel, Nobel laureate (d. 1992)
  • 1915 – Al Hibbler, American singer (d. 2001)
  • 1916 – Iggy Katona, American race car driver (d. 2003)
  • 1920 – Charles Bukowski, American poet (d. 1994)
  • 1922 – Ernie Freeman, American pianist and arranger (d. 2001)
  • 1923 – Millôr Fernandes, Brazilian playwright
  • 1924 – Fess Parker, American actor
  • 1925 – Willie Jones, American baseball player (d. 1983)
  • 1928 – Ann Blyth, American actress
  • 1929 – Bill Evans, American jazz pianist (d. 1980)
  • 1929 – Helmut Rahn, German footballer (d. 2003)
  • 1929 – Fritz Von Erich, American professional wrestler (d. 1997)
  • 1930 – Robert Culp, American actor
  • 1930 – Frank Gifford, American football player and announcer
  • 1930 – Tony Trabert, American former tennis player
  • 1931 – Eydie Gormé, American singer
  • 1933 – Julie Newmar, American actress
  • 1933 – Stuart Roosa, American astronaut (d. 1994)
  • 1934 – Diana Wynne Jones, British author
  • 1934 – Ketty Lester, American singer
  • 1934 – Pierre Richard, French actor
  • 1935 – Andreas Stamatiadis, Greek footballer and coach
  • 1935 – Cliff Fletcher, Canadian National Hockey League executive
  • 1937 – David Anderson, Canadian politician
  • 1939 – Sir Trevor Mcdonald, Trinidadian-born British television newsreader
  • 1940 – Bruce Beresford, Australian film director
  • 1942 – Barbara George, American singer and songwriter (d. 2006)
  • 1945 – Suzanne Farrell, ballet dancer
  • 1946 – Massoud Barzani, Iraqi Kurdish politician
  • 1946 – Lesley Ann Warren, American actress
  • 1946 – Dick Murdoch, American professional wrestler (d. 1996)
  • 1947 – Carol Moseley Braun, American politician and lawyer
  • 1947 – Katharine Hamnett, English fashion designer
  • 1947 – Marc Messier, Canadian actor
  • 1948 – Mike Jorgensen, American baseball player
  • 1948 – Pierre Reid, Canadian politician and teacher
  • 1949 – Scott Asheton, American musician (The Stooges)
  • 1950 – Hasely Crawford, Trinidadian athlete
  • 1950 – Marshall Manesh, Iranian-born American actor
  • 1950 – Stockwell Day, Canadian politician
  • 1950 – Jeff Thomson, Australian cricketer
  • 1951 – Richard Hunt, American puppeteer (d. 1992)
  • 1952 – Reginald VelJohnson, American actor
  • 1953 – Kathie Lee Gifford, American singer and actress
  • 1953 – James “J.T.” Taylor, American singer (Kool & The Gang)
  • 1954 – James Cameron, Canadian film director
  • 1957 – Tim Farriss, Australian musician (INXS)
  • 1958 – Angela Bassett, American actress
  • 1958 – Madonna, American singer and actress
  • 1958 – José Luis Clerc, Argentine tennis player
  • 1960 – Timothy Hutton, American actor
  • 1961 – Christian Okoye, former American football player
  • 1962 – Steve Carell, American actor and comedian
  • 1964 – Jimmy Arias, American tennis player
  • 1966 – Barry Lather, American choreographer, musician and actor
  • 1967 – Ulrika Jonsson, Swedish television personality
  • 1967 – Pamela Smart, American convicted murderess
  • 1968 – Mateja Svet, Slovenian alpine skier
  • 1970 – Bonnie Bernstein, American sportscaster
  • 1970 – Fabio Casartelli, Italian cyclist (d. 1995)
  • 1970 – Manisha Koirala, Indian actress
  • 1970 – Saif Ali Khan, Indian actor
  • 1971 – Stefan Klos, German footballer
  • 1972 – Stan Lazaridis, Australian footballer
  • 1972 – Emily Robison, American country singer, instrumentalist and songwriter (Dixie Chicks)
  • 1973 – Damian Jackson, American baseball player
  • 1974 – Roger Cedeño, Venezuelan baseball player
  • 1974 – Shivnarine Chanderpaul, Guyanese cricketer
  • 1974 – Krisztina Egerszegi, Hungarian swimmer
  • 1974 – Iván Hurtado, Ecuadorian footballer
  • 1975 – Didier Agathe, French footballer
  • 1975 – George Stults, American actor
  • 1976 – Jonatan Johansson, Finnish footballer
  • 1976 – Dave Ockun, American concert producer
  • 1978 – Eddie Gill, American basketball player
  • 1978 – Fu Mingxia, Chinese female diver
  • 1979 – Michael Stahlman, American rower and coach
  • 1980 – Vanessa Carlton, American singer/songwriter
  • 1980 – Robert Hardy, English bassist (Franz Ferdinand)
  • 1981 – Roque Santa Cruz, Paraguayan footballer
  • 1981 – Taylor Rain, American pornographic actress
  • 1982 – Joleon Lescott, English footballer
  • 1983 – Colin Griffiths, English TV presenter and DJ
  • 1983 – Nikos Zisis, Greek basketball player
  • 1983 – Colt Brennan, University of Hawai’i Quarterback
  • 1985 – Agnes Bruckner, American actress
  • 1986 – Shawn Pyfrom, American actor
  • 1987 – Kyal Marsh, Australian actor
  • 1988 – Kevin Schmidt, American actor
  • 1988 – Rumer Willis, American actress
  • 1988 – Amandah Wilkinson, Australian musician
  • 1991 – Evanna Lynch, Irish actress
  • 1991 – Sarah-Jeanne Labrosse, Canadian actress

August 16 – Deaths:

  • 1027 – Giorgi I, King of Georgia (b. 998)
  • 1297 – John II of Trebizond (b. 1262)
  • 1327 – Roch, French saint (b. 1295)
  • 1358 – Duke Albert II of Austria (b. 1298)
  • 1419 – Wenceslaus, King of the Romans, King of Bohemia (b. 1361)
  • 1443 – Ashikaga Yoshikatsu, Japanese shogun (b. 1434)
  • 1445 – Margaret of Scotland (Dauphine of France), wife of the future King Louis XI (b. 1424)
  • 1518 – Loyset Compère, French composer
  • 1532 – John, Elector of Saxony (b. 1468)
  • 1661 – Thomas Fuller, English churchman and historian (b. 1608)
  • 1678 – Andrew Marvell, English poet (b. 1621)
  • 1705 – Jakob Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician and scientist (b. 1654)
  • 1733 – Matthew Tindal, English deist (b. 1657)
  • 1791 – Charles-François de Broglie, marquis de Ruffec, French soldier and diplomat (b. 1719)
  • 1836 – Marc-Antoine Parseval, French mathematician (b. 1755)
  • 1855 – Henry Colburn, British publisher
  • 1886 – Sri Ramakrishna, Bengali saint, guru of Swami Vivekananda (b. 1836)
  • 1888 – John Pemberton, American druggist and inventor of Coca-Cola (b. 1831)
  • 1893 – Jean-Martin Charcot, French neurologist (b. 1825)
  • 1899 – Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, German chemist (b. 1811)
  • 1900 – Eça de Queirós, Portuguese writer (b. 1845)
  • 1907 – James Hector, Scottish geologist (b. 1834)
  • 1921 – King Peter I of Serbia (b. 1844)
  • 1938 – Robert Johnson, American blues singer and guitarist (b. 1911)
  • 1938 – Andrej Hlinka, Slovak politician and priest (b. 1864)
  • 1948 – Babe Ruth, American baseball player (b. 1895)
  • 1949 – Margaret Mitchell, American novelist (b. 1900)
  • 1951 – Louis Jouvet, French actor and producer (b. 1887)
  • 1952 – Lydia Field Emmet, American painter (b. 1866)
  • 1956 – Bela Lugosi, Hungarian actor (b. 1882)
  • 1957 – Irving Langmuir, American chemist, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1881)
  • 1959 – Wanda Landowska, Polish harpsichordist (b. 1879)
  • 1961 – Maulvi Abdul Haq, Father of Modern Urdu (b. 1870)
  • 1971 – Spyros Skouras, Greek-American movie executive, chairman of the Twentieth Century Fox (b. 1893)
  • 1972 – Pierre Brasseur, French actor (b. 1905)
  • 1973 – Selman Waksman, Ukrainian-born biochemist, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1888)
  • 1975 – Vladimir Kuts, Ukrainian-born runner (b. 1927)
  • 1977 – Elvis Presley, American singer and actor (b. 1935)
  • 1978 – Alidius Warmoldus Lambertus Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer, Dutch lawyer and politician (b. 1888)
  • 1979 – John Diefenbaker, 13th Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1895)
  • 1983 – Earl Averill, American baseball player (b. 1902)
  • 1986 – Jaime Saenz, Bolivian poet, novelist, and short story writer (b. 1921)
  • 1989 – Amanda Blake, American actress (b. 1929)
  • 1990 – Pat O’Connor, New Zealand professional wrestler (b. 1925)
  • 1991 – Luigi Zampa, Italian film director (b. 1905)
  • 1993 – Stewart Granger, British film actor (b. 1913)
  • 1995 – J.P. McCarthy, American radio personality (b. 1933)
  • 1997 – Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Pakistani musician (b. 1948)
  • 1997 – Gerard McLarnon, Irish playwright and actor (b. 1915)
  • 1999 – Pee Wee King, American country musician and songwriter (b. 1914)
  • 2002 – Jeff Corey, American actor (b. 1914)
  • 2002 – Abu Nidal, Palestinian political leader (b. 1937)
  • 2002 – John Roseboro, American baseball player and coach (b. 1933)
  • 2003 – Idi Amin, Ugandan dictator (b. 1928)
  • 2004 – Ivan Hlinka, Czech ice hockey coach (b. 1950)
  • 2004 – Carl Mydans, American photographer (b. 1907)
  • 2004 – Robert Quiroga, American boxer (b. 1969)
  • 2005 – Joe Ranft, American animator (b. 1960)
  • 2005 – Frère Roger, Swiss monk and mystic (b. 1915)
  • 2005 – Vassar Clements, American musician (b. 1928)
  • 2005 – William Corlett, English children’s writer(b. 1938)
  • 2005 – Vicky Moscholiou, Greek singer (b. 1943)
  • 2006 – Alex Buzo, Australian playwright and author (b. 1944)
  • 2006 – Herschel Green, American pilot (b. 1920)
  • 2006 – Jon Nödtveidt, Swedish musician (b. 1975)
  • 2006 – Alfredo Stroessner, President of Paraguay (b. 1912)
  • 2007 – Max Roach, American percussionist, drummer, and composer (b. 1924)
  • 2007 – Bahaedin Adab, Iranian MP (b. 1945)
  • 2007 – The Missing Link, professional wrestler

August 16 – Holidays:

  • Palio dell’Assunta in Siena (on the day after the Assumption of Mary)
  • Bennington Battle Day: legal holiday in Vermont, USA, for the Battle of Bennington in 1777 (which actually took place in the state of New York)

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On This Day in History August 15

August 15 – Events:

  • 778 – The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, in which Roland is killed.
  • 927 – The Saracens are conquered and destroyed Taranto.
  • 1040 – King Duncan I is killed in battle against his first cousin and rival Macbeth. The latter succeeds him as King of Scotland.
  • 1057 – King Mac Bethad is killed in the Battle of Lumphanan by the forces of Máel Coluim mac Donnchada.
  • 1185 – The cave city of Vardzia is consecrated by Queen Tamar of Georgia.
  • 1248 – The foundation stone of the Cologne Cathedral, built to house the relics of the Three Wise Men, was laid. Construction eventually completed in 1880.
  • 1261 – Michael VIII Palaeologus is crowned Byzantine emperor in Constantinople.
  • 1309 – The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. John, completing their conquest of Rhodes. The knights establish their headquarters on the island, and rename themselves as the Knights of Rhodes.
  • 1461 – The Empire of Trebizond surrenders to the forces of Sultan Mehmet II. This is the real end of the Byzantine Empire. Emperor David is exiled and later murdered.
  • 1517 – Seven Portuguese armed vessels led by Fernão Pires de Andrade meet Chinese officials at the Pearl River estuary.
  • 1519 – Panama City, Panama, is founded.
  • 1534 – Saint Ignatius of Loyola and six classmates took initial vows that would lead to the creation of the Society of Jesus in September of 1540.
  • 1537 – Asunción, Paraguay, is founded.
  • 1540 – Arequipa, Peru, is founded.
  • 1549 – Jesuit priest Saint Francis Xavier comes ashore at Kagoshima (Traditional Japanese date: July 22, 1549).
  • 1599 – Nine Years War: Battle of Curlew Pass – Irish forces led by Hugh Roe O’Donnell successfully ambush English forces, led by Sir Conyers Clifford, were sent to relieve Collooney Castle.
  • 1760 – Seven Years’ War: Battle of Liegnitz – Frederick the Great’s victory over the Austrians under Ernst von Laudon.
  • 1824 – Freed American slaves form Liberia.
  • 1843 – The Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu, Hawaii is dedicated. Now the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu, it is the oldest Roman Catholic cathedral in continuous use in the United States.
  • 1843 – Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opens in Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • 1863 – The Anglo-Satsuma War begins between the Satsuma Domain of Japan and the United Kingdom (Traditional Japanese date: July 2, 1863).
  • 1869 – Meiji government establishes six ministries below Pardication (ja:???) in the bottom of Cabinet, officer-of-Shinto-Worship, and jurisdiction of Cabinet.
  • 1889 – Oldest Club of Asia Mohun Bagan AC Established in Kolkata, India.
  • 1914 – A male servant of American architect Frank Lloyd Wright set fire to the living quarters of the architect’s Wisconsin home, Taliesin, murdered seven people, and burned the living quarters to the ground.
  • 1914 – The Panama Canal opens to traffic with the transit of the cargo ship Ancon.
  • 1920 – Polish-Soviet War: Battle of Warsaw – Poles defeat the Red Army.
  • 1935 – Will Rogers and Wiley Post are killed after engine problems during takeoff in Barrow, Alaska.
  • 1939 – 13 Stukas dive into the ground during a disastrous air-practice at Neuhammer. No survivors.
  • 1942 – World War II: Operation Pedestal – The SS Ohio reaches the island of Malta barely afloat carrying vital fuel supplies for the island defenses.
  • 1944 – World War II: Operation Dragoon – Allied forces land in southern France.
  • 1945 – World War II: Victory over Japan Day – Japan surrenders.
  • 1945 – World War II: Korean Liberation Day.
  • 1947 – India gains independence from the United Kingdom and becomes an independent nation within the Commonwealth , Jawaharlal Nehru addresses the nation with the Indian Declaration of Independence and takes office as the first Prime Minister of India.
  • 1947 – Founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah is sworn in as first Governor General of Pakistan at Karachi.
  • 1948 – The Republic of Korea is established south of the 38th parallel north.
  • 1950 – Srikakulam district is formed in Andhra Pradesh, India.
  • 1952 – Devon, United Kingdom A flashflood drenches the town of Lynmouth, killing 34 people.
  • 1960 – Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) declares its independence from France.
  • 1961 – Conrad Schumann flees from East Germany while on duty guarding the construction of the Berlin Wall.
  • 1965 – The Beatles play to nearly 60,000 fans at Shea Stadium in New York City, marking the birth of stadium rock.
  • 1969 – The Woodstock Music and Art Festival opens.
  • 1971 – President Richard Nixon completes the break from the gold standard by ending convertibility of the United States dollar into gold by foreign investors.
  • 1971 – Bahrain Independence Day.
  • 1973 – Vietnam War: The United States bombing of Cambodia ends.
  • 1974 – Seoul Subway Line 1 opened, between Seoul Station and Cheongnyangni Station
  • 1974 – Yuk Young-soo, First Lady of South Korea is killed amid an apparent assassination attempt upon President of South Korea, Park Chung-hee, during the anniversarial ceremony of the Liberation day.
  • 1974 – Turkish invasion of Cyprus continues, and the 37% of the island is now under Turkish control.
  • 1975 – Military coup in Bangladesh. Sheikh Mujibur Rehman killed along with all family members, except Haseena Wajid.
  • 1975 – Miki Takeo makes the first official pilgrimage to Yasukuni Shrine by a sitting prime minister on the anniversary of the end of World War II.
  • 1977 – The Big Ear, a radio telescope operated by The Ohio State University as part of the SETI project, receives a radio signal from deep space; the event is named the “Wow! signal” for notation made by a volunteer on the project.
  • 1984 – PKK, Kurdish people in Turkey gain arms and start a Guerrilla warfare campaign against the Turkish military
  • 1993 – Junko Asari wins the women’s marathon in the World Athletics Championships in Stuttgart, Japan’s first major women’s athletics victory.
  • 1995 – In South Carolina, Shannon Faulkner becomes the first female cadet matriculated at The Citadel, but drops out in less than a week.
  • 1998 – Omagh bomb in Northern Ireland, becoming the worst terrorist incident of The Troubles
  • 1999 – Beni Ounif massacre in Algeria; some 29 people killed at a false roadblock near the Moroccan border, leading to temporary tensions with Morocco.
  • 2007 – An 8.0-magnitude earthquake off the Pacific coast devastates Ica and various regions of Peru killing 514 and injuring 1,090.

August 15 – Birthdays:

  • 1171 – King Alfonso IX of Leon (d. 1230)
  • 1195 – Anthony of Padua, Portuguese saint (d. 1231)
  • 1432 – Luigi Pulci, Italian poet (d. 1484)
  • 1575 – Bartol Kašic, Croatian writer and linguist (d. 1650)
  • 1613 – Gilles Ménage, French scholar (d. 1692)
  • 1717 – Blind Jack, English roadbuilder (d. 1810)
  • 1740 – Matthias Claudius, German poet (d. 1815)
  • 1769 – Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French (d. 1821)
  • 1771 – Sir Walter Scott, Scottish novelist and poet (d. 1832)
  • 1785 – Thomas De Quincey, English author (d. 1859)
  • 1813 – Jules Grévy, 2nd President of the French Third Republic (d. 1891)
  • 1844 – Thomas-Alfred Bernier, Canadian journalist and politician (d. 1908)
  • 1856 – Ivan Franko, Ukrainian writer (d. 1916)
  • 1857 – Albert Ballin, German shipping tycoon (d. 1918)
  • 1858 – E. Nesbit, English author (d. 1924)
  • 1859 – Charles Comiskey, American baseball owner (d. 1931)
  • 1860 – Henrietta Vinton Davis, American elocutionist (d. 1941)
  • 1860 – Florence Harding, American First Lady (d. 1924)
  • 1863 – Alexei Krylov, Russian engineer and mathematician (d. 1945)
  • 1865 – Usui Mikao, founder of Reiki (d. 1926)
  • 1872 – Sri Aurobindo, Indian writer and philosopher (d. 1950)
  • 1875 – Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, English composer (d. 1912)
  • 1878 – Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, Russian counter-revolutionary (d. 1928)
  • 1879 – Ethel Barrymore, American actress (d. 1959)
  • 1881 – Alfred Wagenknecht, German-born American activist (d. 1956)
  • 1883 – Ivan Meštrovic, Croatian sculptor (d. 1962)
  • 1885 – Edna Ferber, American novelist (d. 1968)
  • 1890 – Elizabeth Bolden, American Supercentenarian (d. 2006)
  • 1890 – Jacques Ibert, French composer (d. 1962)
  • 1892 – Louis, 7th duc de Broglie, French physicist, Nobel Prize Laureate (d. 1987)
  • 1893 – Leslie Comrie, New Zealand astronomer and computing pioneer (d. 1950)
  • 1896 – Gerty Cori, Austrian-born biochemist, Nobel Prize Laureate (d. 1957)
  • 1896 – Catherine Doherty, Russian-born Canadian activist (d. 1985)
  • 1896 – Paul Outerbridge, American photographer (d. 1958)
  • 1896 – Leon Theremin, Russian inventor (d. 1993)
  • 1898 – Jan Brzechwa, Polish poet (d. 1966)
  • 1901 – Pyotr Sergeyevich Novikov, Russian mathematician (d. 1975)
  • 1909 – Hugo Winterhalter, American composer and bandleader (d. 1973)
  • 1910 – Signe Hasso, Swedish actress (d. 2002)
  • 1912 – Julia Child, American cook (d. 2004)
  • 1912 – Dame Wendy Hiller, English actress (d. 2003)
  • 1914 – Paul Rand, American graphic designer (d. 1996)
  • 1916 – Aleks Çaçi, Albanian writer
  • 1917 – Jack Lynch, fourth Taoiseach (d. 1999)
  • 1917 – Oscar Romero, El Salvador Roman catholic priest (d. 1980)
  • 1919 – Huntz Hall, American actor (d. 1999)
  • 1919 – Benedict Kiely, Irish author
  • 1922 – Lukas Foss, German-born composer
  • 1923 – Rose Marie, American actress
  • 1924 – Robert Bolt, English playwright and screenwriter (d. 1995)
  • 1925 – Mike Connors, American actor
  • 1925 – Oscar Peterson, Canadian jazz pianist (d. 2007)
  • 1925 – Bill Pinkney, baritone singer (d. 2007)
  • 1926 – Costis Stephanopoulos, Greek politician
  • 1928 – Nicolas Roeg, English film director
  • 1930 – Ageeda Paavel, Estonian freedom fighter
  • 1933 – Bobby Helms, American pop singer (d. 1997)
  • 1933 – Jim Lange, American game show host
  • 1934 – Bobby Byrd, American soul/funk singer (d. 2007)
  • 1934 – Nino Ferrer, French-Italian singer (d. 1998)
  • 1935 – Jim Dale, English actor
  • 1935 – Vernon Jordan Jr., American presidential advisor
  • 1935 – Lionel Taylor, American football player
  • 1938 – Maxine Waters, American politician
  • 1938 – Janusz A. Zajdel, Polish writer
  • 1940 – Gudrun Ensslin, German terrorist
  • 1940 – Rita Shane, American soprano
  • 1942 – Larry Hartsell, American martial arts instructor (d. 2007)
  • 1943 – María Rojo, Mexican actress and politician
  • 1944 – Linda Ellerbee, American journalist
  • 1944 – Tom Murphy, American politician
  • 1944 – Dimitris Sioufas, Greek lawyer and politician
  • 1944 – Sylvie Vartan, Bulgarian pop singer
  • 1945 – Mahamandaleshwar Paramhans Swami Maheshwarananda, Indian guru
  • 1945 – Begum Khaleda Zia, Bangladeshi politician
  • 1945 – Gene Upshaw, American NFL executive
  • 1946 – Tony Robinson, English actor and television presenter
  • 1946 – Jimmy Webb, American musician and composer
  • 1947 – Raakhee Gulzar, Indian actress
  • 1947 – Jenny Hanley, British TV presenter
  • 1948 – Howard Dean, American politician and physician
  • 1948 – Uschi Digard, American pornographic actress and model
  • 1948 – Patsy Gallant, Canadian pop singer
  • 1948 – George Ryton, British engineer
  • 1949 – Richard Deacon, Welsh sculptor
  • 1950 – Tommy Aldridge, American musician
  • 1950 – The Princess Anne, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom
  • 1950 – Tom Kelly, American baseball manager
  • 1951 – Daba Diawara, Malian politician
  • 1951 – Bobby Caldwell, American singer and musician
  • 1954 – Mary Jo Salter, American poet
  • 1956 – Lorraine Desmarais, French-Canadian jazz pianist and composer
  • 1957 – Željko Ivanek, Slovenian-American actor
  • 1958 – Victor Shenderovich, Russian satirist
  • 1958 – Craig MacTavish, Canadian ice hockey player/coach
  • 1958 – Rondell Sheridan, American actor and comedian
  • 1962 – Tom Colicchio, American chef
  • 1963 – Alejandro González Iñárritu, Mexican film director
  • 1964 – Melinda French Gates, American wife of Bill Gates
  • 1964 – Debi Mazar, American actress
  • 1965 – Rob Thomas, American writer
  • 1966 – Scott Brosius, American baseball player
  • 1966 – Shirley Kwan, Hong Kong singer
  • 1967 – Peter Hermann American actor
  • 1968 – Debra Messing, American actress
  • 1969 – Kevin Cheng, Hong Kong actor and singer
  • 1970 – Anthony Anderson, American comedian and actor
  • 1970 – Maddie Corman, American actress
  • 1970 – Ben Silverman, American TV executive
  • 1972 – Ben Affleck, American actor
  • 1972 – Chris Morrissey, American film director/actor
  • 1974 – Natasha Henstridge, Canadian actress
  • 1975 – Kara Wolters, American basketball player
  • 1976 – Boudewijn Zenden, Dutch football player
  • 1977 – Nicole Paggi, American actress
  • 1977 – Igor Cassina, Italian gymnast
  • 1977 – Martin Biron, professional ice hockey goaltender
  • 1978 – Tim Foreman, American bassist (Switchfoot)
  • 1978 – Lilia Podkopayeva, Ukrainian gymnast
  • 1978 – Stavros Tziortziopoulos, Greek footballer
  • 1979 – Carl Edwards, American NASCAR driver
  • 1980 – Nathalie Press, English actress
  • 1981 – Brendan Hansen, American swimmer
  • 1981 – Oliver Perez, American baseball player
  • 1981 – Song Ji-hyo, South Korean actress
  • 1982 – Casey Burgener, American weightlifter
  • 1989 – Belinda, Mexican singer

August 15 – Deaths:

  • 423 – Flavius Honorius, Western Roman Emperor (b. 384)
  • 778 – Roland, Frankish commander
  • 1038 – King Stephen I of Hungary
  • 1040 – King Duncan I of Scotland
  • 1057 – King Macbeth of Scotland
  • 1118 – Alexius I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (b. 1048)
  • 1196 – Conrad II, Duke of Swabia (b. 1173)
  • 1274 – Robert de Sorbon, French theologian and founder of the Sorbonne (b. 1201)
  • 1369 – Philippa of Hainault, Queen consort of Edward III of England
  • 1528 – Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, French military leader (b. 1485)
  • 1552 – Hermann of Wied, German Catholic archbishop (b. 1477)
  • 1621 – John Barclay, Scottish writer (b. 1582)
  • 1666 – Johann Adam Schall von Bell, German Jesuit missionary (b. 1591)
  • 1714 – Constantin Brâncoveanu, Prince of Wallachia (b. 1654)
  • 1728 – Marin Marais, French composer and viol player (b. 1656)
  • 1758 – Pierre Bouguer, French mathematician (b. 1698)
  • 1799 – Giuseppe Parini, Italian poet (b. 1729)
  • 1852 – Johan Gadolin, Finnish scientist (b. 1760)
  • 1880 – Adelaide Neilson, English Actress (b. 1848)
  • 1907 – Joseph Joachim, Austrian violinist (b. 1831)
  • 1909 – Euclides da Cunha, Brazilian writer and sociologist (b. 1866)
  • 1917 – Thomas J. Higgins, decorated Union Army soldier (b. 1831)
  • 1925 – Konrad Mägi, Estonian artist (b. 1878)
  • 1935 – Wiley Post, American pilot (airplane crash) (b. 1898)
  • 1935 – Will Rogers, American humorist and actor (airplane crash) (b. 1879)
  • 1936 – Grazia Deledda, Italian writer, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1871)
  • 1945 – Korechika Anami, Japanese War Minister (b. 1887)
  • 1951 – Artur Schnabel, Polish pianist (b. 1882)
  • 1953 – Ludwig Prandtl, German physicist (b. 1875)
  • 1959 – Blind Willie McTell, American singer (b. 1901)
  • 1962 – Lei Feng, Chinese revolutionary (b. 1940)
  • 1967 – René Magritte, Belgian painter (b. 1898)
  • 1971 – Paul Lukas, Hungarian-born actor (b. 1887)
  • 1975 – Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, President of Bangladesh (b. 1920)
  • 1975 – Clay Shaw, alleged John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracist & businessman (b. 1913)
  • 1982 – Hugo Theorell, Swedish scientist, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1903)
  • 1990 – Viktor Tsoi, Russian musician (b. 1962)
  • 1995 – John Cameron Swayze, American journalist (b. 1906)
  • 1999 – Sir Hugh Casson, British architect and artist (b. 1910)
  • 2001 – Richard Chelimo, Kenyan athlete (b. 1972)
  • 2003 – Gösta Sundqvist, Finnish songwriter and singer (heart attack) (b. 1957)
  • 2004 – Semiha Berksoy, first Turkish opera singer (b. 1910)
  • 2004 – Sune Bergström, Swedish biochemist, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1916)
  • 2004 – Amarsinh Chaudhary, Indian politician (b. 1941)
  • 2006 – Te Atairangi Kaahu, Maori queen (b. 1931)
  • 2007 – John Gofman, American Manhattan Project scientist and advocate (b. 1918)
  • 2007 – Geoffrey Orbell, New Zealand bush walker (b. 1908)

August 15 – Holidays:

  • VJ Day / VP Day
  • India – Independence Day (from the United Kingdom, 1947).
  • Egypt – Flooding of the Nile Day.
  • Italy, Ferragosto, remembrance of an ancient Roman holiday in honor of Augustus (Feriae Augusti).
  • Korea – Gwangbokjeol (Liberation Day).
  • Tuva – Naadym.
  • Costa Rica– Mother’s Day.
  • Eastern Orthodoxy – Feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos, the commemoration of the death of Mary, the mother of Jesus.
  • Feast day of the Assumption of Mary, the mother of Jesus, Holy Day of Obligation. Public Holiday in: Austria, Belgium, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Chile, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, East Timor, France, Greece, Guatemala, India, Italy, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Poland, Portugal, Seychelles, Slovenia and Spain.

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On This Day in History August 14

August 14 – Events:

  • 1183 – Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures and flee to western Japan to escape pursuit by the Minamoto clan. (Traditional Japanese date: Twenty-fifth Day of the Seventh Month of the Second Year of Juei).
  • 1385 – Portuguese Crisis of 1383–1385: Battle of Aljubarrota – Portuguese forces commanded by King João I and his general Nuno Álvares Pereira defeat the Castilian army of King Juan I.
  • 1598 – Nine Years War: Battle of the Yellow Ford – Irish forces under Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone, defeat an English expeditionary force under Henry Bagenal.
  • 1842 – Indian Wars: Second Seminole War ends, with the Seminoles forced from Florida to Oklahoma.
  • 1846 – The Cape Girardeau meteorite, a 2.3 kg chondrite-type meteorite strikes near the town of Cape Girardeau in Cape Girardeau County, Missouri.
  • 1848 – Oregon Territory organized by Act of U.S. Congress.
  • 1880 – Cologne Cathedral, the most famous landmark in Cologne, Germany, completed.
  • 1885 – Japan’s first patent is issued to the inventor of a rust-proof paint.
  • 1893 – France introduces motor vehicle registration.
  • 1897 – The town of Anosimena is captured by French troops from Menabe defenders in Madagascar.
  • 1900 – A joint European-Japanese-United States force (Eight-Nation Alliance) occupies Beijing, in a campaign to end the bloody Boxer Rebellion in China.
  • 1901 – The first claimed powered flight, by Gustave Whitehead in his Number 21.
  • 1908 – First beauty contest held in Folkestone, England.
  • 1911 – United States Senate leaders agree to rotate the office of President pro tempore of the Senate among leading candidates to fill the vacancy left by William P. Frye’s death.
  • 1912 – United States Marines invade Nicaragua to support the U.S.-backed government installed there after José Santos Zelaya resigned three years earlier.
  • 1921 – Tannu Tuva, later Tuvinian People’s Republic is established as a completely independent country.
  • 1925 – The original Hetch Hetchy Moccasin Powerhouse is completed and goes on line.
  • 1933 – Loggers cause a forest fire in the Coast Range of Oregon, later known as the first forest fire of the Tillamook Burn. It is extinguished on September 5, after destroying 240,000 acres (970 km²).
  • 1935 – United States Social Security Act passes, creating a government pension system for the retired.
  • 1936 – Rainey Bethea is hanged in Owensboro, Kentucky in the last public execution in the United States.
  • 1937 – The beginning of air-to-air combat of the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II in general, when 6 Imperial Japanese Mitsubishi G3M bombers were shot down by the Nationalist Chinese Air Force while raiding Chinese air bases, hence, 14 August has thus become acknowledged and celebrated as Chinese Air Force Day.
  • 1941 – World War II – Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt sign the Atlantic Charter of war stating postwar aims.
  • 1945 – Japan accepts the Allied terms of surrender in World War II and the Emperor records the Imperial Rescript on Surrender (August 15 in Japan standard time).
  • 1947 – Pakistan gains Independence from the British Indian Empire under the administration of United Kingdom and joins the British Commonwealth.
  • 1967 – UK Marine Broadcasting Offences Act declares participation in offshore pirate radio illegal.
  • 1969 – United Kingdom troops deploy in Northern Ireland.
  • 1972 – An East German Ilyushin Il-62 crashes during takeoff from East Berlin, killing 156.
  • 1973 – The constitution of 1973 comes into effect in Pakistan
  • 1976 – The Senegalese political party PAI-Rénovation is legally recognized. PAI-Rénovation thus becomes the third legal party in the country.
  • 1980 – Lech Walesa leads strikes at Gdansk, Poland shipyards.
  • 1994 – Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, the terrorist known as “Carlos the Jackal”, is captured.
  • 2003 – Widescale power blackout in the northeast United States and Canada.
  • 2007 – The 2007 Kahtaniya bombings kills at least 400 people.

August 14 – Birthdays:

  • 1297 – Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Japan (d. 1348)
  • 1473 – Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury, daughter of George, Duke of Clarence (d. 1541)
  • 1479 – Princess Catherine of York (d. 1527)
  • 1575 – Robert Hayman, English-born poet (d. 1629)
  • 1586 – William Hutchinson, Rhode Island colonist (d. 1642)
  • 1599 – Méric Casaubon, English classical scholar (d. 1671)
  • 1625 – François de Harlay de Champvallon, Archbishop of Paris (d. 1695)
  • 1642 – Cosimo III de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (d. 1723)
  • 1653 – Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle, English statesman (d. 1688)
  • 1688 – Frederick William I of Prussia (d. 1740)
  • 1714 – Claude Joseph Vernet, French painter (d. 1789)
  • 1727 – Henriette-Anne of France, daughter of king Louis XV (d.1752)
  • 1727 – Louise-Elisabeth of France, daughter of king Louis XV (d. 1759)
  • 1740 – Pope Pius VII (d. 1823)
  • 1758 – Antoine Charles Horace Vernet, French painter (d. 1835)
  • 1777 – Francis I of the Two Sicilies (d. 1830)
  • 1777 – Hans Christian Ørsted, Danish physicist (d. 1851)
  • 1817 – Alexander H. Bailey, American politician (d. 1874)
  • 1840 – Richard von Krafft-Ebing, German psychologist (d. 1902)
  • 1847 – Robert Comtesse, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1922)
  • 1851 – Doc Holliday, American gambler and dentist (d. 1887)
  • 1857 – Max Wagenknecht, German composer (d. 1922)
  • 1863 – Ernest Thayer, American poet (d. 1940)
  • 1865 – Guido Castelnuovo, Italian mathematician (d. 1952)
  • 1866 – Charles Jean de la Vallée-Poussin, Belgian mathematician (d. 1962)
  • 1867 – John Galsworthy, Nobel Prize Laureate (d. 1933)
  • 1867 – Cupid Childs, American baseball player (d. 1912)
  • 1876 – Aleksandar Obrenovic, King of Serbia (d. 1903)
  • 1881 – Francis Ford, American actor (d. 1953)
  • 1882 – Gisela Richter, English art historian (d. 1972)
  • 1908 – Manos Katrakis, Greek actor (d. 1984)
  • 1910 – Pierre Schaeffer, French composer (d. 1955)
  • 1911 – Vethathiri, Indian yogi (d. 2006)
  • 1913 – Paul Dean, American baseball player (d. 1981)
  • 1916 – Wellington Mara, Co-Owner of the New York Giants (d. 2005)
  • 1924 – Georges Prêtre, French conductor
  • 1925 – Russell Baker, American columnist
  • 1926 – Alice Ghostley, American actress (d. 2007)
  • 1926 – René Goscinny, French comic-strip author (d. 1977)
  • 1926 – Lina Wertmüller, Italian film director
  • 1929 – Dick Tiger, Nigerian boxer (d. 1971)
  • 1930 – Earl Weaver, American baseball manager
  • 1932 – Lee Hoffman, American author (d. 2007)
  • 1933 – Richard R. Ernst, Swiss chemist and Nobel Prize Laureate
  • 1935 – John Brodie, American football player
  • 1940 – Dash Crofts, American musician
  • 1941 – David Crosby, American musician
  • 1941 – Connie Smith, American singer
  • 1942 – Jackie Oliver, English race car driver
  • 1943 – Jimmy Johnson, American football coach
  • 1945 – Steve Martin, American comedian
  • 1945 – Wim Wenders, German-born film director
  • 1946 – Antonio Fargas, American actor
  • 1946 – Susan Saint James, American actress
  • 1946 – Larry Graham, American musician
  • 1947 – Peter Christian, English actor
  • 1947 – Danielle Steel, American novelist
  • 1947 – Bruce Nash, American television producer
  • 1948 – Terry Adams, American musician (NRBQ)
  • 1950 – Bob Backlund, American wrestler
  • 1950 – Gary Larson, American cartoonist
  • 1951 – Peter Blegvad, American musician (Slapp Happy)
  • 1952 – Carl Lumbly, American actor
  • 1952 – Debbie Meyer, American swimmer
  • 1953 – James Horner, American composer
  • 1953 – Cliff Johnson, American computer game author
  • 1954 – Mark Fidrych, American baseball player
  • 1956 – Jackée Harry, American actress
  • 1956 – Andy King, English footballer
  • 1956 – Rusty Wallace, American race car driver
  • 1956 – Luther Wamble, American guitarist
  • 1957 – Peter Costello, Australian politician
  • 1957 – Gino Hernandez, American wrestler (d. 1986)
  • 1959 – Marcia Gay Harden, American actress
  • 1959 – Magic Johnson, American basketball player
  • 1960 – Sarah Brightman, English soprano
  • 1960 – Cecilia Gasdia, Italian soprano
  • 1961 – Susan Olsen, American actress
  • 1961 – “Hot Stuff” Eddie Gilbert, American wrestler (d. 1995)
  • 1964 – Brannon Braga, American scriptwriter
  • 1965 – Emmanuelle Béart, French actress
  • 1966 – Halle Berry, American actress
  • 1968 – Catherine Bell, American actress
  • 1968 – Darren Clarke, Northern Irish golfer
  • 1968 – Adrian Lester, English actor
  • 1968 – Billy Mavreas, Greek-Canadian cartoonist
  • 1969 – DJ Uncle Al, American hip-hop DJ (d. 2001)
  • 1969 – Stig Tøfting, Danish footballer
  • 1970 – Ctislav Dosedel, Czech tennis player
  • 1971 – Raoul Bova, Italian actor
  • 1972 – Jay Manuel, Canadian make-up artist
  • 1973 – Jared Borgetti, Mexican footballer
  • 1973 – Daisuke Ishiwatari, Japanese game developer and composer
  • 1973 – Jay-Jay Okocha, Nigerian footballer
  • 1973 – Kieren Perkins, Australian swimmer
  • 1974 – Chucky Atkins, American basketball player
  • 1974 – Martin Bulloch, Scottish musician (Mogwai)
  • 1974 – Christopher Gorham, American actor
  • 1974 – Ana Matronic, American singer (Scissor Sisters)
  • 1975 – Mike Vrabel, American football player
  • 1976 – Alex Albrecht, American actor
  • 1976 – Steve Braun, Canadian actor
  • 1977 – Juan Pierre, American baseball player
  • 1978 – Anastasios Kyriakos, Greek footballer
  • 1978 – Kate Ritchie, Australian actress
  • 1979 – Paul Burgess, Australian athlete
  • 1979 – Yoichiro Morikawa, Japanese film director
  • 1980 – Estrella Morente, Spanish flamenco singer
  • 1980 – Roy Williams, American football player
  • 1981 – Matthew Etherington, English footballer
  • 1981 – Julius Jones, American football player
  • 1983 – Elena Baltacha, Ukrainian-born tennis player
  • 1983 – Mila Kunis, Ukrainian-born actress
  • 1983 – Leo Núñez, Dominican baseball player
  • 1984 – Clay Buchholz, American baseball player
  • 1984 – Josh Gorges, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1985 – Christian Gentner, German footballer
  • 1986 – Terin Humphrey, American gymnast
  • 1988 – Shahd Barmada, Syrian singer
  • 1989 – Kyle Turris, Canadian ice hockey player

August 14 – Deaths:

  • 582 – Tiberius II Constantine, Byzantine Emperor
  • 1167 – Rainald of Dassel, Archbishop of Cologne
  • 1204 – Minamoto no Yoriie, Japanese shogun (b. 1182)
  • 1390 – John FitzAlan, 2nd Baron Arundel, English soldier (b. 1364)
  • 1430 – Philip I, Duke of Brabant (b. 1404)
  • 1433 – King John I of Portugal (b. 1357)
  • 1464 – Pope Pius II (b. 1405)
  • 1573 – Saito Tatsuoki, Japanese warlord (b. 1548)
  • 1691 – Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel, Irish rebel (b. 1630)
  • 1704 – Roland Laporte, French Protestant leader (b. 1675)
  • 1727 – William Croft, English composer (b. 1678)
  • 1774 – Johann Jakob Reiske, German physician (b. 1716)
  • 1784 – Nathaniel Hone, Irish-born painter (b. 1718)
  • 1856 – Constant Prévost, French geologist (b. 1787)
  • 1860 – André Marie Constant Duméril, French zoologist (b. 1774)
  • 1870 – David Farragut, American officer of the U.S. Navy (b. 1801)
  • 1874 – Jonathan Clarkson Gibbs, American politician (b. 1821)
  • 1905 – Simeon Solomon, British artist (b. 1840)
  • 1928 – Alfred Henschke, ps. Klabund, German writer, poet (b. 1890)
  • 1926 – John H. Moffitt, American politician (b. 1843)
  • 1938 – Hugh Trumble, Australian cricketer (b. 1876)
  • 1941 – Paul Sabatier, French chemist, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1854)
  • 1941 – Saint Maximilian Kolbe, Polish martyr (b. 1894)
  • 1943 – Joe Kelley, American baseball player (b. 1871)
  • 1951 – William Randolph Hearst, American newspaper magnate (b. 1863)
  • 1955 – Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress (b. 1861)
  • 1956 – Bertolt Brecht, German writer (b. 1898)
  • 1958 – Frédéric Joliot, French physicist, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1900)
  • 1958 – Konstantin von Neurath, German diplomat (b.1873)
  • 1964 – Johnny Burnette, American Rockabilly singer (b. 1934)
  • 1967 – Bob Anderson, British racing driver (b. 1931)
  • 1972 – Pierre Brasseur, French actor (b. 1905)
  • 1972 – Oscar Levant, American actor (b. 1906)
  • 1972 – Jules Romains, French author (b. 1885)
  • 1978 – Nicolas Bentley, British writer (b. 1907)
  • 1980 – Dorothy Stratten, Canadian actress and model (b. 1960)
  • 1981 – Karl Böhm, Austrian conductor (b. 1894)
  • 1984 – Spud Davis, American baseball player (b. 1904)
  • 1984 – J. B. Priestley, English playwright (b. 1894)
  • 1985 – Gale Sondergaard, American actress (b. 1899)
  • 1988 – Robert Calvert, South African singer (Hawkwind) (b. 1945)
  • 1988 – Enzo Ferrari, Italian car maker (b. 1898)
  • 1991 – Alberto Crespo, Argentine racing driver (b. 1920)
  • 1992 – John Sirica, American judge (b. 1904)
  • 1992 – Tony Williams, American singer (The Platters) (b. 1928)
  • 1994 – Elias Canetti, British-Austrian novelist (b. 1905)
  • 1996 – Tom Mees, American sportscaster (b. 1949)
  • 1999 – Pee Wee Reese, American baseball player (b. 1918)
  • 2000 – Alain Fournier, French-born computer graphics researcher (b. 1943)
  • 2002 – Dave Williams, American singer (Drowning Pool) (b. 1972)
  • 2003 – Helmut Rahn, German footballer (b. 1929)
  • 2004 – Czeslaw Milosz, Polish-born writer, Nobel Prize Laureate (b. 1911)
  • 2004 – Trevor Skeet, New Zealand-born British politician (b. 1918)
  • 2005 – Coo Coo Marlin, American race car driver (b. 1932)
  • 2006 – Bruno Kirby, American actor (b. 1949)
  • 2007 – Tikhon Khrennikov, Russian composer (b. 1913)

August 14 – Holidays:

  • Morocco – Allegiance of Oued Eddahab or Río de Oro.
  • Pakistan – Independence Day (1947).
  • Paraguay – Flag Day.

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